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I LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. I 

tw (mto* S" t 



I UNITED STATES ÜF AMERICA. | 



LECTURAS 



Inglesas Escogidas, 



O SEA 



TROZOS DE LOS MEJORES ESCRITORES 
INGLESES Y AMERICANOS, 

EN PROSA Y YEBSO, 

ARREGLADOS EN LECCIONES 

CON 

NOTAS GRAMATICALES Y FRASEOLÓGICAS, 

TRADUCCIÓN INTERLINEAR 
Y 

UN YOCABULAEIO 

CON LA PRONUNCIACIÓN T DEFINICIONES. 

- 

POE UN PKOFESORyA 






.' 



NUEVA YORK: 
GEOEGE E. LOCKWOOD, 

812 BROADWAY. 



f£ 



,„1 



^1 



B JVsred accordlng to Act of Congress, in the year 1871, 

BY george r. lockwood, 

In the OUco of the Librarían of Coirfress, at "Washington. 



UTTLE, REN T NIE A CO., Stereotypers and Frinters, 
C45 and 647 Broadway, New York. 



ADYERTEíTOIA DEL EDITOB. 



Los ingleses, franceses, americanos, etc., estudiosos de 
idiomas extrangeros, tienen á su disposición libritos que, 
con el título genérico de JReaders (libros de lectura)* forman 
una como antología de las lenguas á cuya adquisición re- 
spectivamente se encaminan ; y como no hay ninguno, que 
yo sepa, para el uso de los hispano-americanos aficionados 
al estudio del inglés, resolví dar á luz la obra que hoy les 
ofrezco, pareciéndome que no podia corresponder mejor á 
la favorable acogida que han encontrado y encuentran en 
la América latina los libros ya publicados por este estable- 
cimiento para dicho objeto. 

Compónense las Lecturas Inglesas Escogidas de trozos 
en prosa y verso de los mejores hablistas modernos, tanto 
británicos como americanos, escritos en lenguage fácil, pero 
correcto, tal como se usa en la buena sociedad, y por las 
personas que se esmeran en hablar su idioma con pureza. 
Cada trozo compone una lección, y presenta un asunto 
diferente, de modo que hay tantos ejemplos de estilo di- 
versos como lecciones cuenta la colección : el número de 
aquellas es ciento trece, entre prosa y verso. 



4 ADVERTENCIA DEL EDITOR. 

Van precedidas las lecciones de un tratado sucinto de la 
pronunciación inglesa; las cuatro primeras lecciones tie- 
nen la pronunciación figurada de cada palabra y una tra- 
ducción literal interlinear ; y, como complemento perfecto 
de las notas explicativas gramaticales y lexicográficas que 
abundan en el libro, se ha puesto al fin de este un vocabu- 
lario que contiene todas las voces empleadas en los trozos, 
con sus correspondencias castellanas, y pronunciación figu- 
rada. Las observaciones gramaticales se refieren en casi 
todos los casos al Preceptor Elemental Ingles, por el mismo 
autor que las Lecturas Inglesas, y cuyo método seria 
bueno tener á mano para consultarlo oportunamente, pues 
que, siendo las Lecturas como el complemento indispen- 
sable de aquel, seria difícil separarlos, á no haberse estu- 
diado con otra gramática, en cuyo caso no será menos útil 
la presente colección para todo el que desee adquirir un 
conocimiento completo y práctico del idioma inglés, 



OBSERVACIONES SOBRE LA PRONUNCIACIÓN. 



Pronunciación de las Consonantes. 

De las veinte y seis letras inglesas, veinte y una son 

consonantes, y son : b, c, d, . f, g, h, 
bi, si, di, ef, dchi, ech, 



i. 


h 


l, 


m, 


n, 


P> 


?> 


r, 


ene, 


que, 


el, 


em, 


en, 


Pi, 


kiú, 


ar, 



t, v, w, x, y, z. 

ti, vi, dóblyu, ees, uái, si. 

La c se pronuncia como en español. La c, delante 
de a> o, u, tiene el sonido duro de Je ; mas si se halla 
seguida de e ó i, se articula como la s española. 

El sonido de la g delante de é ó i lo hemos repre- 
sentado en las lecturas que siguen, con dch. Cuando 
va seguida de a, o, ó w, se pronuncia como en español. 

La h es muda al principio de un corto numero de 
voces, que van enumeradas en la nota de la página 10 
del " Preceptor Elemental Inglés ; " en los demás casos 
es aspirada, como laj española. 

La j tiene siempre el sonido de dch. 



VI OBSERVACIONES SOBRE LA PRONUNCIACIÓN. 

La Je se pronuncia como la c española cuando esta 
letra se llalla seguida de a, o, ó u. 

La £, que se articula como en castellano, es muda en 
las palabras balm, cahn, quabn, y alguna otra. 

ph tiene siempre el sonido de/. 

La r se pronuncia como la r española, si bien un poco 
menos fuerte. 

La s tiene dos sonidos : uno que es el mismo de esta 
consonante en español ; y el otro que es el de la z fran- 
cesa, y lo representamos por medio de una s (bastar- 
dilla). 

La t, como regla general, se pronuncia del mismo 
modo en los dos idiomas ; pero en las terminaciones 
tial, tian, tiate, tience, tient, tion, tious, tiene el sonido de 
la ch francesa, ó la x catalana ; y lo representamos con 
<¿h ; en las terminaciones tune y ture, y en stion, xtion, 
tiene el sonido de la ch española. 

La iv vale u, y seguida de h } tiene la aspiración de 
dicha consonante. Es muda en ansiver, sword, ivhole, 
who, write, y alguna otra palabra. 

La t h tiene dos sonidos : uno fuerte, como la % española ; 
y el otro suave, que se articula como si, apretando 
suavemente la lengua entre los dientes, se quisiese pro- 
nunciar la z castellana precedida de una d. El primer 
sonido lo representamos con la z castellana, y el segun- 
do con una 'd (con apóstrofo). 

La ch es algunas veces dura, y se pronuncia como la 
k ; otras se articula del mismo modo que la ch española. 



OBSERVACIONES SOBBE LA PLOXT^CIACION. VU 



De las Tócales. 



Cinco son las vocales inglesas ; 



a, e, h o, y u, 

e, i, ái, o, yú, 

y algunas reces la u\ y la ?/ (esto es, en fin de sílaba\ 

Tan variados son los sonidos de las vocales, que si 
quisiésemos enumerarlos aquí, seria nunca acabar ; 
y así, nos limitaremos á representarlos pintados siempre 
que se diferencien de los de las vocales españolas. 

Las cuatro primeras lecturas tienen la pronunciación 
y traducción, y contienen ejemplos de todas las anoma- 
lías de la ortografía y la pronunciación inglesas ; de 
suerte que, estudiando aquellas con la debida atención, 
no quedará ya dificultad alguna que vencer en esta 
parte. 



Traducción Interlinear, con la Pronunciación figu- 
rada de cada Palabra inglesa. 



imádchin 'di pícclw ov e lardch and éligant 

Imagine the picture of a large and elegant 
Imagínese Y. la pintura de un grande y elegante 

bílding uíz plesant Ion* and grovs ov tris 

building, with pleasant lawns, and groves of trees, 

edificio, con deliciosos prados y alamedas (de árboles), 

and gárdens aráund it it is 'di kéntri résidens 

and gardens around it. It is the country residence 
y jardines alrededor (de él). El es la campestre residencia 

ov e rich man. it is cold 'di manchan. 

of a rich man. It is called " The Mansión." 

de un rico hombre. El es llamado "La Mansión." 

du yu no juót e Ion is it is e spes 

Do 1 you know what a lawn is? It is a space 

¿ Y. sabe qué un prado es? El es un espacio 

ov gráund káverd uíz gras and is óften sin in 
of ground covered with grass, and is often seen in 
de terreno cubierto con yerba, y es á menudo visto en 

frent ov or aráund e fáin jáus or manchen sera 

front of or around a íine house or mansión. Some 
frente de ó alrededor de una bella casa ó mansión. Algunos 

lons ar cold vélvet lons bicós 'di gras 

lawns are called velvet lawns, because the grass, 
prados son llamados (de) terciopelo prados, porque la yerba, 

1 Véase " El Preceptor Elemental Inglés," pág. 55, núm. 141. 

1* 



10 



LECTURAS INGLES 



juích ii kept chort and smu'd 
which is kept short and smooth, 
que es conservada corta y lisa, 

e dístans apírs Mik vélvet. 

a distance appears like velvet. 
una distancia, parece corno terciopelo. 

áfter síing e píccher ov Mis 

Aíter seeing a picture of this 
Después de viendo irna pintura de esta 



sin 
seen 

(cuando) vista 



jnen 
when 



from 

froiu 

de 



manchen 

mansión, 

mansión, 



yu 

vou 

Y. 



gmv e 
give a 
dar una 



gud 
good 
buena 



descrípcben 
description 

descripción 



ov 
of 
de 



it 

it? 
ella? 



let 
Let 



kud 

could 

¿ podría 

sí 

us see. 

Veamos. 



Kud 
Could 
l Podida 

ja** 

has ? 
tiene ? 



yu 

vou 

'V 

ínto 
Into 



tel juot káind o y e ruf or 
tell what kind of a roof, or 
decir qué especie de un techo, ó 



kévring it 

coveríng. it 

cubierta, ella 



jan 

how 



mem 
many 
cuántas 



parte 
parte 

partes 



du yu 
do you 

piensa V. 



zink 
think 2 
(que) 



ruf 

roof 

techo 



15 

is 
es 



diváided 
divided ? 
dividid* i ? 



jau mem 
How many 
¿ Cuántas 



chímni* 

chirnnevs 

chimeneas 



ve i 

ebáut 

about 

sobre 



if 
If 

Si 

ol 

all 

todas 



yu 
vou 

"V 

'di* 

these 
estas 



descraib 
describe 
ribe 

zing*. 
things. 



'di jáus yu 

the house, yon 
la casa, Y. debe decir (algo) 



du 
do 

m^st 
must 



'di 

the 

el 

yu 
vou 
* Y. 

tel 
teU 



Bet 'dis U not oí du yu • nótis 'di pikiúller 

But this is ndt all. Do you notice 2 the peculiar 

Pero esto no es todo. ,; Repara V. la peculiar 

chcp ov 'di chímni* and ov Mi uíndos and 

simpe of the chimneys, and of the Windows, and 

fomia de las chin y de las vent 

li jol bílding da yu sí e I 

of the v>h >le building? Do you iazza 

del entero edificio? ; \" V. un largo p 



3 Vétte " El Preceptor Elemental In_. ~j~j. ndm. 141. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 



11 



on ich sáid ov 'di írmt éntrans and du yu sí. 

011 each side of tlie front entrance ; and do jou see 3 

en cada lado de la frente entrada; y ye Y. 

'dat 'di frent dórue is archt? 
tnat the front doorway is arched ? 

que la frente entrada es arqueada? 

Du yu no juót e piása is? if yu du not, 

Do you know 3 what a piazza is? If you do not, 4 
¿ Sabe Y. qué un pórtico es ? Si Y. no (lo hace) 

jáu can yu descráib 'di bílding e piása is 

how can you describe the building? A piazza is 
¿ cómo puede Y. describir el edificio ? un pórtico es 

e ké'verd uók s^pórted bái kótems and bilt 

a coyered walk, supported by columns, and built 
un cubierto paseo, sostenido por columnas, y construido 

eguénst 'di sáid oy e jáus. 
against the side of a liouse. 
contra el costado de una casa. 



You 
Y. 

uórz 

worth 

digna 

ebáut 
about 

sobre 



chud 
should 
deberia 

síing 
seeing. 5 
yiendo. 



ólues nótis uíz ker juotéy^r is 
always notice with care whatever is 
siempre observar con cuidado cualquiera cosa es 



yur 



kip 
Keep jour 

Mantenga sus 



ais 

ejes 

ojos 



open 
open, 
abiertos, 



and 
and 

y 



zink 
tliink 
piense 



juót 
what 
lo que 



yu 
you 
V. 



si 
see. 
ye. 



'dos ju nótis 
Those who notice 
Aquellos que (no) reparan (en) nada 



notliing^ 



uíl no b€t lítl. 
wül know 7 but little. 
(no) (sabrán) sino poco. 



ü Yéase " El Preceptor Elemental Inglés," pág. 55, núm. 141. 

4 Yéase la nota anterior, y la de la pág. 60 del mismo " Preceptor." 

5 Esta construcción, muy común en inglés, forma lo que se llama 
un anglicismo, y yale " digno de yerse." 

6 Yéase " El Preceptor," pág. 42, núm. 110, sobre la formación de 
las frases en que entra notlting. 

7 Léase lo sentado en las reglas 150, 151, 152 y 153, pág. 61, del 
u Preceptor," sobre los signos del futuro. 



12 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 



II, III y IY. 



Dchil Blas and 'di párasait. 
Gil Blas and the Parasite. 

Gil Blas y el parásito. 



nén 'di ómlet ai jad bispókn nos redi 

1. "When the omelet I liad bespoken was ready, 

Cuando la tortilla que yo habia pedido estuvo lista, 



ai sat dáun tu tebl 
I sat down to table 
yo me senté en la mesa 

suólod 'di fcrst 

swallowed the first 
tragado el primer 

in 



bái 



by 



maisélf and 
inyself, and 

á solas, y 

máuzful uén 

mouthful when 
bocado cuando 



jad not yet 
liad not yet 
no habia aun 



'di 

the 

el 



lánlord 

landlord 

hostelero 



in 'di strit 
in the street. 
en la calle. 



kem in fólod bái 'di man ju jad stopt jira 

carne in, followed by the man who had stopped him 
entró, seguido del hombre que le habia detenido á él 

'dis cavalír ju nór e long sord 

This cavalier, who wore a long sword, 
Este caballero, que traia una larga espada, 

and simd tu bi abáut zérty yirs ov edch advanst 
and seemed to be about thirty years of age, advanced 
y parecia ser de como treinta años de edad avanzó 

tóards mi uíz an ígu^r er séing míster stiádent 

towards me with an eager air, saying : " Mr. Student, 
hacia mí con un oficioso aire, diciendo : u Sr. Estudiante, 



you 



ai am intbrmd 'dat 
I am inforined that 

yo soy informado que V. 

ov san tila n ju i* 'di 

of Santillane, who is the 
de Santillana, quien es el 



dchil Mas 



are cu sin^r 

are the Signor Gil Blas 

es el Señor Gil Blas 



órnament ov oviédo 
ornament of Oviedo ! 

adorno de Oviedo ! 



18 

Is 

¿I 



link ov filósofi and 

link of philosophy and 

eslabón de la filosofía y 

it pósibl 'dat yu ar 
it possible that you are 
¡8 posible que V. es 



LECTUEAS INGLESAS. 13 

'dat míror ov leming 'dat sebláim dchíñes jus 

that mirror of learning, that sublime genius, whose 
aquel espejo de saber, aquel sublime genio, cuya 

repiutéehen is so gret s in 'dis kéntri ju no not 

reputation is so great in tliis country ? You know not/' 

reputación es tan grande en este pais ? No sabéis," 

continúe! ji aclrésing jimsélf tu 'di ínkip<?r 

continued he, addressing himself to the innkeeper 
continuó él, dirigiéndose al hostelero 

and jis wáif yu no not juót yu poses 

and his wife, " you know not what you possess ! 
y á su mujer, "vosotros no sabéis qué vosotros poseéis! 

yu jav e Xrésyer in yur jáus bijóld in 

You have a treasare in your house ! Behold, in 
Vosotros tenéis un tesoro en vuestra casa ! Mirad, en 

'dis ymg dcbéntlman 'di etz uénáer ov 'di 

this young gentleman, the eighth wonder of the 
este "joven caballero,, la octava maravilla del 

uórld 'elen térning tu mi and zróing ji* 

world !" Then, turning to me, and throwing his 

mundo !" Entonces, volviéndose hacia mí, y echando sus 

arms ebáut mái nek forguív cráid ji mái 

arins about my neck, " Forgive," cried he, " my 

brazos alrededor de mi cuello, " Perdone," gritó él, " mis 

transporte ái ríali cánot conten 'di dchói 'clat 

transports ; I really cannot contain the joy that 
trasportes ; yo realmente no puedo contener la alegría que 

yur présens criéts 

your presenee creates 1" 
su presencia crea I" 

ái cud not ánsér for sem táim bicós ji 

2. I could not answer for some time, because he 

Yo no pude responder por algún tiempo, porque él 

lokt mi so clósli in jis arras 'dat ái \iós ólmost 

locked me so closely in his arms that I was almost 
estrechó á mí tan fuertemente en sus brazos que yo fui casi 



14 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 



sáfoketed for 
suftbcated for 
ahogado por 



nónt ov brez 
want of breath : 
falta de aliento ; 



and it uós not ¿ntíl 

and* it was not until 

y ello no fué hasta que 



ai jad disenguédchd mái jed from jis embrés 'dat 
I bad disengaged my bead from bis embrace tbat 
yo hube desenganchado mi cabeza de su abrazo que 

ai ripláid siñór cavalír ái did not zink mái 

I replied : " Signor Cavalier, I did not think my 

yo repliqué : " Señor Caballero, yo no pensaba mi 



n em nos 


non at 


peñaflor 


jáu 


non 


ñame was 


known at 


Peñaflor." 


" How ! 


Known !' 


nombre fuese 


conocido en 


Peñaflor." 


11 ¡ Cómo ! 


Conocido ! 



ri.syúmd ji in jis former stren uí kip 

resumed be in bis former strain. " We keep 

repuso él en su primitivo tono. " Nosotros conservamos 

e rédclnster ov ol 'di sélibreted nems uizín tuénti 

a register of all tbe celebrated ñames witbin twenty 
un registro de todos los célebres nombres dentro de veinte 

ligs ov os yu in partíkiukr ar lukt opón 

leagues of us. You, in particular, are looked upon 
leguas de nosotros. V., en particular, es mirado 



as 

as 
como un 



e pródidchi and ái dont at ol dáut 'dat spen 
a prodigy ; and I don't at all doubt tbat Spain 



prodigio ; y yo no hago del todo dudar que España 



ov 


jéT 


sevn 


sédenos 


of 


ber 


se ven 


sages." 


de 


sus 


siete 


sabios." 



uíl xxén. de bi as práud ov yu as gris uós 

will one day be as proud of you as Greece was 
querrá un dia ser tan orgullosa de V. como Grecia fué 

'dis u<?rds nér fólod bái 

Tbese words were followed by 

Estas palabras fueron seguidas por 

e frech j<?g juích ái uós forst tu cndyiír 'do 

a fresb bug, wbicli I was forced to endure, tbougli 
un nuevo abrazo que yo fui forzado á aguantar aunque 

at 'di risk ov stranguiuléchtfii uíz 'di 1 i ti ekspí- 

at tbe risk of stnuigulation, Witb tbe little e¿pe- 

al riesgo de estrangulación. Con el poco de expe- 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 15 

riens ái jad ái ot not tu jáv bin 'di diúp 
rience I had, I ought not to have been the dupe 
rienda que yo tenia, yo debia no haber sido el engañado 

ov jis proféch^ns and jaiperbólical cómpliments. 
of his professions and hyperbolical cómpliments. 
de sus profesiones é hiperbólicos cumplimientos. 

ái ot tu jav non bái jis extrávagant 

3. I ought to have known, by his extrávagant 

Yo debia haber conocido por su extravagante 

fláteri 'dat ji uós u¿n ov 'dos párasaits ju 

flattery, that he was one of those parasites who 
lisonja, que él era uno de aquellos parásitos que 

abáund in évri táun and ju juén e stréndcher 
abound in every town, and who, when a stranger 

abundan en cada ciudad, y quien, cuando un forastero 

aráivs introdiús 'demsélvs tu jim in órdéT tu fist 
arrives, introduce themselves to him in order to feast 
llega introducen ellos mismos á el, en orden para festejar 

at i'is expéns b^t mái yuz and vániti med 

at his expense. But my youth and vanity made 
á sus espensas. Pero mi juventud y vanidad hicieron 

mi dchedch é 1 deriváis mái admáir^r apírd so m^ch 

me judge otherwise. My admirer appeared so much 
á mí j uzgar de otra manera. Mi admirador parecia tanto 

ov e dch en timan 'dat ái inváited jim tu tek e cher 
of a gentleman, that I invited him to take a share 
de un caballero, que yo invité á él á tomar una parte 

ov mái sépev a uíz ol mái sol cráid ji 

of my supper. " Ah ! with all my soul," cried he ; 
de mi cena. " ¡ Ah ! con toda mi alma," exclamó el ; 

ái am tu m^ch obláidcbd tu má? kiind stars for 
Cí I am too much obliged to my kind stars for 
" yo estoy demasiado agradecido á mis bondadosas estrellas por 

jáving zron mi in 'di ué ov 'di ilástrios dchil' 

having thrown me in the way of the illustrious. Gil 
haber echado á mí en el camino del ilustre Gil 



16 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

blas not tu endchói mái gud fórchen as long as ái 
Blas, not to enjoy my good fortune as long as I 
Blas, para no gozar mi buena fortuna tanto como yo 

can ái jav no gret ápitait p^rsiúd ji b^t 

can ! I have no great appetite," pursued lie, " but 
pueda ! Yo no tengo gran apetito," prosiguió él, " pero 

ái uíl sit dáun tu ber yu kámpani and it e 
I will sit down to bear you company, and eat a 
yo me sentaré para llevar á V. compañía, y comer un 

máuzful piújli áut ov cómplesans 

mouthful purely out of complaisance." 
bocado puramente por complacencia." 

so séing mái pánidcliirist tuk jis pies ráít 

4. So saying, my panegyrist took his place right 

Así diciendo, mi panegirista tomó su puesto justa- 

óver eguénst mi and e cóver bíing led for jim 
over against me ; and, a cover being laid for him, 
mente en frente de mí ; y un cubierto siendo puesto para él, 

ji atákd 'di ómlet as vorách<?sli as if ji 

lie attacked the órnele t as voraciously as if he 
él atacó la tortilla tan vorazmente como si él 

jad fásted zri jol des bái jis cómplesant 

liad fasted three whole days. By his complaisant 
hubiese ayunado tres enteros dias. Por su complaciente 



biguíning ái forsóu 'dat áur dich uúd not last 
beginning I foresaw that our dish would not last 
principio yo preveia que nuestro plato no duraría 



long and ái 'clérfor órderd e sécond juích 

long, and I therefore ordered a second, which 
largo (tiempo), y yo pues ordené un segundo, el cual 

'de drest uíz s¿ch dispách 'dat it uós servd 

they dressed with such dispatch that it was served 

ellos aderezaron con tal despacho que 61 fué servido 

dch^st as uí or rá'der ji jad med an end 

just as ue, or rather he, had máde an end 

justamente como nosotros, ó mas bien él, hubo dado ñn 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 17 

ov 'di férst ji prosíded on 'dis uíz 'di sem 
of the first. He proceeded on this with the same 
del primero. Él procedió en este con el mismo 

vigor and faund mins uizáut hísing u<?n strok 

vigor ; and found means, without losing one stroke 
vigor; y halló medio, sin perder un golpe 

ov jis tiz tu ov^rjuélm mi uíz preses diúring 
of his teeth, to overwhelm me with praises during 
de sus dientes, de colmarme de alabanzas durante 

'di jol ripást juích med mi veri uél plisd 

the whole repast, which made me very well pleased 
la entera comida, lo que hizo á mí muy contento 

uíz mái suít self. ji drank in proporción tu jis 
with my sweet self. He drank in proportion to his 
con mi dulce persona. El bebió en proporción á su 

íting sántaims tu mái jelz sántaims tu 'dat 

eating ; sometimes to my health, sometimes to that 
comer; ya á mi salud, ya a la 

ov mái fá'cter and má'der jus j apiñes in jáving 

of my father and mother, whose happiness in having 
de mi padre y madre, cuya dicha en tener 

8<?ch e son as ái ji cud not in<?f admáir. 

such a son as I he could not enough admire, 
(tal) un hijo como yo él no podia bastantemente admirar. 

ol 'di táim ji pláid mi uíz uáin and 

5. All the time he plied me with wine, and 

Todo el tiempo él importunó á mí con vino, é 

insísted ¿pon mái dúing jim dchástis juáil ái tósted 
insisted upon my doing him justiee while I toasted 
insistió en (yo) hacer á él justicia mientras yo eché 

jelz for jelz e sírk^mstans juích tugue'der 

health for health, a circumstance which, together 
brindis por brindis, (una) circunstancia que, junto 

uíz jis intóxiketing fláteri put mi intu sech 

with his intoxicating flattery, put me into sueh 
con ' su embriagadora lisonjea, puso á mí en tan 



18 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 



gud yiímor 'dat síing áur sécond ómlet jaf 
good humor, that, seeing our second omelet half 
buen humor, que, viendo nuestra segunda tortilla medio 



diváurd ái askd 'di lándlord 

devoured, I asked the lándlord 
devorada, yo pregunté al posadero 



if ji jad no fich 
if he liad no fish 
si él no tenia pescado 



in 'di jáus síñor corkuélo ju in ol láik- 

in the house. Signor Corcuelo, who, in all like- 
en la casa. El señor Corcuelo, quien, en toda vero- 

lijud jad e félo ñling uíz 'di párasait 

lihood, had a fellow-feeling with the parasite, 
similitud, tenia un simpático sentimiento con el parásito, 

ripláid ái jav e délicat tráut b^t 'dos ju 

replied, " I haré a delicate trout ; but those who 
replicó, " Yo tengo una delicada trucha ; pero aquellos quienes 

it it m^st pe for 'di sos tis tu dénti 

eat it must pay for the sauce ; 'tis too dainty 

coman á ella deberán pagar por la misma ; ella es demasiado sabrosa 



for yur pálat ái dáut 

for your palate, I doubt." 

para su paladar (de Y.), yo dudo." 



juót du yu col 
" What do you cali 
" ¿ Qué llama Y. 



tu dénti 

too dainty?" 

demasiado sabroso V" 



sed 
said 
dijo 



'di 

the 

el 



sícofant 
sycophant, 

adulador. 



resing jw 

raising his 

levantando su 



yur 
you're 
' 1 Y. es 



VOIS 

voice 
voz ; 

'der 

there is nothing in the house 



e uáisecr indíd 

a wiseacre, indeed ! 
un gran sabio, en verdad ! 



no 
Know 

Sepa 



'dat 

that 

que 



n<?zing in 'di jáus 



no hay nada 



en la 



tu gud for síñor 

too good for Signor 

casa demasiado bueno para (el) Señor 



dchil blas ov santilyán ju disérvs tu bi ent^rténd 

Gil Blas of Santillane, who deserves to be entertained 
Gil Blas de Santillano, quien merece ser tratado 

láik e prins. 
like a p^nce. ,, 
como un príncipe." 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 



19 



ai uós plisd at jis léying jold ov 

6. I was pleased at liis laying liold of 

Yo estuve contento con el haber (él) cogido 

'di lándlords last w<?rds in juích ji priven ted 

the lancllord's last words, in which he prevented 
las últimas palabras del posadero, en lo que él previno 



mi ju fáinding maisélf ofended 
me, who, finding myself offended, 



a mi, quien, 



hallándome 



ofendido, 



sed uíz 
said, with 
dije, con 



an er 
an air 

un aire 



ov disdén prodchiís 'dis tráut ov yurs gáfer 

of disdain, " Produce this tront of yours, Gaffer 
de desden, " Produzca esta trucha suya, tio 

corcuélo and guív yursélf no tr^bl abáut 'di 

Corcuélo, and give yourself no trouble about the 
Corcuélo, y (no se) dé Y. mismo ninguna molestia acerca de la 



consicuens 

consequence 

consecuencia." 



J 1 
He 

Él 



Esto 

got it redi 
got it ready, 
la aprestó, 

sáit ov 
of 



'dis uó-s juót 'di ínkiper uónted 

This was what the innkeeper wanted. 



el 



lo que 

servcl it 

served it 

sirvióla 



at 

At 
A (la) 

'di párasait? 
the parasite's 



sight 
vista de 



fué 

and 
and 

y 

'dis niú dich 
this new dish, 
este nuevo plato, 

sparcl uíz 
sparkle with 
con 



posadero 
up 



m 
in 

en 



quena. 

e tráis 
a trice. 
un tris. 



ei 
eye 



persiv 

perceive 

percibir 

ji ri- 

he re- 

él re- 



mú clicii ái cud 
new dish, I could 
nuevo plato, yo pude 

dchói and 
joy; and 
(encenderse el ojo del parásito) con alegría ; . y 

ñúd 'di cómpliments ái min for 'di fich 

newed the cómpliments — I mean for the fish — • 
novó los cumplimientos — yo quiero decir por el pescado — 

juích ji jad olrédi chon for 'di egs. at last 
which he had already shown for the eggs. Atlast, 
que él habia ya mostrado para los huevos. Por fin, 

jauév^r ji nos obláidchd tu guív ^p for rlr ov 

however, he was obiiged to give up, for fear of 
sin embargo, él fué obligado á dar fin, por temor de 

ácsident bíing cramd tu 'di veri zrot 

accident, being crammed to the very throat 
accidente, estando atracado hasta el mismo gaznate. 



20 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

jáving 'derfor itn and drenk sofíchentli 

7. Having, therefore, eaten and drunk sufficiently, 

Habiendo, pues, comido y bebido suficientemente, 

ji zot próp^r tu conclúd 'di fars bái rái.sing 

he thought proper to conclude the farce by rising 
él tuvo á bien concluir la farsa levantándose 

from 'di tebl and acósting mi in 'di* uérds 

from the table and accosting me in these words : 

de la mesa y acostándome en estas palabras : 

síñor dchil blas ái am tu uél sátísfaid uíz 
" Signor Gil Blas, I am too well satisfied with 
" Señor Gil Blas, yo estoy demasiado satisfecho con 

yur gucl chir tu liv yu uizáut ófisring an 
your good cheer to leave you without offering an 
su buen comer para dejarle áV. sin ofrecerle un 

impórtant a d vais juích yu sim tu jav gret 

important advice, which you seem to have great 
importante consejo, (del) cual V. parece tener gran 

ókésyen for jensfórz bi-uér ov pres and bi 

occasion for. Henceforth, beware of praise, and be 

necesidad (por). En adelante, guárdese de alabanzas, y esté 

epón yur gard eguénst évri bódi yu du not 

upon your guard against every body you do not 
en (su) guardia contra toda persona (que) V. no 

no yu me mit uíz ó'd^r pipi incláind 

know. You may meet with other people inclinecl 
conozca. V. - podrá encontrar á otros dispuestos 

tu daivért 'demsélvs uíz yur crediúliti and perjáps 
to divert themselves with your credulity, and perhaps, 

á divertirse con su credulidad, y quizá 

tu p^ch zings stil fér'der b^t dont bi diúpd 

to push things still further ; but don't be duped 
á llevar (las) cosas aun mas adelante ; pero no sea engañado 

eguén ñor bilív yurself 'do 'de chud 

again, ñor believe yourself (though they should 
otra vez, ni (se) crea á V. mismo (aunque se lo 

Buér it Mi etz vtéaáer ov 'di ut'rld 

swear it) the eighth wonder of the world.'' 

juraron) la octava maravilla del mundo." 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 21 



V. 

Plants, Fishes, Birds, Beasts, and Men. 

1. Plants, and shrubs, and trees, are tliings tliat live, 
and grow, and die ; but they 8 do not think, and feel, 
as we do. 9 They have roots to draw up 10 their food 
from the earth, and leaves to breatlie with ; n but they 
do not move from place to place, like birds and beasts. 

2. Fislies have fíns to swim with. 11 A whale is a 
large fish that swims in the sea ; and a trout is a small 
fish that swims in a brook, or in a lake. Fishes can 
not 12 live out of the water. 

3. A bird has two legs, and two feet, and two wings. 
Most 13 birds can fly in the air, and some birds can swim 
on the water. 

4. Beasts live on the land. They have four legs, and 
four feet. What then u are dogs, and cows, and bears, 
and wolves? Fishes, and birds, and beasts feel, but 
they do not think. 

8 Los pronombres personales no la regla 89, pág. 37, del " Precep- 
se suprimen en inglés. tor." 

9 As we do, como nosotros ha- 12 Can not, suele escribirse en 
cemos ; no se ha suprimido el do una sola palabra. 

por darle mas redondez a la frase. 13 Most, superlativo de much, 

10 Véase la regla 198, pág. 88, mucho, de many, muchos, y de 
del " Preceptor." some, algunos, vale aquí las mas 

11 Literalmente : para respirar de las. 

con, esto es: con que respirar, 14 Then, pues. Obsérvese que 

cuya construcción podía haberse en inglés se dice : ¿ que, pues, son ? 

usado en el caso presente, dicien- y en español : ¿ qué son, pues ? 
do ; wüh which to breathe. Yéase 



22 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

5. Men walk on the earth. Thej- can sail on the sea 
in ships, and some men can swim ; buí none of them 
can fly in the air. God made man to think, as well as 
to feel, and to act. 

6. God made the sun, the moon, the stars, the earth, 
the 15 plants and trees, the fishes of the sea, the birds 
of the air, and the beasts of the field. Last of all 16 he 
made man. 

7. And God gave to man dominión over the fishes of 
the sea, over the fowls of the air, over the cattle, and 
over every creeping thing. 



VI. 

Houses, Hamlets, Villages, and Cities. 

1. Men 17 can not at all times live in the open air ; 
henee, they build houses in which to dwell. Most 
houses are made of wood, or bricks, or stone. 

2. In some countries poor people 17 live in huts made 
of cla} T or turf. There are 18 also some that dwell in 

15 La regla 6, pág. 12, del obsequio de la elegancia y de la 
" Preceptor," previene que debe energía al mismo tiempo. Cuando 
callarse el artículo definido the last se emplea solo, es lo mas cor- 
delante de un nombre tomado en riente colocarlo después del sus- 
un sentido general é ilimitado, tantivo. Ejemplo : lie m<i<U man 
Pero en este caso es preferible last. También se usan !<(*th/, in 
expresarlo, por sobrentenderse las the last piare. 
palabras of the earth, después de l7 Téngase presente la regla so- 
the plants and trees; esto es, como bre la supresión del artículo the 
si dijésemos: las plantas y los en casos de esta naturaleza, 
árboles de l;i tierra. 18 Hay, seguido de un nombre 

18 Last, quiere decir último, ó un pronombre plural, se traduce 

Se añaden las palabras of all eu por there are, y no there ml 



LECTÜEAS INGLESAS. 23 

caves; otliers tliat live in tents ; while some dig holes 
in the eartli, and there take up their abode. 19 

3. If we look at a lionse, we sball see that it has four 
walls, called the sides and the ends of the house. It 
has also a door and windows. By the door the people 
go in and out 20 ; and by the windows light and air enter 
the dwelling. 

4. The door is macle of wood ; but the windows are 
made of wood and glass. The house has a roof, which 
slopes in order to throw off 21 the rain. 

5. A house may have one or more floors, or stories ; 22 
and when there are more than one, there are stairs, 
made of wood or stone, which lead from one story 22 to 
the others. 

6. To most houses in the country there are gardens, 23 
in which the people raise 24 fruits, flowers, and herbs, 
and such 25 things as potatoes, onions, peas, beans, 
carrots, and turnips. A garden is of great use 26 to 
man. 

7. In the house we find rooms, some of which are 
large, and some are small. They are called kitchens, 
bedrooms, 27 sitting-rooms, 27 parlors, and dining-rooms. 27 

19 Take up their abode, fijan su equivaliendo la frase á : y otras 
morada. cosas, tales como. 

20 Go in and out, entran y salen. 26 Sinónimo : utility. 

21 Literalmente : para echar lé- 27 Una de las fuentes de riqueza 
jos, esto es : para que se escurra, que tiene el idioma inglés es á 

22 Escríbese también storey, y buen seguro la gran facilidad con 
entonces el plural es storeys. que se pueden formar palabras 

23 Seria preferible esta cons- compuestas; las del texto xalen 
tracción : Most Loases in the respectivamente por : lecho-cuar- 
country have gardens. tos, sentando-cuartos, comiendo 

24 Sinónimos: produce, culti- cuartos, esto es: cuartos de dor- 
vate, plant. mir, salones y comedores. 

26 Sobrentiéndese aquí otliei\ 



24 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

8. Sometimes houses are built 28 cióse together. Tliose 
who dwell in tliose houses are neighbors. Good neigh- 
bors always live in peace with each other, and, at all 
times, are willing to help each other. 29 

9. A small number of houses forms a hamlet ; a large 
number, a village ; and a still larger number, a city. 
A city contains a great many people. 

10. In each country one city is called the capital. 

11. Thus the capital of England is Lonclon, which 
stands on the Biver Thames. London is also the largest 
city in England. The capital of the United States is 
Washington ; but the largest city in the United States 
is New York. 

12. The houses and streets in nearly all our large vil- 
lages and cities are lighted with gas, which is inade from 30 
coal. In some places oil-lamps are still used, while 31 
in others the streets at night are quite 32 dark, being 
without 33 gas or oil-lamps. 

13. The streets of our cities are paved with stones. 
Coaches, carts, and waggons pass along 34 the streets ; 
and on each side of the street is a sidewalk 35 paved 
with small stones, bricks, or large fíat stones called 
flags, on which the people walk. 

28 Obsérvese la preferencia que sustancia se saca de otra, y no que 
en ingles se le da a la forma pasi- se hace de ella. 

va, diciéndose: son construidas, en 31 Mientras que. 

vez de se construyen, cuya última 8a Del .todo. 

forma (activa) no puede emplearse 33 Literalmente : estando sin, lo 

en aquella lengua, sino para tra- que quiere decir ; no teniendo. 

ducir la forma recíproca española. 34 Pass along es mas expresivo 

29 Ayudarse unos a otros. que pass. 

30 Usase de esta preposición en 35 Palabra compuesta de atete, 
lugar de of, para expresar que una lado, y walk y paseo, esto es : acera. 



LECTÜEAS INGLESAS. 25 

VIL 

The Staes. 

1. We can see the stars wlien it is dark, 36 or when tbe 
light of the sun has left us; but if we go down 37 into a 
pit or deep well we can see tliem in the daytime. 

2. Who can count the stars? Yet 38 some stars are 
larger than the earth on which we live ; but they are 39 
so far from us that they seem like little 40 shining specks 
in the sky. 

3. When we look at the stars they do not all seem 41 to 
be of the same size. There are some, too, that change 
their places, while others do 42 not. Those that do 43 
not change their places are called fixed stars, while 
those that appear 41 to move about 44 among the fixed 
stars are called planets. 

4. The moon which gives us light by night, and the 
earth on which we live, and which goes round the sun, 
are both planets. There are some who think that the 



86 Cuando está oscuro, esto es, to resemble, cuyas últimas expre- 

de noche, ó en la oscuridad ; po- siones quieren decir también pare- 

dria decirse también en inglés : at cerse á. 

night, hy niglü,in the night, ó in the 41 Aquí se suprime like, a causa 

night time. de ser el verbo seem seguido de un 

37 Go doten, literalmente, ir aba- infinitivo. 

jo, vale por bajar. 4<i Do se refiere al verbo anterior 

38 Sinónimos : notwithstanding , change, y es como si en castellano 
nevertheless,for all that. dijésemos : no lo hacen. 

39 Are, son ó están ; puesto que 43 Véase la regla , pág. — , del 
ser y estar solo tienen un corres- " Preceptor." 

pónchente en inglés : to be. 44 To move about, esto es moverse 

40 To seem like, parecer. Sino- en todas direcciones, 
nimos : to appear like, to look like, 

o 



26 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

fixed stars are suns, and that they have planets which 
go round them in the same way as tlie earth goes 
round tlie sun. 

5. AI1 the planets which we can see have ñames, and 
we know the paths in which they move through the 
heavens. That bright red star which j t ou soinetimes 
see in the west, and sometimes in the east, is the planet 
Mars. 

6. Another planet which you can often see is called 
Venus. It is also called the Morning and Evening 
Star. Another star which you can see in the sky is the 
planet which is called Júpiter. Sometimes it gives as 
much light as 45 a new moon. 

7. Many of the fixed stars also have ñames. There is 
a cluster of these stars which is called the Great Bear ; 
there is one that is called the Little Bear ; and another 
that is called the Swan. 

8. There is one star that is called the North Star. It 
is directly north of us in the heavens. Long ago 46 those 
who went to sea in ships took this star for their guide. 
So long 47 as they could see it they hacl no fear of being 
lost. You must 48 ask 49 some one to show you which 
the North Star is. 50 



45 As much light as, tanta luz ó bien, it being necessary for him 

como. to go. 

40 Long ago, hace mucho tiempo, 49 To ask tiene dos acepciones: 

esto es: en otro tiempo. preguntar y pedir, y á veces hasta 

47 So long as quiere decir pala- equivaled mandar, ordenar, como: 
bra por palabra: tanto largo como; ask the servant to come, dígale V. 
esto es: mientras. al criado que venga. Nótese que 

48 Must es verbo defectivo, You en frases como esta, el segundo 
must ask se traduce por: es pre- verbo se pone en el infinitivo, y 
ciso (pie V. pida. No varía de no en el subjuntivo, como en es- 
fbrma, y en el gerundio se vuelve pañol. 

por Otro giro, así : Siendo preciso 60 También se puede decir; 

que él fuese, he being obiiged to go, which is the North atar. 



LECTTJBAS INGLESAS. 27 

III. 

Spring. 

1. Who is this beautiful Virgin that approaches, 
clothed in a robe of light green? She has a garland 
of flowers on her head, and flowers spring up 51 wherever 
she goes. 

2. The snow which covered the fields, and the ice 
which was in the rivers, melt away 52 when she breathes 
upon theni. 

3. The young lambs frisk about her, and the birds 
warble in their little throats, to welcome her coming ; 53 
and when they see her, they begin to choose their mates 
and to 54 build their nests. 

4. Youths 55 and maidens, have you seen this beautiful 
Virgin, beaming with sniiles and decked with beauty ? If 
you haye, tell me who she is, and what is 56 her ñame. 

Behold the young, the rosy Spring, 
Gires to the breeze her scented wing, 
"While 57 virgin graces, warm with May, 
Fling roses o'er 58 the dewy way. 

51 To spring up, nacer. 56 What is lier ñame, lo mos 

62 To melt away, derretirse. corriente en inglés en estos casos 

53 To welcome her coming, darle es colocar el verbo al fin de la 
la bien venida, Saludarla. frase, diciendo : tchat her ñame is. 

54 Suele omitirse el signo to de- La razón de esto es que, no 
lante del segundo infinitivo regido siendo la frase interrogativa, no 
por una conjunción. debe dársele la forma de interro- 

55 Youih, literalmente, juventud, gacion. 

tómase también en al sentido de 57 While, mientras, al paso que. 
joven, sustantivo masculino, esto 58 O'er, abreviación de over, so- 
es, mozo, mozalbete. bre, encima de. 



28 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

The murmuring billows of tlie deep 

Have languished into silent sleep ; 

And mark ! tbe flitting seabirds lave 

Their plumes in the reñecting wave, 

While cranes from hoary winter fly 

To flutter in a kinder sky. Anacreon. 



IX. 

SüMMER. 



1. Who is this that cometh 59 from the south, thinly 
ciad in a light transparent garment? Her breath is 
hot and sultry : she seeks the refreshment of the eool 
shade ; and in the clear streams she bathes her languid 
lirnbs. 

2. The brooks and rivulets fly from her, and are 
dried up at her approach. She cools her parched lips 
with berries and the gratef ul acid of fruits — with the 
seedy melón, the sharp apple, and the red pulp of the 
juicy cherry, which are poured out plentifully around 
her. 

3. The meadows smile at her approach ; golden har- 
vests bow before her; the haymakers welcome her 
coming, r>9 and the sheep-shearer, who clips the fleceos 
off his flock with his sounding shears. 

4. When she cometh, 60 let me lie under the thiek 

6Ü Cometh, tercera persona sin- sona en lugar de la s que la re- 
gular del presente de indicativo emplaza en el dia. 
del verbo to come, venir; antiguar 6ü Véase la nota 53. 
mente la th se usaba en esta per- 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 29 

shade of a spreading beech-tree— let me walk with her 
in the early morning — let me wander with her in tlie 
soft twilight, wlien tlie shepherd shuts liis fold, and 
the star of evening appears. 

Now Sumrner brings us pleasant hours, and dreamily 

they glide, 
As if they floated, like the leaves, upon a silver tide; 
The trees are full of crimson buds, the woods are full 

of birds, 
And the waters flow to niusic, like a tune with pleasant 

words. 



AüTUMN. 

1. Who is he that cometh with a sober pace and a 
grave countenance, stealing upon us unawares? 61 His 
garments are red with the blood of the grape, and his 
temples are bound 62 w r ith a sheaf of ripe wheat. 

2. His hair is thin, and begins to f all, and the auburn 
is mixed with mournful gray. He shakes the brown 
nuts from the tree. He winds 63 the horn, and calis 
the hunters to their sport. 

61 Unawarefs, palabra compuesta yerbo regular, cuyo infinitivo es 
dezm, priva vivo, y airare, preveni- to wind,{y se pronuncia wáind,) 
do, advertido, noticioso, y quiere con el verbo irregular to icincl, 
decir de improviso. (misma pronunciación,) que signi- 

62 Bound, participio pasado del rica arrollar, y cuyo imperfecto 
verbo irregular to Mnd, ceñir. y participio es wound. To icind 

63 No debe confundirse este the horn, tocar la cometa de caza. 



80 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

3. The gun souncls. 04 The trembling partridge and 
the beautiíul pheasant flutter, bleeding, in the air, and 
fall dead at the sportsman's feet. 

4. Who is he that shakes the nuts froni the tree, and 
throws a mantle of frost over the decaying herbage? 
Youths and maidens, tell me, if you know. Who is he, 
and what is his ñame ? 

The melancholy days are 65 come, 
The saddest of the year, 
Of wailing winds, and naked woods, 
And meadows brown and seré. 
Heaped in the holló ws of the grove, 
The Autumn leaves lie dead ; 
They rustle to the eddying gust, 
And to the rabbits' tread. 



XI. 

WlNTER. 

1. Who is he that cometh from the north, clothed in 
furs and warm wool? He wraps his cloak cióse about 66 
him. His head is bald : his beard is made of sharp 
icicles. 

2. He loves the blazing fire, high piled 67 upon the 

64 lite gun sounds, literalmente envolverse en la capa, embozarse 

suena la escopeta, esto es: Se oye con el capote. 

un fusilazo. ü7 High ¡>'.l> ?, está es mas bien 

n Are come/ eata forma expresa una inversión poética, que rara 

mejor la idea de estado que la vez cabe en prosa, y nunca en la 

otra de have come, que solo repre- conversación familiar. La cons- 

senia una acción. tracción usual es piled high. 

tíC To wrap oné > 8 cloak abo ni one, 



LECTÜEAS INGLESAS. 31 

hearth, and a goocl warna clinner upon his table. He 
binds skates to his feet, and skinis over the frozen lakes. 

3. His breatk is piercing and cold, and no little 
flower dares to show itself when he is by. He covers 
the ground with whiteness ; whatever he touches turns 
to ice. 

4. If he were to 68 strike you with his cold hand, you 
would be 69 quite stiff and dead, like a piece of marble. 
Youths and maidens, do you see him ? He is coming 
fast upon us 3 and soon 70 he will be here. Tell me, if 

, you know, who he is, and what is his ñame ? 

The bleak wind whistles — snow-showers, far and near, 
Drift, without echo, to the whitening ground ; 

Autumn hath passed away, and, cold and drear, 
Winter stalks in, with frozen mantle bound. 

Mus. Norton. 



XII. 

Use Plain Language. 

1. What do you say? What? I really 71 do not 
understand you. Be so good as 72 to explain yourself 

6S If he tcere to strike, es como si es igual que se coloque antes ó 

en español se dijese: si te tocase, después del verbo, ó aun entre el 

debiéndose advertir que también pronombre sugeto : lie icill soon 

en inglés puede emplearse la forma come, he soon will come, 6 lie will 

simple del verbo : if he struck yon. come soon. 

La construcción del texto es, sin 71 Really, de veras. Es indife- 

embargo, mas enérgica, y equivale rente que este adverbio vaya de- 

á : if he slwuld strike you, si por lante ó después del verbo, cabien- 

casualidad te hieriese. do todas las construcciones que 

69 You ico u Id be stiff, por: you siguen: really I do not, etc.; Ido 

■would become stiff, te volverlas really not, etc. ; Ido not really, etc. ; 

rígido. ó 1 do not understand you really. 

7 * Soon, pronto. Este adverbio v¿ Be so good as to explain your- 



32 LECTUKAS INGLESAS. 

again. Upon my word, I do not ! 73 Oh ! now I know : 74 
you mean 75 to tell me it is 7G a cold day. "Why clid you 
not say at once, 77 "It is cold to-day?" If you wish to 
inform me 78 it rains or shows, pray say, "It rains," " It 
snows ; " or, if you think I look well, and you choose to 
compliment me, say, " I think you look well." " But," 
you answer, " that is so common and so plain, and what 
everybody can say." 79 " Well, and what 80 if every- 
body can ? Is it so great 81 a misfortune to be under- 
stood when one speaks, and to speak like the rest of 
the world ? 

2. " I will tell you what, my friend — you do not sus- 
pect it, and I shall astonish you — but you, and those 
like you, 82 vvant 83 common sense ! Nay, this is not all ; 
it is not only in the direction of your wants that you 
are in fault, but of your superfluities : you have too 
much conceit ; you are of opinión that you have more 
sense than others. That is the source of all your pom- 
pous nothings, your cloudy sentences, and your big 
words wdthout any meaning. Before you accost a per- 
son, or enter a room, let me pulí you by the sleeve and 

sdf, quiere decir literalmente : Sea 77 At once, de una vez. 
Y. tan bueno como explicarse, 78 Sobrentiéndese that, que, ati- 
esto es sírvase Y. repetir lo que tes de it rains. Véase la nota 76. 
ha dicho. 7a To say, sinónimo de to tell, se 

73 Do not aquí se refiere al verbo emplea para expresar la idea de 
undersiand en una frase anterior, decir algo, mientras que el según- 
Véase el " Preceptor," regla 149, do quiere decir mas bien informar. 
pág. 00. 8Ü Sobrentiéndese aquí la pala- 

74 Oh ! 71010 I know, ya caigo en bra maiter, esto es ¿ qué importa ? 
cuenta, ya entiendo. ' 81 Véase el " Preceptor," regla 

75 You mean to tell me, Y. quiere 4, pág. 4. 

decirme. To rucan, en el sentido M Y otros como V. (que se le 

recto, desear, proponerse. parecen). 

70 Se ha suprimido aquí la con- bJ Want tiene dos significados: 

junción that, que, antes de it is. necesitar, y faltar, siendo este 

Véase en el " Preceptor," la nota último el del texto. 
al pié de la pág. 7o. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. . do 

whisper in your ear, 'Do not try to show off 84 your 
wit : liave none at all ; that is your cue. 85 Use plain 
language, if you can ; just such as you find others use, 
who, in your idea, have no talent ; and then, perhaps, 
you will get credit 86 for having sorne.' " 

La Brtjyere. 



XIII. 

Efeects of Eashness. 

1. A certain Persian of distinction had, for years, 87 
been extremely anxious that he might 88 have a son, to 
inherit his estáte. His wishes were at length gratified. 
A son was born, and the fond father was so anxious 
for 89 the health and safety of the little stranger, 90 that 
he would scarcely suffer it 91 to be taken out of his sight, 
and was never so niuch delighted as when he was 
employed holding it. 

2. One day his wife, on going to the bath, committed 
the infant to her husband's care, earnestly entreating 

84 To show, mostrar ; to show off, muy correcta, debiéndose preferir 
hacer ver, hacer alarde de. esta otra, que es mas directa : 

85 Es lo mejor que puede Y. anxious to have a son. 

hacer. 89 Anxious, rige los sustantivos 

86 They will give you credit for con la preposición /or. 

having some, literalmente : te darán 90 Little stranger, el pequeño ex- 

crádito por tener alguno, lo que trangero, esto es, el deseado hijo, 

vale : creerán que tienes un poco. 91 Suffer it to be taken out of his 

87 For years, quiere decir for sight, sufrirlo ser tomado fuera de 
muny years, por muchos años. su vista, quiere decir, permitir que 

88 Anxious that he might have a lo llevaran donde él no pudiese 
son, ardia en ansia de que tuviese verlo : no queria perderlo de vista, 
un hijo, cuya construcción no es 



34 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

him not 92 to quit the eradle, un til slie carne 93 back. 
Scarcely, liowever, hacl she quitted the house, when 
the king sent for her husband. To refuse, or to delay 
obeying 94 the ro} r al summons, was impossible ; he, 
therefore, went immediately to the palace, intrusting 95 
the child to the care of a favorite dog, which liad been 
bred in the family. 

3. No sooner was the father out of sight, than 9G a 
large snake made its appearance, and was crawling 
toward the eradle. When the dog saw the child' s life 
in danger, he instantly seized the snake by the back of 
the head, and destroyed it. 

4. Soon after, the father returned from court, and the 
dog, as if conscious of the service he had performed, 
ran out to meet him. The man saw the dog stained 
with blood, and imagined that he had killed the child. 
Without making any further reflection or inquiry, he 
struck the faithful little animal such 97 a blow with his 
stick, that he instantly expired. 

5. When the father carne into the house, and saw the 
child safe, and the snake lying dead by the side of the 
eradle, he smote 98 his breast with grief, aecusing him- 
self of rashness and ingratitude toward the dog. While 



92 Obsérvese que el negativo se solo pueden regir el participio 

pone delante del signo del infini- presente de los verbos ingleses. 

tivo. ü5 Intrust ó cxtrust ; son igual- 

9a Carne, imperfecto de tocóme, mente corrientes ambas numeras 

venir; back, detras; carne back, de escribir este verbo, 

pues, vale por, volviese al punto 96 No sooner . . . thán, no bien 

de donde salió, esto es : vol- cuando. 

viese. ,J7 Véase el " Preceptor," regla 

94 To delay obeying, tai-dar en 3, pág. 10. 
obedecer. También pudo haberse BS To smite, golpear, Verbo ir- 
dicho : delay in obeying. Téngase 1 regular anticuado, ó que al menos 
presente que las preposiciones no se usa en el dia sino en la Bib- 
lia y en poesía. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. o 5 

he was uttering these woeful lamenta tions, liis wiíe 
carne in, who, having learned the cause of his distress, 
blamed him severely for his want of reflection. He 
confessed his indiscretion, but begged her not to acld 
reproaches to his distress, as reproof could now avail" 
nothing. 

6. " True," said she, " advice can be of no service in 
the present instance ; but I wish to rouse your mind to 
reflection, that you niay reap instruction from your 
misfortunes. Shame and repentance are the sure con- 
sequences of precipitaron and want of reflection." 

7. The king of Persia once liad a favorite hawk. 
Being one day on a hunting-party, with his hawk on 
his hand, a deer started up before him. He let the 
hawk fly, 100 and followed the deer with great eagerness, 
till, at length, 101 it was taken. The courtiers were all 
left behind in the chase. 

8. The king, being thirsty, rodé about in search of 
water. Keaching at length the foot of a mountain, he 
discovered a little water trickling in drops from the 
rock. He accordingly took a little cup out of his quiver, 
and held it to catch the water. 

9. Just when the cup was filled, and the king was 
going to drink, the hawk, which liad followed his 
master, alighted, shook his pinions, and overset the 
cup. The king was vexed at the accident, and again 
applied the vessel to the hole in the rock. When the 
cup was replenished, and he was lifting it to his 



99 Téngase presente que con la mente: dejó el azor volar, esto 

palabra nothing, ú otra cualquiera es : soltó el azor, 

negativa, se omite la negación not 101 At length, palabra por pala- 

delante del verbo. bra : á largo, y quiere decir, por 



100 



He let the hawk fly, literal- fin. 



36 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

Hioutk, the kawk clapped his wings, and again tlirew it 
down. " At this the king was so enraged, tkat ke flung 
tke bird witk suck forcé against tke ground, tkat it 
imniediately expired. 

10. At tkis time one of tke king's officers carne up. 
He took a napkin out of kis budget, wiped tke cup, 
and was going to give tke king some water to drink. 
The king said ke kad a great inclination 102 to taste tke 
puré water tkat distilled tkrougk tke rock, but, not 
kaving patience to wait for its being collected in drops, 
ke ordered tke officer to 103 go to tke top of tke niountain, 
and fill the cup at the fountain head. 

11. The officer, having reached the top of the niount- 
ain, saw a large serpent lying dead at the spring, and 
perceived that the poisonous foam had mixed with the 
w T ater, whick fell in drops tkrougk tke rock. He de- 
scended, related tke fact to tke king, and presented 
kim with a cup of cold water out of kis flagon. 

12. Wken tke king lifted tke cup to kis lips, tke 
tears gusked from kis eyes. He tken related to the 
officer tke adventure of tke kawk, and inade niany 
reflections upon tke destructive consequences of pre- 
cipitancy and tkougktlessness : 104 and during kis wkole 
life, kis breast rankled witk sorrow and regret tkat ke 
kad been guilty of suck raskness. Anonyuous. 

102 He liad a great inclination, bra, y en las siguientes, que se 

tenia grandes ganas. pronuncian del modo que se va á 

10a Urder, ordenar, mandar, lo referir: thouglit, zot ; thóugh, 'do ; 
mismo que to tell y decir, to wish, plough, pláu; dough, do, y sus de- 
desear, y otros verbos análogos, rivados. 

rige al verbo que le sigue en el Para la pronunciación de todas 

infinitivo, y no en el subjuntivo, las palabras inglesas con yh y véase 

como sucede en español. "El .Maestro Inglés Completo, 1 ' 



104 



La <jh es muda en esta pala- página 00. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 37 

XIV. 

The Consequences of Idleness. 

1. Many young persons seeni to think it of not 
much consequence if they do not improve 105 their time 
well in youth, vainly expecting that they can make it 
up by diligence when they are older. They also think 
it is disgraceful 106 for men and women to be idle, but 
that there can be no harm for persons who are young 
to spend their time in any manner they please. 

2. George Jones thought so. 107 When he was twelve 
years old, ias he went to an academy to prepare to enter 
college. His father was at great expense 109 in obtaining 
books for him, clothing him, and paying his tuition. 
But George was idle. The preceptor of the academy 
would 110 often tell him, that if he did not study dili- 
gently when young, he would 111 never succeed well. 

3. But George thought of nothing but present pie as- 
ure. He would 111 often go to school without having 
made any preparation for his morning lesson ; and, 
when called to recite with his class, he would 111 stammer 

105 Improve, mejorar, quiere de- alguno, usan siempre el verbo io 

cir en el caso presente, emplear. be r ser, y no to have y tener. 

106 Muchas veces se sobrentiende lü9 Was at great expense, literal- 

el verbo to be, ser, en frases pare- mente : estuvo á grandes gastos ; 

cidas a esta, como : they also think esto es, hizo graneles gastos. 

it disgraceful. Esta omisión del 110 Would, aquí pinta el hábito, 

verbo to be es comunísima en la la costumbre que tenia el precep- 

lengua inglesa. tor, y corresponde ai soler español. 

107 Thought so, lo pensaba así. Would often tell him, solia decirle, 

108 Twelve years oíd, palabra por ó le decia con frecuencia, 
palabra, doce años viejo. Los 2I1 Would en este lugar es signo 
ingleses, al hablar de la edad de del condicional ; he toould never 

succeed well, jamas prosperaría. 



o8 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

and make sucli blunders, that the rest of the class 
could not help 112 laughing at him. He was one of the 
poorest scliolars iu the school, because lie was one of 
the most idle. 

4. When recess carne, and all the boys ran out of 
the academy upon the play-ground, idle George would 
come moping along. Instead of studying diligently 
while in school, he was indolent and half asleep. 
When the proper time for play carne, he liad no relish 
for it. I recollect very well, that, when tossing up for 
a game of ball, we used to choose everybody on the 
play-ground before we chose George. And if there 
were enough without him, we used to leave him out. 
Thus was he unhappy in school and out of school. 

5. There is nothing which makes a person enjoy play 
so well as to study hard. When recess was over, and 
the rest of the boys returned, fresh and vigorous, to 
their studies, George niight be seen lagging and moping 
along to his seat. Sometimes he would be asleep in 
school ; sometimes he would pass his time in catching 
flies, and penning them up in little holes, which he cut 
in his seat. And sometimes, when the preceptor's back 
was turnee!, he would throw a paper ball across the 
rooni. 

6. When the class was called up to recite, George 
would come drowsily along, looking as mean and 
ashamed as though he were going to be whipped. The 
rest of the class stepped up to the recitation with 
alacrity, and appeared happy and contented. When it 
carne George's turn to recite, he would be so long in 

113 Could not KtLp, no podían menos de. To help, en el sentido 
recto, quiere decir ayudar. 



LECTUBAS INGLESAS. 39 

cloing it, and make such blunders, that all, most heartiiy, 
wished him out of tlie class. 

7. At last George went with his class to enter college. 
Thongh lie passed a very poor examination, he was 
admitted with the rest ; for those who examined him 
thought it was possible, that the reason why he did not 
answer questions better, was because he was frigh tened. 
Now carne hard times for poor George. In college 
there is not much mercy shown to bad scholars ; and 
George liad neglected his studies so long, that he could 
not now keep np with 113 his class, let him try 114 ever so 
hard. 

8. He could, without much difficulty, get along in 
the academy, where there w 7 ere only two or three boys 
of his own class to laugh at him. But now he had to 
go into a large recitation room, filled with students 
from all parts of the country. In the presence of all 
these, he must rise and recite to a professor. Poor 
fellow ! 115 He paid dearly for his idleness. 

9. You would have pitied him, if you could have 
seen him trembling in his seat, every moment expecting 
to be called upon to recite. And when he was called 
upon, he would stand up, and take what the class called 
a dead set ; 116 that is, he could not recite at all. Some- 
times he would make such ludicrous blunders, that the 
whole class would burst into a laugh. Such are the 



i13 Ya no pudo seguirá sudase, cion, es compañero, camarada; 

114 Donoso giro inglés, que da mas, generalmente se toma en el 
mucha energía a la expresión, trato familiar por muchacho, chi- 
Let him try ever so liard, literal- co. De ahí, poor fellow, pobre- 
mente : que él ensayara jamas tan cito ; a goodfelloic, un buen chico, 
duro, es decir: por mas que se 116 A dead set, al pié de la letra 
esforzó. quiere decir, una puesta muerta ; 

115 Fellow, en su primera acep- esto es : se cortó. 



40 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

applauses an idler gets. He was wretched, of course. 
He liad been idle so long, that lie hardly knew how to 
apply bis ínind to study. All the good scholars avoided 
liim ; they were ashamed to be seen in liis company. 
He becaine discouraged, and gradually grew dissi- 
pated. 

10. Tlie officers of tbe college were soon compelled 
to suspend hini. He returned in a few montlis, but 
did no better ; and his father was then advised to take 
liim from college. He left college, despised by eveiy 
one. A few months ago I met him, a poor wanderer, 
without money and without friends. Such are the 
wages of idleness. I hope every reader will, from this 
history, take warning, and " stainp improvement on the 
wings of time." 

11. This story of George Jones, which is a true one, 
shows how sinful and ruinous it is to be idle. Every 
child, who would be a Christian, and have a lióme in 
heaven, must guard againsfc this sin. Bat as I have 
given you one story, which shows the sad effects of 
indolence, I will now present you witli another, more 
pleasing, which shows the reward of industry. 

Abbott. 



XV. 

Advantages of Industry. 

1. I gave you the history of George Jones, an idle 

boy, and showed 117 j^ou the consequences of his idle- 

_ 

117 Antiguamente este verbo se o), y no deja de haber quien en el 

escribía to shew (con e en vez de dia lo escriba así. Léanse con 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 41 

ness. I shall now give you the liistoiy of Charles 
Bullard, a classmate of George. Charles was about 
the same age with 118 George, and did not possess supe- 
rior talents. Indeed, I doubt whether he was equal to 
him in natural powers of mind. 

2. But Charles was a hard student. "When quite 
young, he was aiways careíul and diligent in school. 
Soinetimes, when there was a very hard lesson, instead 
of going out to play during recess, he would stay in to 
study. He had resolved that his first object should be 
to get his lessons well, and then he could play with a 
good'conscience. He loved 1]9 play as well as anybody, 
and was one of the best players . on the ground. I 
harclly ever saw a boy catch a ball better than he 
could. When playing any game, every one was glad 
to get Charles on his side. 

3. I have said that Charles would sometimes stay in, 
at recess. This, however, was very seldoni ; it was 
only when the lessons were very hard indeed. Gen- 
erally, he was among the first on the play-ground, and 
he was also among the first to go into ]20 school, when 
eallecl. Hard study gave him a relish for play, and 
play again gave him a relish for har/l study, so he was 
happy both in school and out. The preceptor could 

mucha atención las reglas 144, de sustituirse a la conjunción as 

145 r 146, 147 y 148, como también (que es lo corriente) la preposi- 

la conjugación del yerbo regular cion icith, en el segundo término 

to toucli , en el " Preceptor/' páginas de las comparaciones de igualdad. 

57 y 58, y sobre todo la nota de 119 To ¡ove tiene dos acepciones: 

esta ultima, con lo que el estu- amar, y gustar de, siendo, en este 

diante podrá enterarse de todo lo último sentido, sinónimo de to 

concerniente á la ortografía y like. 

pronunciación de los yerbos regu- 120 El lector notará que en ru- 
lares ingleses. glés se calla el artículo definido 
lltí Same age with. por un capri- delante de las palabras school^ 
cho de la gramática inglesa, pue- church, college, y alguna otra. 



42 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

not help liking him, for lie always liad his lessons well 
committed, and never gave him any trouble. 

4. Wlien he went to enter college, the preceptor gave 
him a good recommendation. He was able to answer 
all the questions, which were put to him when he was 
examined. He had studied so well, when he was in 
the academy, and was so thoroughly prepared for col- 
lege, that he found it very easy to keep up with his 
class, and liad much time for reading interesting books. 

5. But he would always get his lesson well, before 
he did anything else, and would review it just before 
recitation. When called upon to recite, he rose tran- 
quil and happy, and very seldom made mistakes. The 
officers of the college had a high opinión oí him, and 
he was respected by all the students. 

6. There was in the college a society made up of all 
the best scholars. Charles was chosen a member of 
that society. It was the custom to choose some one of 
the society to deliver a public address every year. 
This honor was conferred on Charles ; and he had 
studied so diligently, and read so much, that he de- 
livered an address which was very interesting to all 
who heard it. 

7. At last he graduated, as it is called ; that is, he 
fiuished his collegiate course, and received his degree. 
It was known by all that he was a good scholar, and 
by all that he was respected. His father and mother, 
brothers and sisters carne, on the commencement 121 day, 
to hear him speak. 

,a] Por una anomalía casi inex- escolar, esto os el día en que, pa- 

plicable, los profesores emplean Bados los exámenes, so procede á, 

la palabra commencement, princi- la distribución di' los premios. 
pió, para designar la fin del año 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 43 

8. They all felt gratified, and lovecl Charles more 
tlian ever. Many sítuations of usefulness and profit 
were opened to him, for Charles was now an intelligent 
man, and miiversally respected. He is still a 122 useful 
and a happy man. He has a cheerful honre, and is es- 
teemed by all who know him. 

9. Such are the rewards of industry. How strange 
it is that any person should be willing to live in idle- 
ness ! The idle boy is almost invariably poor and mis- 
erable ; the industrious boy is happy and prosperous. 

10. But perhaps some chiid who reads this asks : 
" Does God notice little children in school ?" He cer- 
tainly does. And if you are not diligent in the improve- 
ment of your time, it is one of the surest evidences that 
your heart is not right with God. You are placed in 
this worid to improve your time. In youth you must 
be preparing for future usefulness. And if you do not 
improve the advantages you enjoy, you sin against 
your Maker. 

" With books, or work, or healthful play, 
Let your first years be past, 
That you may give, for every day, 



Some good account at last." 



Abbott. 



,sa En la página 10 del " Precep- indefinido inglés. Léase asimismo 
tor" van sentadas unas reglas im- la nota del pié de dicha página, 
portantes sobre el uso del artículo 



44 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

XVI, 

ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 

1. Macedón was, for a long time, a small state in 
Greece, not celebrated for anything, except that its 
kings always governed according to the laws of the 
country, and that their children were well educated. 

2. At length, after many kings had reigned over 
Macedón, one named Philip carne to the throne, who 
determine d to render his kingdom as illustrious as 
other kingdoms. He raised a large army, subdued 
many people, and contrived to make the other states of 
Greece quarrel among themselves. 

3. When they were quite tired of fighting against 
each other, he induced them all to submit to him ; 
which they were the more ready to do, because 123 lie 
gave them hopes that he would lead them on to con- 
quer Persia. But before he set out on his expedition 
to Persia, he was killed by one of his own subjects. 

4. Philip was succeeded by his son Alexander, called 
in history "Alexander the Great." On Philip's death, 
the Greeks thought themselves at liberty, and resolved 
that Macedón should no longer hold them in subjec- 
tion ; but Alexander quickly showed them that he was 
as wise as his father, and still bolder than he. 

5. Alexander caused his father's murderers to be put 
to death ; and then collecting his army, in an assembly 
of the Grecian states he delivered a speech, which con- 

J2J jifa r m ore . . . beecmi6 i tanto mas . . . cuanto que. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 45 

vinced them of his wisdoni and valor. After this, they 
agreed to make him, as his father liad been, cliief com- 
mander of Greece. He then returned to Macedón, and 
in a short time afterward began his conquests, and 
gained surprising victories ; obliging all who fought 
against him to submit. 

6. As soon as Alexander liad settled the Grecian 
states to his wislies, he crossed the Hellespont (now 
called the Dardanelles) with his army, in order to sub- 
due Persia. The Persians, hearing of this, assembled 
their forces, and waited for 124 him on the banks of the 
river called the Granicus. When the Grecians arrived 
on the opposite side, one of the generáis advised Alex- 
ander to let his soldiers rest a little ; but he was so 
eager for conquest, that he gaye command instantly to 
march through the Granicus. 

7. His troops, having found a shallow place, obeyed; 
the truinpets soundecl, and loud shouts of joy were 
heard throughout the arniy. As soon as the Persians 
saw them advancing, they let fly showers of arrows at 
them, and when the}' were going to land, strove to push 
them back into the water, but in vain. Alexander and 
his army landed, and a dreadful battle was fought, in 
which he proved victorious. He then, advancing frorn 
city to city, obliged them to own him for their king in- 
stead of Darius. 

8. Darius, being informed of Alexander's progress, 
resolved to meet him with a great army. As soon as 
Alexander heard of his approach, he prepared to en- 
counter him at Issus, where he obliged him to fly, 

124 To waü for y es esperar ó aguardar; to wait on 6 upon, es 
servir. . 



46 LECTÜBAS INGLESAS. 

leaving behind him bis queen and family, and immense 
treasure, all of which Alexander seized. 

9. Some time afterwarcl, Darius fought anotlier battle 
at Arbela, in which he was again defeated. Soon after 
this, he was killed ; and thus ended the Persian Empire. 

10. Not conten ted with the conquest of Persia, Alex- 
ander resolved to subdue the kings of India ; and he 
obliged many of them to submit. Oñe of them, named 
Porus, resisted him with great courage, but Alexander 
overéame him at last. He treated him, however, with 
much respect, gave him his liberty, and restored him 
to his kingdom ; and Porus pro ved a faithful friend to 
him ever afterward. 

11. Between the battles which Alexander fought 
with Darius, he subdued many states and kingdoms, 
and among others, Egypt and Babylon ; and, after the 
death of Darius, he made still further conquests, be- 
sides those of the Indian princes, by which means the 
Grecian empire was raised to a great height. 

12. When Alexander rested from fighting, he took 
up his residence at Babylon, and lived there in the 
utmost splendor. But his glory was of short duration, 
for he had one very great fault, that of being excess- 
ively fond of eating and drinking. He wanted to make 
the world believe that he was a god, and could do 
wh ate ver he chose. When he was at a banquet, he 
would try to drink more wine than any other man in 
the company. 

13. At length he engaged to empty a cup, called 
Hercules' cup, which held six bottles of wine : and it 
is said he aetually did so ; but it proved the cause of 
his death, the wine heating his blood to such a degree, 
that it brought on a violent fever, which soon put an 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 



47 



end to bis life. He died three hundred and twenty- 
three years before the Christiaa era, at tlie age of 
thirty-two. 

14. How shocking it is to think, that a man who liad 
subdued so many nations, should suffer 125 himself to be 
conquered by tlie sin of intemperance ! It is a lament- 
able trutli that intemperance kills more than the sword. 

15. The glory of the Grecian empire was terminated 
by the death of Alexander ; for as he had no son fit to 
reign after him, and did not determine who should be 
his successor, the principal commanders of his army 
divided his conquests among themselves, and, after 
many quarrels and battles, that which was one empire 
under Alexander became four sepárate kingdoms. 

Anonymous. 



XVII. 

A Contest wxth Tigeks. 

1. On leaving the Indian village, we continued to 
wind around Chimborazo's wide base. A dense fog 
was now gathering around it, and its snow-covered 126 
head was hid from our view. Our guides looked 
anxiously about, and announced their apprehension of 
a violent storm. 



125 Should suffer himself, se de- 
jase ; también hubiera podido de- 
cirse : Should allozo himself should 
leí himself, ó should permü himself 

v¿6 Snow-covered, cubierto de 
nieve, palabra compuesta de snow, 
nieve, y covered, participio pasado 



del verbo regular to cover, cu- 
brir. 

La índole de la lengua inglesa 
permite la formación de una infi- 
nidad de voces compuestas, en 
coya circunstancia, consite una de 
las principales riquezas de dicho 
idioma. 



48 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

2. We socm íound that their fears were well-founded. 
Tlie thunder began to roll, and resounded through the 
mountainous passes with the most terrific grandeur. 
Then carne the vivid lightning ; flash folio wing flash — 
above, around, beneath — everywhere a sea of fire. 

3. We songht a momentary shelter in a cleft of the 
rocks, while one of our Indian guides hastened forward 
to seek a more secure asylum. In a short time he 
returned, and informed us that he had discovered a 
spacious cavern, which would afford us snfiicient pro- 
tection from the storm. We proceeded thither im- 
mediately ; and with great difíiculty, and not a little 
danger, we at last got into it. 

4. When the storm had somewhat abated, our guides 
ventured out, in order to ascertain if it were possible 
to continué our journey. The cave in which we had 
taken refuge was so extremely dark, that if we moved 
a few paces from the entrance we could hardly see an 
inch before us ; and we were debating as to the pro- 
priety of leaving it, even before the Indians carne back, 
when we suddenly heard a singular groaning or growl- 
ing in the further end of the cavern, which instantly 
fixecl all our attention. 

5. Wharton and myself listened anxiously ; but our 
daring and inconsiderate young friend Lincoln, together 
with my huntsman, crept about upon their hands and 
knees, and endeavored to discover, by groping, from 
whence the sound proceeded. 

6. They had not advanced far into the cavern before 
we heard them utter an exclamation of surprise ; and 
they returned to us, each carrying in his arms an 
animal, singularly marked, and about the size of a cat, 
seemingly of great strength and power, and furnished 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 49 

with immense íartgs. The eyes were of a green color ; 
strong claws were upon their feet, and a blood-red 
tongue hung out of their mouths. 

7. Wliarton liad scarcely glanced at them, when he 
exclaimed in consternation, " Ve haye come into the 
den of a — " He was interrupted by a fearful cry of 
dismay from our guides, who carne rushing precipi- 
tately toward us, calling out, " A tiger ! a tiger !" and, 
at the sanie time, with extraordinary rapidity, they 
climbed up a cedar-tree, which stood at the entrance 
of the cave, and hid themselves among the branches. 

8. Wliarton called him to assist him instantly in 
blocking up the mouth of the cave with an immense 
stone, which fortunately lay near it. The sense of ap- 
proaching clanger augmented our strength ; for we now 
distinctly heard the growl of the ferocious animal, and 
we were lost beyond reclemption, 127 if he reached the 
entrance before we could get it closed. 

9. Ere this was done, we conld distinctly see the 
tiger bounding near the spot, and stooping in order to 
creep into his den by the narrow opening. At this 
fearful moment our exertions were successful, and the 
great stone kept the wild beast at bay. 

10. There was a small open space, however, between 
the top of the entrance and the stone, through which 
we could see the head of the animal, illuminated by his 
glowing eyes, which he rolled, glaring with fury, upon 
us. His frightful roaring penetrated to the depths of 
the cavern, and was answered by the hoarse growling 
of the cubs. 



127 Beyond redemption, al pié de la letra, mas allá de redención; 
esto es : irremisiblemente. 
3 



50 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

11. Our ferocious enemy attemptecl first to remove 
tLe stone witli his poweríul claws, and then to push it 
with his liead from its place ; and these efforts proving 
useless, only served to increase liis wrath. He uttered 
a tremendous, heart-piercing howl, and his flaming 
eyes darted liglit into tlie darkness of our retreat. 

12. He went backward and forward before the en- 
trance of the cave, in the most wild and impetuous 
manner ; then stood still, and stretching out his neck 
in the clirection of the forest, broke forth 128 in a deafen- 
ing howl. 

13. Our two Iridian guides took advantage of this 
opportunity to discharge several arrows from the tree. 
He was struck more than once ; but the light weapons 
bounded back harmless from his skin. At length, 
however, one of the ni struck him near the eye, and the 
arrow remained sticking in the wound. 

14. He now broke anew into the wildest fury, sprang 
at the tree, and tore it with his claws, as if he would 
have dragged it to the ground. But having, at length, 
succeeded in getting rid of the arrow, he became more 
calm, and laid himself down, as before, in front of the 
cave. 

15. One of our party liad strangled the two cubs, 
and, before w T e were aware of what he in tended, he 
threw 129 them through the opening to the tiger. No 
sooner did the animal perceive them, than he gazed 
earnestly upon them, and began to examine them 
closely, turning them cautiously from side to side. As 
soon as he became aware that they were dead, he 

198 Broke forth, rompió fuera; verbo irregular to throw, arrojar, 
es decir: prorumpió. y through, al través d<', por; so 

189 Threw, participio pasado del pronuncian zrú. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 51 

uttered so piercing a howl of sorrow, that we were 
obliged to put our hands to our ears. 

16. The thunder had now ceased, and the storm had 
sunk to a gentle gale ; the songs of birds were again 
heard in the neighboring forest, and the sunbeams 
sparkled in the drops that hung from the leaves. We 
saw, through the aperture, how all nature was reviving, 
after the wild war of elements, which had so recently 
taken place ; but the contrast only made our situation 
more horrible. 

17. The tiger had laid himself down beside his 
whelps. He was a beautiful animal, of great size and 
strength ; and his limbs being stretched out at their full 
length, displayed his immense power of muscle. A 
double row of great teeth stood far enough apart to 
show his large, red tongue, from which the white foam 
fefl in great drops. 

18. All at once, another roar was heard at a distance, 
and the tiger immediately rose and answered it witli a 
mournful howl. At the same instant, our Indians ut- 
tered a cry, which announced that some new danger 
threatened us. A few moments confirmed our worst 
fears ; for another tiger, not quite so large as the former, 
carne rapidly toward the spot where we were. 

19. The howls which the tigress gave when she had 
examined the bodies of her cubs, surpassed everything 
horrible that we had yet heard ; and the tiger mingled 
his mournful cries with hers. Suddenly her roaring was 
lowered to a fierce growling, and we saw her anxiously 
stretch out her head, extend her wide and smoking 
nostrils, and look as if she were determined to discover 
immediately the murderers of her young. 

20. Her eyes quickly fell upon us, and she made a 



52 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

spring forward, with tlie intention oí penetrating to our 
place of refuge. Perhaps slie might bave been enabled, 
bv ber iininense strengtb, to push away tbe stone, had 
we not, with all our uuited power, beld it against her. 

21. THien she found tbat all her efforts were fruit- 
less, slie approached the tiger, which lay stretcbed out 
beside bis cubs, and be rose and joined in her bollow 
roarings. Tbey stood togetber for a £ew inonients, as 
if in consultation, tben suddenly went off at a rapid 
pace, and disappeared froni our sigbt. Their bowling 
died away in tbe distance, and tben entirely ceased. 

22. Our Indians descended from tbeir tree, and called 
upon ns to seize tbe only possibility of our yet saving 
ourselves by instant fligbt ; for tbat tbe tigers liad only 
gone round tbe beigbt to seek another inlet to tbe cave, 
with which tbey were, no doubt, well acquainted. In 
tbe greatest baste, tbe stone was pusbed aside, and 
we stepped forth from what we had considerad a living 
grave. Edestbubgh Literary Journal. 



XTIII 

The Baikbow. 

1. When tbe sun darts 130 bis rays on tbe drops 130 of 
r tbat fall from a cloud, and wben we are s 
tbat our backs are toward tbe son, and tbe cloud is 
1 i :' :• as, fchen we see a rainbow. 

130 Aríic so- 

nantes en las palal 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 53 

2. The drops of rain may be considered as small 
transparent globes, 130 on which the rays fall, and are 
twice refracted, 130 and once reflected. 130 Henee the 
colors of tlie rainbow ; which are seven in number, 
and are arranged in the following order : red, orange, 
yellow, green, blue, Índigo, and violet. 

3. Tríese colors appear the most vivid when the cloud 
behind the rainbow is dark, and the drops of rain fall 
thick and fast. 130 The drops falling continnally, pro- 
duce a new rainbow every nioinent ; and as each 
spectator 130 has his particular situation from which he 
observes 130 this phenomenon, 131 it so happens that no 
two men, properly speaking, can see the same rainbow. 
This rainbow can last no longer than the drops of rain 
continué to fall. 

4. If we consider the rainbow merely as a phenome- 
non of nature, it is one of the finest sights imaginable. 
It is the most beautiful colored picture which the 
Creator has placed before our eyes. But, when we 
recollect that God has made it a sign of his merey, 
and of the covenant which he has condescended to 
enter into with man, then we shall find matter in it for 
the most edifying reflection. 

5. When the rain is general there can be no rainbow ; 
as often, therefore, as we see this beautiful symbol of 
peace, we may conclude 130 with certainty, that we need 
fear no deluge ; for to effect one, there must be a vio- 
lent rain from all parts of the heavens at once. 

6. Thus, when the sky is only covered on one side . 
with clouds, and the sun- is seen on the other, it is a 
proof that these gloomy clouds shall be shortly dis- 



130 Véase ai píe ele la página anterior. 131 p7i se pronuncia/ en inglés. 



5± LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

persed, and the heavens beconie serene. Henee it is 
that a rainbow cannot be seen unless the sun be behind, 
and the rain before us. In order to 13 ' the formation of 
the bow, it is necessary that the sun and the rain 
should 133 be seen at the same time. 



XIX, 

DlEFERENCE BETWEEN MAN AND THE INFERIOR ÁNIMALS. 

1. The chief difference between man and the other 
animáis consists in this, that the former 134 has reason, 
whereas the latter 134 have only instinct ; but, in order 
to understand what we mean by the terms reason and 
instinct, it will be necessary to mention three things, in 
which the difference very distinctly appears. 

2. Let us, first, to bring the parties as nearly on a 
level as possible, consider man in a savage state, wholly 
oceupied, like the beasts of the field, in providing for 
the wants of his animal nature ; and here, the first dis- 
tinction that appears between them is, the use of imple- 
ments. When the savage provides himself with a lint, 
or a wigwam, for shelter, or that he may store up his 
provisions, he does no more than is done bj r the rabbit, 
the beaver, the bee, and birds of every species. 

3. But the man cannot make any progresa in this 
work without tools ; he must provide himself with an 

13 ' 2 Iit order to } es Binónimo de senté de subjuHtivo, como s< 

for. para. de ver en el caso presente. 
l5Í,i Muchas veces este Bkpo del Ki4 The former, . . the ! 

condicional lo es también del pie- aquel . . . estos. 



LECTUEAS INGLESAS. 55 

axe eren before lie can cut down a tree for its tirnber ; 135 
whereas tliese animáis form their burrows, their cells, 
or their nests, with no other tools than those with 
wliicli nature has provided theni. In cultivating the 
ground, also, man can do nothing without a spade or a 
plough ; ñor can he reap what he has sown, till he has 
shaped an implement with which to cut down his 
harvest. But the inferior animáis provide for them- 
selves and their young without any of these things. 

4. Now for the second distinction. Man, in all his 
operations, makes mistakes ; animáis mate none. Did 
you ever liear of snch a thing as a bird sitting on a 
twig, lamenting over her half-finished nest, and puzzliug 
her little poli 136 to know how to complete it ? Or did 
you ever see the cells of a beehive in clumsy, irregular 
shapes, or observe anything like a discussion in the 
little community, as if there was a difference of opinión 
among the architects ? 

5. The lower animáis are even better physicians than 
we are ; for when they are ill, they will, many of them, 
seek out some particular herb which they do not use as 
food, and which possesses a medicinal quality exactly 
suited to the complaint ; whereas, the whole college of 
physicians will dispute for a century about the virtues 
of a single drug. 

6. Man undertakes nothing in which he is not more 



135 Los sinónimos de este voca- mente en los Estados Unidos, 
blo son : lumber y wood ; el pri- Wood corresponde en los mas 
mero de estos, lo mismo que tiui- casos a la palabra española leña. 
ber, se toma casi siempre en el 136 Poli (pronunciase pol) es si- 
sentido de madera de construc- nónimo de liead\ cabeza, y solo 
cien, advirtiéndose que Umber cabe en las conversaciones muy 
únicamente se emplea en Ingla- familiares. 
térra, y lumber casi exclusiva- 



56 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

or less puzzled ; and must try mimberless experimente, 
before he can bring his undertakings to anytliing like 
perfection ; even the simplest operations of domestic 

life are not well performed without some experience ; 
and tlie term of man's life is half wasted, before he has 
done with his mistakes, and begins to profit by his les- 
sons. 

7. The third distinction is, that animáis make no irn- 
provements ; while the knowledge, and skill, and the 
suceess of man are perpetually on the increase. Ani- 
máis, in all their operations, follow the first impulse of 
nature, or that instinct which God has implanted in 
them. In all they do 137 unclertake, therefore, their 
works are more perfect and regular than those of man. 

8. But man, having been endowed with the faculty 
of thinking or reasoning about what he does, is enabled, 
by patience and industry, to correct the mistakes into 
which he at first falls, and to go on constantly improv- 
ing. " A bird's nest is, indeed, a perfect structure ; yet 
the nest of a swallow of the nineteenth centuiy, is not 
at all more commoclious or elegant than those that 
were built amid the rafters of Noah's ark. But if we 
compare the wigwam of the savage with the temples 
and palaces of ancient Greece and Kome, we then see 
to what man's mistakes, rectified and improved upon, 
conduct him. Jaxe Taylor. 



137 Do en este lugar leda una nunca se emplea en semejantes 
gran energía á la expresión. Casi casos en la conversación. 



LECTUBAS INGLESAS. 57 



XX. 

The Generous Bussian Peasant. 

1. Let 138 Yirgil sing tlie praises of Augustas, ge- 
mus 139 celébrate merit, and flattery 140 extol the talents 
of the great. The short and simple " annals of the 
poor" engross my pen ; and while I record the history 
of Flor Silin's virtues, though I speak of a poor peas- 
ant, I shall describe a noble man. I ask no eloquence 
to assist me in the task ; modest worth rejects the aid 
of ornament to set it off. 

2. It is impossible, even at this distant period, to re- 
flect, Avithout horror, on the miseries of that year, 
known in Lower Wolga by the ñame of the " famine 
year." I remember the summer, whose scorching 
heats liad dried up all the fields, and the drought 141 had 
no relief but from the tears of the ruined farmer. 

3. I remember the cold, comfortless autumn, and the 
despairing rustics, crowding round their empty farms 
with folded arms and sorrowful countenances, ponder- 
ing on their misery, instead of rejoicing, as usual, at the 
golden harvest ; I remember the winter which suc- 
ceeded, and I reflect, with agony, on the miseries it 



138 Dejamos á Virgilio que la tercera persona de impera- 
cante, tivo). 

139 Genius, el genio, depende, 140 Lo dicho sobre genius en la 
como el nombre Virgilio, del nota 139, se aplica igualmente á 
verbo let sing (que es un solo flattery, lisonja. 

verbo, let siendo solo el signo de 141 Drought (pronunciase dráut), 



la seca. 



3* 



58 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

brought with it ; whole families left their homes, to be- 
come beggars on tlie bighway. 

4. At nigbt, tbe canopy of beaven served them as 
their only shelter from the piercing winds and bitter 
frost. To describe these scenes, would be to liarm tbe 
feelings of my readers : therefore, to my tale. In those 
days I lived on an estáte not far from Simbirsk ; and 
though but a cbild, I have not forgotten the impression 
made on my mind by the general calamity. 

5. In a village adjoining, lived Flor Silin, a poor la- 
boring peasant : a man remarkable for bis assiduity, 
and the skill and judgment with which he cultivated 
his lands. He was blessed with abundant crops ; and 
bis means being larger than his wants, his granaries, 
even at this time, were full of corn. The dry year 
coming on, liad beggared all the village, except him- 
self. Here was an opportunity to grow rich. Mark 
bow Flor Silin acted. Having callecl the poorest of his 
neigbbors about him, he addressed them in the follow- 
ing manner : 

6. " My friends, you want corn for your subsistence ; 
God has blessed me with abundance ; assist in thresh- 
ing out a quantity, and each of you take what he wants 
for his family." The peasants were amazed at this un- 
exampled generosity ; for sordid propensities exist in 
the village, as well as in tbe populous city. 

7. The fame of Flor Silin's benevolence having 
reached other villages, the famished inhabitants pre- 
sented themselves before him, and begged for corn. 
This good creature received them as brothers ; and, 
while his store remained, affbrded all relief. At lengtb, 
bis wife, seeing no end to the generosity of his noble 
spirit, reminded him bow necessary it would be to think 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. - 59 

oí íheir own wants, and hold liis lavish hand, before it 
was too late. " It is written in the scripture," said he, 
" Give, and it shall be given unto yon." 

8. Tlie following year, Providence listened to the 
prayers of the poor, and the harvest was abnndant. 
The peasants who liad been saved from starving by 
Flor Silin, now gathered around him. 

9. " Behold," said they, " the corn you lent ns. Tou 
saved our wives and children. We shonld have been 
famished but for you : niay God reward you ; he only 
can ; all we have to give, is our corn and grateful 
thanks." " I want no corn at present, my good neigh • 
bors," said he ; " my harvest has exceecled all my ex- 
pectations ; for the rest thank heaven : I have been 
but an humble instrument." 

10. They urged him in vain. " No," said he, " I shall 
not accept your corn. If you have superfluities, 142 share 
them among your poor neighbors, who, being unable to 
sow their fields last autumn, are still in want : let us 
assist them, my dear friends ; the Almighty will bless 
us for it." " Yes," replied the grateful peasants, " our 
poor neighbors shall have this corn. They shall know 
that it is to you that they owe this timely succor, and 
join to teach their children the debt of gratitude due 
to your benevolent heart." Silin raised his tearful eyes 
to heaven. An ángel might have envied him his 
feelings. Karamsix. 

142 Véanse las excepciones 5 a y " Preceptor," sobre la formación 
6 a de la regla 30, página 21, del del plural de los sustantivos. 



(;0 LEOTUBAS ENGLESAB. 

XXI. 

A Sllli' EN a Stoem. 

1. Did you ever go far out upon the great ocean? 
How beautiful it is to be out at sea, when the sea La 
sniooth and stilll 

2. Let a storm approach, and the scene is changed. 
The heavy, black clouds appear in the dístance, and 
throw a deep, death-like shadeover the worid of waters. 

3. The captain and sailors soon see in thé clouds the 
signs of ovil. All hands are then set to work to fcake 

in sail. . . 

4. Thehoarse notes of the captain, speaking througü 
his trumpet, are echoed from lip to lip among the rig- 
ging. Happy will it be if all is made snug before the 
galo strikes the vessel. 

^ 5. At last, the galo comes like a vast moving moun- 
tain of air. It strikes the ship. The vessel heaves and 
groans under the dreadfuí weight, and struggles to 
escape through the foaming waters. 

6 II' she"' is far out at sea, sito will be likely to rulo 
out'the storm in safety. But if the wind is driving her 
upon thé shore, the poor sailors will hardly escape 
being dashed upon tlio rocks and drowned. 

7. Once there was a ship in a storm. Some of her 
masts were already broken, and her safls lost. Whüe 



"■' Véase la regla 89, pagina 21 pronombre she se refiere aquí al 
del " Preceptor," sobre el género sustantivo éhip, buque, 
de algunos nombres ingleses, l-l 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 61 

tbe wind was ragíng and the billows dashecl against 
her, the cry was heard, " A man has fallen overboard !" 

8. Quickly was the boat lowered, and she was soon 

bomiding on her way over the mountain waves. 
At one moment, the boat seemed lifted to the sidos ; 

and the next, it sank down, and appeared to be lost 
beneath the waves. 

9. At length, the man was found. lie was well-nigh 

drowned ; but he was taken on.board, and now they 
made for the ship. But the ship rolled so dreadfully, 
that it seemed certain death to go near her. And now, 
what should they do ? 

10. The captain told one oí the men to go aloft and 
throw down a rope. This was made fast to the boat, 
and when the sea was calm a little, it was hoisted ap, 
and all fell down into the ship with a dreadful crash. 
It was a desperate way of getting on board ; bnt for- 
tunately no lives were lost. 

11. Take it all in all, 144 a sailor's life is a very hard 
one. Our young friends owe a debt of gratitude to 
those whose homo is upon the gi^eat waters, and w 7 ho 
bring them the luxuries of other countrios. 

12. Good men have built many chapéis for seamen 
on shore. A great deal has been done for them, that 
their stay on shore may be pleasant, and that they may 
learn what is useful to them. 



144 Literalmente, tómenlo todo 6 lomándolo todo en eonsidera- 
en todo ; esto os : por lo regular, cion. 



62 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

XXII. 

The Just Judge. 

1. A gentleman wlio possessed an estáte worth about 
five liundred 145 a year, in the eastern part of England, 
had two sons. The eldest being of a rambling dispo- 
sition, went abroad. After several years, his fatlier 
died ; when the younger son, destroying his will, seized 
upon the estáte. He gave out 146 tliat his eider brother 
was dead, and bribed false witnesses to attest the truth 
of it. 

2. In the course of time, the eider brother returned ; 
but carne lióme in destitute circumstances. His younger 
brother repulsed him with scorn, and told him that he 
was an impostor and a cheat. He asserted that his 
real brother was dead long ago ; and he could bring 
witnesses to prove it. The poor fellow, having neither 
money ñor fríen ds, was in a sad situation. He went 
round the parish making complaints, and at last to a 
lawyer, who, when he liad heard the poor man's story, 
replied, " You have nothing to give me. If I undertake 
your cause and lose it, it will bring me hito disgrace, as 
all the wealth and evidence are on your brother's side. 

3. " However, I will undertake it on this condition ; 
you shall enter into an obligation to pay me one thou- 
sand guineas, if I gain the estáte for you. If I lose it, 
I know the consequences ; and I venture with my eyea 

145 Sobrentiéndese aquí la pala- 110 To give out¡ dar voz. Tiene 
bra pounds, libras (esterlinas). también otro sentido, que es el de 

no poder mas. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 63 

open." Accordingly, he entered an action against the 
younger brother, which was to be tried at the next gen- 
eral assizes at Chelinsford, in Essex. 

4. The lawyer, having engaged in the cause of the 
young man, and being stimulated by the prospect of a 
thousand guineas, set his wits to work to contrive the 
best method to gain his end. At last, he hit upon this 
happy thought, that he would consult the first judge 
of his age, Lord Chief- Justice Hale. Accordingly, he 
hastened up to London, and laid open the cause, and 
all its circurnstances. The Judge, who was a great 
lover cf justice, heard the case attentively, and prom- 
ised liini all the assistance in his power. 

5. The lawyer having taken leave, the Judge con- 
trived matters so as to finish all his business at the 
King's Bench, 147 before the assizes began at Chelms- 
ford. "When withín a short distan ce of the place, he 
dismissed his man and horses, and sought a single 
house. He found one occupied by a miller. After 
some conversation, and making himself quite agreeable, 
he proposed to the miller to change clothes with him. 
As the Judge liad a very good suit on, the man had no 
reason to object. 

6. Accordingly, the Judge shifted from top to toe, 148 
and put on a complete suit of the miller's best. Armed 
with a miller's hat, and shoes, and stick, he walked to 
Chelmsford, and procured good lodgings, suitable for 
the assizes, that should come on next day. When the 
triáis carne on, he walked like an ignorant country fel- 



147 Supremo tribunal (de Lón- tualmente ocupa el trono de In- 

dres). Llámase ahora Queen's glaterra. 
Bench, en atención á que no es 148 De pies á cabeza, 
un rey sino una reina la que ac- 



64 LECTÜBAS INGLESAS. 

low, backward and forward along the county hall. He 
observed narro wly what passed around him ; and when 
the court began to fill, lio found out the poor fellow who 
was the plaintiff. 

7. As soon as he carne into the hall, the miller drew 
up to him. " Honest friend," said he, " how is your 
cause like 149 to go to-day ?" " Why, my cause is in a 
very precaríous situation, and, if I lose it, I am ruined 
for life." " Well, honest friend;" replied the miller, 
" will yon take my advice ? I will let you into a secret, 
which perhaps you do not know ; every Englishman 
has the right and privilege to except 150 against any one 
juryman out of the whole twelve ; now do you insist 
upon your privilege, without giving a reason why, and, 
if possible, get me chosen in his room, and I will do 
you all the service in my power." 

8. Accordingly, when the clerk had called over the 
ñames of the jurymen, the plaintiff excepted to one of 
them. The judge on the bench was highiy offendcd 
with this liberty. " What do you mean," said he, " by 
excepting against that gentleman ?" " I mean, my lord, 
to assert my privilege as an Englishman, without giv- 
ing a reason why." 

9. The judge, who had been highiy bribed, in ordor 
to conceal it by a show of candor, and having a confi- 
dence in the superiority of his party, said, " Wcll, sir, 
as you claim your privilege in one instance, I will grant 
it. " Whom would you wish to have in the room of that 
man excepted?" After a short time, taken in consid- 
eration, " My lord," 161 says he, "I wish to have an 

» 9 Por likely, probablemente. lil My lor^ literalmente, mi 

lf ' ü Recusar á cualquiera de los Befior, tratamiento que en Loa 

doce jurados. tribunales se les da a los jueces. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS 65 

honest man chosen in ;" and looking round the courf — 
" my lord, there is that miller in the court ; we will 
have him, if you please." Accordingly, tlie miller was 
ciiosen in. 

10. As soon as the clerk of the court had given them 
all their oaths, a little dexterous fellow carne into the 
apartnient, and slipped ten golden guineas into the 
hands of eleven jurymen, and gave the miller but five. 
He observed that they were all bribed as well as him- 
self, and said to his next neighbor, in a soft whisper, 
" How mueh have you got ?" " Ten pieces," said he. 
But he concealed what he had got himself. The cause 
was opened by the plaintirf's counsel ; and all the 
scraps of evidence they could pick up, were adduced in 
his favor. 

11. The younger brother was provided with a great 
number of witnesses and pleaders, all plentifully bribed, 
as well as the judge. The witnesses deposed, that they 
were in the self-same country when the brother died, 
and saw him buried. The counsellors pleaded upon 
this accumulated evidence ; and everything went with a 
full tide in favor of the younger brother. The judge 
summed up the evidence with great gravity and delib- 
eration ; " and now, gentlemen of the jury," said he, 
" lay your heads together, and bring in your verdict as 
you shall deem most just." 

12. They waited but for a few minutes, before they 
determined in favor of the younger brother. The judge 
said, " Gentlemen, are you agreed ? and who shall 

'speak for you ?" " We are all agreed, my lord," replied 
one, Éí and our foreman shall speak for us." " Hold, 
my lord," replied the miller ; " we are not all agreed." 
"Wh'y?" said the judge, in a very surly manner, 



CG LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

" wbat's tlie matter with you ? What reasons have you 
for disagreeing ?" 

13. " I bave several reasons, my lord," replied the 
miller : " tlie first is, they liave given to all these gen- 
tlemen of the jury, ten broad pieces of gold, and to me 
but five ; which, you know, is not fair. Besides, I have 
many objections to make to the false reasonings of the 
pleaders, and the contradictory evidence óí the wit- 
nesses." Upou this, the miller began a discourse, 
which discovered such a vast penetration of judgment, 
such extensive knowledge of law, and was expressed 
with such manly and energetic eloquence, that it aston- 
ished the judge and the whole court. 

14. As he was going on with his powerful demon- 
strations, the judge, in great surprise, stopped him. 
"Where did you come from, and who are you?" "I 
carne from Westminster Hall," replied the miller ; " my 
ñame is Matthew Hale ; I am Lord Chief-Justice of 
the King's Bench. I have observed the iniquity of 
your proceeclings this day ; therefore, come down from 
a seat which you are nowise worthy to hold. You are 
one of the corrupt parties in this iniquitous business. 
I wül come up this moment and try the cause all ovor 
again." 

15. Accordingly, Sir Matthew went up, with his 
müler's dress and hat on, began the trial from its very 
commencement, and searched every circumstance of 
truth and falsehood. He evinced the eider brother's 
title to the estáte, from the contradictory evidence of 
the witnesses, and the false reasoning of the pleaders ; 
unravelled 163 all the sophistry to the very bottom, and 

]1 - Los partidáiios de Webster, escriben, á imitación de aquel, 
célebre lexicógrafo Americano, con una sola l los imperfectos y 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 67 

gainecl a complete victory in favor of truth and jus- 

tice. AnOXYMOUS. 



XXIII. 

The Maniac. 

1. A gentleman who had travelled in Europe, relates 
that lie one day visited the hospital of Berlín, wliere 
lie saw a man whose exterior was very striking. His 
figure, tall and coniruanding, was bending with age, 
but more with sorrow ; the few scattered hairs which 
remained on his temples were white almost as the 
driven snow, and the deepest melancholy was depicted 
in his countenance. 

2. On inquiring who he was, and what brought him 
there, he started, as if from sleep, 153 and after looking 
around him, began with slow and measured steps to 
stride the hall, repeating in a low but audible voice, 
" Once one is two ; once one is two." 154 

3. Now and then he would stop and remain with his 
arras folded on his breast, as if in contemplation, for 
some minutes ; then again resuming his walk, he con- 
tinued to repeat, í£ Once one is two ; once one is two." 

participios pasados ele los yerbos 154 En inglés, lo mismo que en 

regulares cuyo infinitivo remata en español, multiplicando se dice: 

dicha consonante. Mas los me- twice one are two, dos veces uno 

jores escritores, tanto Americanos son dos; ten times three (ó á veces 

como ingleses duplican la ?, y noso- ten threes) are ihirty, diez veces 

tros hemos creído deber seguir en tres son treinta; ó bien four by 

esta obra tan respetable ejemplo, eleven son forty-four, cuatro por 

153 Como si despertase del once son cuarenta y cuatro, 
sueño. 



68 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

His story, as our traveller understood it, was as fol- 

lows. 

4. Conrad Lange, collector of the revenues of tlie 
city of Berlín, liad long been known as a man whoni 
nothing could divert from the paths of honesty. Scru- 
pulously exact in all his dealings, and assiduous in the 
discharge of all his duties, he had acquired the good- 
will and esteem of all who knew him, and the conñ- 
dence of the minister of finance, whose duty it is to 
inspect the accounts of all officers connected with the 
reverme. 

5. On casting up his accounts at the cióse of a par- 
ticular year, he found a déficit of ten thousand ducats. 
Alarmed at this discovery, he went to the minister, pre- 
sented his accounts, and informed him that he did not 
know how it had arisen, and that he had been robbed 
by some person bent on his ruin. 

6. The minister received his accounts, but thinking 
it a duty to secure a person who might probably be a 
defaulter, he caused him to be arrested, and put his 
accounts into the hands of one of his secretarles, for 
inspection, who returned them the day after, with the 
information that the deficiency aróse from a miscalcu- 
lation ; that in multiplying, Mr. Lange had said, once 
one is two, instead of, once one is one. 

7. The poor man was immediately released from 
confinement, his accounts returned, and the mistake 
pointed out. During his imprisonment, which lasted 
two days, he had neither eaten, drank, ñor taken any 
repose ; and when he appeared, his countenance was as 
palé as death. On receiving his accounts, he was a 
long time silent ; then suddenly awaking as if from a 
trance, he repeáted, " Once one is two." 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 69 

8. He appeared to be entirely insensible of hls sihia- 
tion ; would neither eat ñor drink, unless solicited ; and 
took notice of nothíng tkat passed aronnd kini. While 
repeating kis accustoined phrase, if any one corrected 
kim bj saying, " Once one is one" kis attention was 
arrested for a monient, and ke said, " Ak, right, once 
one is one ;" and tken resuming kis walk, ke continued 
to repeat, " Once one is two." He died skortly after 
tke traveller left Berlin. 

9. Tkis affecting story, wketker true or nntrue, ob- 
viously abouhds witk lessons of instruction. Alas ! 
kow easily is tke kurnan mind thrown off its balance ; 
especially wken it is stayed on tkis world only — and lias 
no experimental knowledge of tke meaning of tke in- 
junction of Scripture, to cast all our cares upon Hira 
■wko caretk for us, and who kearetk 150 even tke young 
rayens Avilen tkey cry ! Axoxymous. 



XXIV. 

Teue and False Philosophy. 

Mr. Fantom. 1 ™ I despise a narrow field. O for tke 

reign of universal benevolence ! I want to make all 
niankind good and kappy. 

Mr. Goodman. 1 ' 01 Dear me ! Sure, tkat must be a 
wkolesale sort of a job : kad yon not better try your 
kand at a town or nemkborliood first ? 



155 Forma bíblica, rjor cares, 156 Señor Fantasma. 
Jiears. ' 257 Señor Buen hombre, 



70 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

Mr. F. Sir, I have a plan in my head for relieving 
tlie miseries of the whole world. Everything is bad as 
it íiow stands. I would alter all the laws, and put an 
end to all the wars in the world. I would put an end 
to all punisliments ; I would not leave a single prisoner 
011 the face of the globe. This is what I cali doing 
things 011 a grand scale. 

Mr. G. A scale with a vengeance ! 158 As to re- 
leasing the prisoners, however, I do not much like that, 
as it would be liberating a few rogues at the expense 
of all honest raen ; but as to the rest of your plan, if all 
countries would be 159 so good as to turn Christians, it 
might be helped on a good deal. There would be still 
raisery enough left incleed ; because God intended this 
world should be earth, and not heaven. But, sir, 
ainong all your changes, you must destroy human cor- 
ruption, before you can make the world quite as perfect 
as you preterid. 

Mr. F. Your project would rivet the chains which 
mine is designed to break. 

Mr. m G. Sir, I have no projects. Projects are, in 
general, the oflspring of restlessness, vanity, and idle- 
ness. I am too busy for projects, too contented for 
theories, and, I hope, have too much honesty and 
humility for a philosopher. The utmost extent of my 
ambition at present is, to redress the wrongs of a poor 
apprentice, who has been cruelly used by Iris master : 
indeed, I have another little scheme, which is to prose- 
cute a fellow, who has suffered a poor wretch in the 



l6a Literalmente, una escala con 16B Quisiesen ser bastante buc- 
un:i venganza; quiere decir: en nos para volverse cristianos, 
una escala muy grande. E¿ lo- 
cución familiar. 



LECTUBAS INGLESAS. 71 

poorliouse, of wliicli he liad the care, to perisli through 
neglect, ancl 3 t ou must assist me. 

Mr. F. Let the town do that. Tou must not apply 
to me for the redress of such petty grievances. I own 
that the wrongs of the Poles and South Americans so 
fill my mind, as to leave me no time to attend to the 
petty sorrows of poorhouses and apprentices. It is 
provinces, empires, continents, that the benevolence of 
the philosopher embraces ; every one can do a little 
paltry good to his next neighbor. 

Mr. G. Every one can, but I no not see that every 
one ches. If they would, indeed, your business Vould 
be ready done to your hands, and your grand ocean of 
benevolence would be filled with the drops which 
prívate charity would throw into it. I am glad, how- 
ever, you are such a friend to the prisoners, because I 
am just dow getting a little subscription, to set free 
your poor oíd friend, Tora Saunders, a very honest 
brother mechanic, who first got into debt, and then 
into jail, through no fault of his own, but merely 
through the pressure of the times. A number of us 
have given a trifle every week towárd maintaining his 
young family since he has been in prison ; but v^e think 
we shall do much more service to Saunders, and, in- 
deed, in the end, lighten our own expense, by paying 
down, at once, a little sum, to reléase him, and put him 
in the way of maintaining his family again. "We have 
made up all the money except five dollars. I am a]- 
ready promised four, and you have nothing to do but 
give me the fifth. And so, for a single d ollar, without 
any of the trouble we have liad in arranging the mat- 
ter, you will, at once, have the pleasure of helping to 
save a worthy family from starving, of redeeming an 



72 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

oíd friend from jail, and of putting a little of your 
boasted benevolence into action. Realize, Mr. Fan- 
tom ! there is nothing like realizing. 

. Mr. F. Wliy, bark, Mr. Goodman, do not tbink I 
valué a dollar : no, sir, I despise money ; it is trasli, it 
is dirt, and beneatli tbe regard of a wise man. It is 
one of tbe unfeeling inventions of artificial society. 
Sir, I could talk to yon lialf a day on tbe abuse of 
riclies, and my own contempt of money. 

Mr. G. O, pray, 160 do not give yourself tbat trouble. 
It will be a mucb easier waj^ of proving your sincerity, 
just to put your bancl in your pocket, and give me a 
dollar without saying a word about it : and then to you, 
wlio valué time so mucb, and money so little, it will cut 
tbe matter short. But come, now (for I see you will 
give notbing), I sbould be migbty glad to know wbat is 
tbe sort of good you do yourselves, since you always 
object to wbat is done by otbers. 

Mr. F. Sir, tbe object of a trae pbilosopber is, to 
diffuse light and knowledge. I wisb to see tbe wdiole 
world enligbtened. 

Mr. G. Well, Mr. Fantom, you are a w r onderful man, 
to keep up sucb a stock of benevolence, at so small an 
expense ; to love mankind so clearly, and yet avoid all 
opportunities of doing tliein good ; to bave sucb a 
noble zeal for tbe millions, and to feel so little compas- 
sion for tbe units ; to long to free empires and en- 
ligbten kingdoms, and denj- instruction to j T our own 
village, and comfort to your own family. Surely, none 
but a pbilosopber could indulge so mucb pbilanthropy 
and so mucb frugality at tbe same time. But come, 

2C0 Se lo rue<ío á V. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 73 

do assist me in a partition I am making in our poor- 
house, between tlie oíd, wliom I want to have better 
fed, and the young, whom I want to have more worked. 

Mr. F. Sir, my mind is so engrossed with the parti- 
tion of Poland, that I cannot bring it down to an object 
of such insignificance. I despise the man whose be- 
nevolence is swallowed up in the narrow concerns of 
his own family, or village, or country. 

Mr. G. Well, now I have a notion, that it is as well 
to do one's own duty, as the duty of another man ; and 
that to do good at home, is as well as to do good 
abroad. For my part, I had as lief 161 help Tom Saun- 
ders to freedom, as a Pole or a South American, though 
I should be very glad to help them too. But one must 
begin to love somewhere, and to do good somewhere ; 
and I think it is as natural to love one's own family, 
and to do good in one's own neighborhood, as to any- 
body else. And if every man in every family, village, 
and county did the same, why then all the schemes 
would meet, and the end of one village or town where 
I was doing good, would be the beginning of another 
village where somebody else was doing good ; so my 
schemes would jut into my neighbor's ; his projects 
would unifce with those of some other local reformer ; 
and all would fit with a sort of dovetail exactness. 

Mr. F. Sir, a man of large views will be on the 
watch for great occasions to prove his benevolence. 

Mr. G. Yes, sir ; but if they are so distant that he 
cannot reach them, or so vast that he cannot grasp 
them, he may let a thousand little, snug, kind, good 



161 I had as Uef y tanto me gusta. Simónimos: I had as soon ; 1 
would as soon. 



74: LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

actions slip through his fingers in tlie meanwhile : and 
bo, between the great things that he cannot do, and the 
little ones 162 that he will not do, life passes, and nothing 
will be done. 

Ajíonymous. 



XXV. 

Control your Temper. 

1. No one has a temper naturally so good, that it 
does not need attention and cultivation ; and no one 
has a temper so bad, but that, by proper culture, it may 
become pleasant. One of the best-disciplined tempers 
ever seen, was that of a gentleman who was, naturally, 
quick, irritable, rash, and violent ; but, by having the 
care of the sick, and especially of deranged people, he 
so completely mastered himself, that he was never 
known to be thrown off his guard. 

2. The difference in the happiness which is received 
or bestowed by the man who governs his temper, and 
that by the man who does not, is immense. There is 
no misery so constant, so distressing, and so intolerable 
to others, as that of having a disposition which is your 
master, and which is continually fretting itself. There 
are corners enough, at every turn in life, against which 
we may run, and at which we may break out in impa- 
tience, if we choose. 

3. Look at Roger Sherman, who rose> from a hmnble 
occupation, to a seat in the first Congress of the United 

"■ Véase la regla 58, pág. 27, del " P^ecept0^. ,, 



LECTUBAS INGLESAS. 75 

States, and whose judgment was received with great 
deference by that body of distinguished raen. He 
made himself master of his temper, and cultivated it 
as a great business in life. There are one or two in- 
stances which show this part of his character in a light 
that is beautiful. 

4. One day, after having received his highest honors, 
he was sitting and reading in his paiior. A roguish 
student, in a room cióse by, held a looking-glass in such 
a position, as to pour the reflected rays of the sun di- 
rectly in Mr. Sherman's face. He moved his chair, 
and the thing was repeated. A third time the chair 
was moved, but the looking-glass still reflected the sun 
in his eyes. He laid aside his book, went to the win- 
dow, and many witnesses of the impudence expected 
to hear the ungentlemanly student severely repri- 
manded. He raised the window gently, and then — 
shut the window-blind ! l63 

5. I cannot forbear adducing another instance of the 
power he had acquired over himself. He was naturally 
possessed of strong passions ; but over these he at 
length obtained an extraordinary control. He became 
habitually calm, sédate, and self-possessed. Mr. Sher- 
man was one of those men who are not ashamed to 
maintain the forms of religión in their families. One 
morning he called them all together, as usual, to lead 
theni in prayer to God ; the " oíd family Bible" was 
brought out, and laid on the table. 

6. Mr. Sherman took his seat, and placed beside him 
one of his children, a child of his oíd age ; the rest of 



163 Window-Uind^ ó sencillamente- bUnd, persiana. Usase commu- 
nente en plural. 



76 LECTUEAS INGLESAS. 

the family were seated around the room ; several of 
these were now grown up. Besides these, some of the 
tutors of tlie college were boarders in the family, and 
were present at the time alluded to. His aged and 
superannnated mother occupied a córner of the room, 
opposite the place where the distinguished judge sat. 

7. At length be opened the Bible and began to read. 
The child who was seated beside him made some little 
disturbance, upon which Mr. Sherman paused, and told 
it 164 to be still. Again he proceeded ; but again he 
paused, to reprimand the little offender, whose playful 
disposition would scarcely permit it to be still. At 
this time, he gently tapped its ear. The blow, if blow 
it might be called, caught the attention of his aged 
mother, who now, with some effort, rose from the seat 
and tottered across the room. At length she reached 
the chair of Mr. Sherman, and, in a moment, most un- 
expectedly to him, she gave him a blow on the ear with 
all the forcé she could summon. " There," said she, 
" you strike your child, and I will strike mine." 

8. For a moment, the blood was seen mounting to 
the face of Mr. Sherman ; but it was only for a moment, 
when all was 165 calm and mild as usual. He paused ; 
he raised his spectacles ; he cast his eye upon his 
mother ; again it fell upon the book from which he had 
been reading. Not a word escaped him ; but again he 
calmly pursued the service, and soon after sought, in 
prayer, an ability to set an example before his house- 
hold, which should be worthy of their iinitation. Such 



1(54 En inglés, al hablar de un . 165 When all iras calm : when 

niño, suele usarse el pronombre it por tlien, y ira* por became, imper- 

(neutro), á menos que se desee lecto del verbo irregular to baxwu\ 

marcar el sexo del niño. ponerse. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 77 

a victory was'worth more than the proudest one ever 
achieved on the field of battle. Todd. 



XXVI. 

The Whale-ship. 



1. They who go down to the sea in ships pursue a 
perilous vocation, and well deserve the prayers which 
are offered 166 for theni in the churches. It is a hard 
life, full of danger and of strange attraction. The 
seaman rarely abandons the glorious sea. It requires, 
however, a pretty firm spirit, both to brave the ordi- 
nary dangers of the deep, and to carry on war with its 
mightiest tenants. And yet it is a service readily en- 
tered upon, and zealously followed, though indisputably 
the most laborious and most terrific of all human pur- 
suits. Well might Burke speak glowingly of that 
hardy spirit of adventure, which had pursued this 
gigantic game from the constellations of the north to 
the frozen serpent of the south. 

12. The most common accident to which whalemen 
are exposed, is that of being " stove," 167 as they express 
it, by the huge animal, before they can back out from 
their dangerous proximity. A slight tap of his tail is 
quite sufficient to shiver a common whale-boat to atoms. 
If this danger be escaped, the whale, with the harpoon 
in his hide, sinks beneath the sounding of the deep-sea 

lee p oc \ r i a decirse offered up } que 167 Participio é imperfecto ir- 
es la locución mas usada. regular del verbo to stave. 



78 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

lead. Not long will he stay at tlie bottom. He rises 
for air, and this is a signal for the renewal of the bat- 
tle. The boat is drawn up, and the lance is buried in 
his giant body. Not safe is the game till it is fairly 
bagged. Often, in the moinent of victory, the van- 
quished leviathan settles quietly down in the deep sea ; 
and no tackle can draw him up. The curses of the ex- 
hausted seamen are " not loud, but deep." 

3. On the twenty-eighth of May, 1817, the " Boyal 
Bounty," an English ship, fell in with 168 a great number 
of whales. There was neither ice ñor land in sight. 
The boats were rnanned and sent in pursuit. After a 
chase of five hours, a harpooner, who had rowed out of 
sight of the ship, struck one of the whales. This was 
about four o'clock in the morning. The captain di- 
rected the course of.the ship to the place where he had 
last seen the boats, and, at about eight o'clock, got 
sight of the boat, which displayed the signal for being 
fast. Soon after, another boat approached the first, 
and struck a second harpoon. 

4. By mid-day, two more harpoons were struck ; but 
such was the astonishing vigor of the whale, that, 
although it constantly dragged through the water from 
four to six boats, together with sixteen hundred 
fathoms of line, it pursued its flight nearly as fast as 
a boat could row. Whenever a boat passed beyond 
its ta.il, it would dive. All endeavors to lance it were 
therefore in vain. The crews of the loóse boats then 
moored themselves to the fast boats. At eight o'clock 
in the evening, a line was taken to the ship, with a view 
of retarding its flight, and topsails were lowered ; but 

108 Tofall in wiih } topar. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 79 

tlie harpoon " drew." In three hours anotlier line was 
taken on boarcl, whicli immecliately snapped. 

5. At four in the afíernoon of the next day, thirty-six 
hours after the wh&le was struck, two of the fast lines 
were taken on boarcl the ship. The wind blowing a 
moderately brisk breeze, the top-gallant sails were 
taken in, the conrees hauled up, and the topsails clewed 
down ; and in this situation she was towed directly to 
windward during an hour and a half, with the velocity 
of from one and a half to two knots. And then, though 
the whale must haré been greatly exhausted, it beat 
the water with its fins and tail so treniendously, that 
the sea around was in a continual foara ; and the most 
hardy searoen scarcely dared to approach it. At 
length, at about eight o'clock, after forty hours of in- 
cessant exertion, this formidable and astonishingly 
vigorous animal was killed. 

6. But the most strange and dreadful calamity that 
ever befell the wanderers of the sea, in any age, was 
that which happened in 1820 to the ship Essex, of Nan- 
tucket. Sonie of those who survived the terrible catas- 
trophe are yet alive, and bear their united testimony to 
the truth of the statements which one of them has pub- 
lished. It is a story which no man, for any conceivable 
purpose, wonld be likely to invent. The captain of the 
Essex is yet living apon his native island ; and it is a 
fact pregnant with meaning, that, so vivid, to this day, 
is his recollection of the horrors which he witnessed, 
that he is never heard to mention the subject, and noth- 
ing can induce him to speak of it. He has abandoned 
the sea forever. The story bears the marks of trath 
upon it. It may be briefly told. 

7: The " Essex," a sound and substantial ship, sailed 



80 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

for tlie Pacific Ocean, on a whaling voyage, from Nan- 
tucket, on the 12th of August, 1820. On the 20th oí 
Noveniber, a shoal of whales was discovered. Three 
boats were manned and sent in pursuit. The mate's 
boat was struck by a whale, and he was obliged to re- 
turn to the ship to repair the damage. While thus 
engaged, a sperm whale, eighty-five feet long, broke 
water about twenty rods from the ship, on her weather 
bow. He was going at the rate of three knots an hour, 
and the ship at the same rate, when he struck the bows 
of the vessel just forward of the chains. 

8. The shock produced by the colusión of two such 
masses of matter in motion, may well be imagined. 
The ship shook like a leaf. The whale dived, passed 
under the vessel, grazed her keel, and appeared a ship's 
length distant, lashing the sea with his fins and tail, as 
if suffering the most horrible agony. He was evidently 
hurt by the colusión, and rendered frantic with rage. 
In a few minutes he seemed to recover himself, 169 and 
started, with great speed, directly across the bows of 
the vessel, to windward. Meantime the hands on board 
discovered the vessel to be gradually settling down by 
the bows ; and the pumps were to be rigged. While 
engaged in fixing the pumps, one of the men exclaimed, 
" My God ! here he comes upon us again I" 

9. The whale liad turned, at the distance of one hun- 
dred rods from the ship, and was making for her with 
double his former speed. His pathway was white with 
foam. He struck her bow, and the blow shook every 
timber in the ship. Her bows were stove in. The 

io« Yéase en la página 65 del sobre todo con mucha atención la 
"Preceptor," la conjugación de nota de dicha página, 
un verbo rellexivo inglés. Léase 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 81 

whale dived under the vessel and disappeared. The 
vessel immediately filled, and the crew took to the 
boat that had returned. All this was transacted in the 
space of a few minutes. The other boats rowed up, 
and when they carne together, when a sense of their 
loneliness and helplessness carne over them, no man 
had the power of utterance. They were in the midst 
of the "inimitable sea," far, far from land, in open 
whale-boats, relying only on God for succor, 170 in this 
hour of their utmost need. 

10. They gathered what they could from the wreck : 
the ship went down ; and, on the 22d of November, 
they put away for the coast of South America — distant 
two thousand miles ! How their hearts must have died 
within them, as they looked at the prospect before and 
around them ! After incredible hardships and suffer- 
ings, on the 20th of December, they reached a low 
island. It was a mere sandbank, almost barren, which 
supplied them with nothing but water. On this island, 
desoíate as it was, three of the men chose to remain, 
rather than to commit themselves again to the uncer- 
tain chances of the sea. 

11. On the 27th of December, the three boats, with 
the remainder of the men, started in company from the 
island, for Juan Fernandez, a distance of two thousand 
five hundred miles ! On the 12th of January, the boats 
parted company 171 in a gale. Then commenced a scene 
of suífering, which cannot be contemplated without 
horror. The men died, one after another, and the sur- 
vivors lived upon their flesh. In the captain's boat, 

170 Advertiremos de paso que das en or, suelen escribirse en 
esta palabra y las demás acaba- Inglaterra con our. 
171 Se separaron. 
4* 



82 LECTÜBAS INGLESAS. 

on tbo first of Fobruary, thrce only were liviiig ; tbey 
cast lots to see which of them sbould die. It íell upen 
the youngest, a nepliew of tbe oaptain. He seated 
bimself in tbe bow of tbe boat,witli calinness and forti- 
tude — was shot and eaten ! 

12. The mate's boat was taken up by tbe "Indian," 
of London, on the 19tb of February, ninety-three days 
from tbe time of tbe catastropbe, witb tbree living raen 
of tbat boat's crew. Tbe captain's boat was taken up 
on tbe 23d of February, by tbe " Dauphin," of Nan- 
tucket. Tbe otber boat was never heard from. Tbe 
tbree men who were left on tbe island were saved by a 
sbip which was sent for tbeir deliverance. No w T onder 
tbat tbe beart of tbat brave man recoils and sbudders, 
wben tbis terrific scene is torced upon bis recollection. 

Piíovidence Literary Journal. 



XXVII. 

NO EXCELLENCE WITHOUT LaBOB. 

1. Tbe education, moral and intellectual, 172 of every 
individual, must be, cbiefly, bis own work. Kely apon 
it, tbe ancients were rigbt ; botb in moráis and intel- 
lect, we give tbeir final sbape to our cbaracters, and 
thus become, empbatically, tbe arebiteets of our own 
fortune. How else could it bappen, tbat young men, 

lT * A pesar de la regla general fica, preséntanse casos en que os 
en ingles de colocar el adjetivo mas conveniente seguir la cons- 
delante del sustantivo á que cali- truccion española. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 83 

wjio have had preeisely the same opportunities, should 
be continually presenting us with such different resuits, 
and rushing to such opposite destinies ? 

2. Difference of talent will not solve it, because that 
difference is very often in favor of the disappointed 
candidate. You will see issuing from the walls of the 
same college, nay, sometimes from the bosom of the 
same family, two young men, of whom one will be ad- 
mitted to be a genius of high order, the other scarcely 
above the point of mecliocrity ; yet you will see the 
genius sinking and perishing in poverty, obscurity, and 
wretchedness ; while, on the other hand, you will ob- 
serve the mediocre plodding his slow but sure way up 
the hill of life, gaining steadfast footing at every step, 
and mounting, at length, to eminence and distinction, 
an ornament to his family, a blessing to his country. 

3. Xow, whose work is this ? Manifestly their own. 
They are the architects of their respective fortunes. 
The best seminary of learning that can open its por- 
táis to you, can do no more than to afford you the op- 
portunity of instruction ; but it must depend, at last, 
on yourselves, whether you will be instructed or not, or 
to what point you will push your instruction. 

á. And of this be assured, I speak from observation 
a certain truth : there is no excellence without great 
labor. It is the fiat of fate, from which no power of 
genius can absolve you. 

5. Genius, unexerted, is like the poor moth that flut- 
ters around a candle. till it scorches itself to death. 
If genius be desirable at all, it is only of that great 
and magnanimous kind, which, like the cóndor of South 
America, pitches from the summit of Chimborazo, 
above the clouds, and sustains itself, at pleasure, in 



84 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

that empyreal región, with an energy rather invigorated 
than weakened by the effort. 

6. It is this capacity for high and long-continued ex- 
ertion, this vigorous power of profound and searching 
investigation, this careering and wide-spreading com- 
prehension of mind, and theseg Ion reaches of thought, 
that 

" Pluck bright honor from the pale-faced moon, 
Or dive into the bottom of the deep, 
And drag up drowned honor by the locks ;" 

this is the prowess, and these the hardy achievements, 
which are to enrol your ñames among the great men of 
the earth. Wirt. 



XXVIII. 

On Elocution and Eeading. 

1. The business of training our youth in elocution 
must be commenced in childhood. The first school is 
the nursery. There, at least, may be formed a distinct 
articulation, which is the first requisite for good speak- 
ing. How rarely is it found in perfection aniong our 
orators ! Words, says one, referring to articulation, 
should " be delivered out from the lips, as beautiful 
coins, newly issued from the mint ; deeply and accu* 
rately impressed, perfectly finished ; neatly struck by 
the proper organs, distinct, in due succession, and of 
due weight." How rarely do we hear a speaker, wliose 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 85 

tongue, teeth, and lips do their office so perfectly as, 
in any wise, to answer to this beautiful description ! 
And the common faults in articulation, it should be re- 
membered, take their rise from the very nursery. But 
let us referto other particulars. 

2. Grace in eloquence — in the pulpit, at the bar — 
cannot be separated from grace in the ordinary man- 
ners, in prívate life, in the social circle, in the family. 
It cannot well be superinduced upon all the other ac- 
quisitions of youth, any more than that nameless, but 
invaluable quality, called good-breeding. Tou may, 
therefore, begin the work of forming the orator with 
your child ; not merely by teaching him to declairn, 
but, what is of more consequence, by observing and 
correcting his daily manners, motions, and attitudes. 

3. You can say, when he comes into your apartment, 
or presents you with something, a book or letter, in an 
awkward and blundering manner, "Return, and enter 
this room again," or, " Present me that book in a dif- 
ferent manner,' , or, "Put yourself into a different at- 
titude." You can explain to him the difference be- 
tween thrusting or pushing out his hand and arm, in 
straight lineé and at acute angles, and moving them in 
flowing, circular lines, and easy, graceful action. He 
will readily understand you. Nothing is more true 
than that " the motions of children are originally 
graceful ;" and it is by sufíering them to be peryerted 
that we lay the foundation for invincible awkwardness 
in later life. 

4. "We go, next, to the schools for children. It ought 
to be a leading object, in these schools, to teach the 
art of reading. It ought to occupy three-fold more 
time than it does. The teachers of these schools 



86 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

sliould labor to improve themselves. They sliould feel, 
that to them, for a lime, are committed tlie future ora- 
tors of the land. 

5. We would rather have a child, even of tlie other 
sex, return to us from scbool a first-rate reader, than a 
first-rate performer on the piano-forte. We sliould feel 
that we liad a far better pledge for the intelligence and 
talent of our child. The accomplishment, in its perfeo- 
tion, would give more pleasure. The voice of song is 
11 o t sweeter than the voice of eloquence ; and there 
may be eloquent readers, as well as eloquent speakers. 
We speak of perfection in this art ; and it is sonietliing, 
we must say in defence of our preference, which we 
have never yet seen. Let the same pains be devotod 
to reading, as are required to form an accomplished 
performer on an instrument ; let us have, as the an- 
cients liad, the formers of the voice, the music masters 
of the reading voice ; let us see years devoted to this 
accomplishment, and then we sliould be prepared to 
stand the comparison. 

0. It is, indeed, a most intellectual accomplishment. 
So is music, too, in its perfection. We do by no means 
undervalue this noble and most delightful art, to which 
Sócrates applied himself, even in his oíd age. But one 
recommendation of the art of reading is, that it re- 
quires a constant exercise of mind. It involves, in its 
perfection, the whole art of criticism on language. A 
man may possess a fine genius, without being a perfect 
reader ; but he cannot be a perfect reader without 
genius. Nortu American Rbvikw. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 87 

XXIX. 

Necessity of Edücation. 

1. We must edúcate ! We must edúcate ! or we must 
perish by our own prosperity. If we do not, short will 
be our race from the eradle to the grave. If, in our 
liaste to be rich and mighty, we outrun our literary 
and religious institutions, they will never overtake us ; 
or only come up after tbe battle of liberty is fougbt and 
lost, as spoils to grace tbe victory, and as resources of 
inexorable despotisin for tbe perpetuity of our bondage. 

2. But w r bat will become of tbe West, if ber pros- 
perity rushes up to such a majesty of power, wbile 
tbose great institutions linger wbicb are necessary to 
form the inind, and tbe conscience, and the heart of that 
vast world ? It must not be permitted. And yet what 
is done must be done quickly, for population will not 
wait, and commerce will not cast anchor, and manufac- 
tures will not shut off the steam ñor shut down the 
gate, and agriculture, pushed by millions of freemen 
on their fertile soil, will not withhold ber corrupting 
abundance. 

3. And let no man at the East 173 quiet himself, and 
dream of liberty, whatever may become of the West. 
Our alliance of blood, and political institutions, and 
common interests, is such, that we cannot stand aloof 
in the hour of her calamity, should it ever come. Her 

173 Lo mas corriente es in the distinción, el autor del presente 

East ; por otra parte, pnede ad- trozo es aquel cuyo estilo suele 

vertirse aquí, que entre todos los ser menos correcto, 
escritores americanos de alguna 



88 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

destiny is our destiny ; and the day that her gallant 
sliip goes down, our little boat sinks in the vortex ! 

4. Tlie great experirnent is now making, 174 whether 
the perpetuity of our republican institutions can be rec- 
onciled witli universal suffrage. Without the educa- 
tion of the head and heart of the nation, they cannot 
be ; and the question to be decided is, can the nation, 
or the vast balance-power of it, be so imbued with in- 
telligence and virtue as to bring out, in laws and their 
administration, a perpetual self-preserving energy ? 
We know that the work is a vast one, and of great dif- 
ficulty ; and yet we believe it can be done. 

5. I am aware that our ablest patriots are looking 
out on the deep, vexed with storms, with great fore- 
bodings and failings of heart, for fear of the things that 
are coming upon us ; and I perceive a spirit of impa- 
tience rising, and distrust in respect to the perpetuity 
of our republic ; and I am sure that these fears are 
well founded, and am glad that they exist. It is the 
star of hope in our dark horizon. Fear is what we 
need, as the ship needs wind on a rocking sea, after a 
storm, to prevent foundering. But when our fear and 
our efforts shall correspond with our danger, the danger 
is past. 

6. Por it is not the impossibility of self-preservation 
which threatens us ; ñor is it the unwillingness of the 
nation to pay the price of the preservation, as she has 



174 Muchos gramáticos pre- sotros diremos que una y otra 
tenden que esta forma es incor- construcción nos parecen vicio- 
recta, y que debe sustituírsele esta sas, y que es preferible evitar 
otra: is now beíng made, lite- semejantes escollos, empleando la 
raímente es: ahora siendo hecho, forma activa, como, por ejemplo: 
Dejando, sin embargo, á los eru- we are now making, ó bien: our 
ditos el resolver el problema, no- people are now making. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 89 

paid the price of the purcliase of our liberties. It is 
inattention and inconsideration, protracted till the 
crisis is past, and the things whieh belong to our peace 
are hid from onr eyes. And, blessed be God, the 
tokens of a national waking up, the harbinger of God's 
mercy, are multiplying upon us ! 

7. We did not, in the darkest hour, believe that God 
had brought our fathers to this goodly land to lay the 
foundation of religious liberty, and wrought such won- 
ders in their preservation, and raised their descend- 
ants to such heights of civil and religious liberty, only 
to reverse the analogy of his providence, and abandon 
his work. 

8. And though there now be elouds, and the sea be 
roaring, and men's hearts failing, we believe there is 
light behind the cloud, and that the imminence of our 
danger is intended, under the guidance of He aven, to 
cali forth and apply a holy, fraternal fellowship be- 
tween the East and the "West, whieh shall secure our 
preservation, and make the prosperity of our nation 
durable as time, and as abundant as the waves of the 
sea. 

9. I would add, as a motive to immediate action, 
that, if we do 175 fail in our great experimenfc of self- 
government, our destruction will be as signal as the 
birthright abandoned, the mercies abused, and the 
provocation offered to beneficent Heaven. The descent 
of desolation will correspond with 176 the past elevation. 



175 Do aquí cía mas energía á la decir llevar una corresponden - 

expresión, y la frase quiere de- cia, cartearse con (alguno) ; cor- 

cir : si en efecto no alcanzaremos respond to hubiera sido ]a locu- 

"buen éxito. cion correcta. 



176 



To' correspond with quiere 



90 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

10. No punisliments oí Heaven are so severe as those 
for mercies abused ; and no instrumentalitj employed 
in their infliction is so dreadful as the wrath of man. 
No spasms are like the spasnis of expiring liberty, and 
no wailing such as her convulsions extort. 

11. It took Rome three hundred years to die ; and 

our death, if \ve perish, will be as mucb more terrífic, 

as our intelligence and free institutions have given us 

more bone, sinew, and vitality. May God hide from 

me the day when the dying agonies of my country 

shall begin ! O, thou beloved land, bound together by 

the ties of brotherhood, and common interest, and 

perils ! live forever — one and undivided ! 

Beecher. 



XXX. 

The "Wife. 



1. I have often had occasion to rernark the fortitude 
with which women sustain the most overwhelming re- 
verses of fortune. Those disasters which break down 
the spirit of a man, and prostrate him in the dust, seem 
to cali forth all the energies of the softer sex, and give 
such intrepidity and elevation to their character, that, 
at times, it approaches to sublimitj'. 

2. Nothing can be more touching, than to behold a 
Boft and tender female, who had been all weakness and 
dependence, and alive to every trivial roughness, while 
treading the prosperóus paths of life, suddenly rising 
in mental forcé to be the comforter and supporter of 
Inr husbaiid under misfortune, and abiding, with un- 
shrinking firnmess, the most bitter blasts of adver.sity. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 91 

8. As the vine, which has long twined its graceful 
foliage about tlie oak, ancl been lifted by it into sun- 
shine, will, when tlie hardy plant is rifted by the thun- 
derbolt, cling around it with its caressing tendrils, and 
bind up its shattered boughs ; so it is beautifully or- 
dered by Providence, that woman, who is the mere de- 
pendent and ornament of man in his happier hours, 
should be his stay and solace when smitten with sud- 
den calamity, — winding herself into the rugged recesses 
of his nature, tenderly supporting the drooping head, 
and binding up the broken heart. 

4. I w^as once congratulating a friend, who had 
around him a blooming family, knit together in the 
strongest affection. "I can wish you no better lot," 
said he, with enthusiasm, " than to have a wife and 
children. If you are prosperous, there they are to 
share your prosperity ; if otherwise, there they are to 
comfort you." 

5. And, indeed, I have observed, that a married man, 
falling into misfortune, is more apt to retrieve his situa- 
tion in the world than a single one ; partly, because he 
is more stiinulated to exertion by the necessities of the 
helpless and beloved beings w r ho depend upon him for 
subsistence ; but chiefly, because his spirits are soothed 
and relieved by domestic endearments, and his self- 
respect kept alive by finding, that, though all abroad is 
darkness and humiliation, yet there is still a little world 
of love at honie, of which he is the monarch. "Whereas, 
a single man is apt to run to waste and self-neglect, to 
fancy himself lonely and abandoned, and his heart to 
fall to ruin, like some deserted mansión, for want of an 
inhabitant. Washington Irving. 



92 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

XXXI. 

CHARLES II. AND WILLIAM PENN. 

King Charles. Well, friend William ! I have sold 
you a noble province in North America ; but still, I 
suppose you have no thoughts of going thither yourself. 

Penn. Yes, I have, I assure thee, 177 friend Charles ; 
and I am just come to bid thee farewell. 

K. C. What ! venture yourself among the savages of 
North America ! Why, man, 178 what security have you 
that you will not be in their war-kettle in two hours 
after setting foot on their shores ? 

P. The best security in the world. 

K. C. I doubt that, friend William ; I have no idea 
of any security, against those cannibals, but in a regi- 
ment of good soldiers, with their muskets and bayonets. 
And mind, I tell you beforehand, that, with all my 
good-will for you and your family, to whom I am under 
obligations, I will not send a single soldier with you. 

P. I want none of thy soldiers, Charles : I depend 
on something better than thy soldiers. 

K. C. Ah ! what may that be ? 

P. Why, I depend upon themselves ; — on the working 
of their own hearts ; on their notions of justice ; on 
their moral sense. 

K. C. A fine thing, this same moral sense, no doubt; 

177 El tuteamiento apenas se Elemental Inglés; 1 Adverten- 

usa en inglés mas (pie en el len- cía Importante, pág. 81.) Sabido 

guage de la sagrada Escritura, en es (pie Penn pertenecía á aquella 

el estilo elevado, en poesía y entre secta. 
los Cuáqueros. ( u El Preceptor i78 Pero, hombre. 



LECTUEAS INGLESAS. 93 

but I fear you will not find much of it among the Indi- 
ans of North America. 

P. And why not ainong tliem as well as others ? 

K. C. Because if they had possessed any, they would 
not have treated my subjects so barbarously as they 
have done. 

P. That is no proof of the contrary, friend Charles. 
Thy subjects were the aggressors. When thy subjects 
first went to North America, they found these poor 
people the fondest and kindest creatures in the world. 
Every day they would watch for them to come ashore, 
and hasten 179 to meet them, and feast them on the best 
fish, and venison, and corn, which were all they had. 
In return for this hospitality of the savages, as we cali 
them, thy subjects, termed Christians, seized on their 
country and rich hunting-grounds for farms for them- 
selves. Now, is it to be wondered at, that these much- 
injured people should have been driven to desperation 
by such injustice ; and that, burning with revenge, they 
should have committed some excesses ? 

K. (7. Well, then, I hope you will not complain when 
they come to treat you in the same manner. 

P. I am not afraid of it. 

K. C. Ah ! how will you avoid it ? You mean to get 
their hunting-grounds too, I suppose ? 



179 Es muela la e de un gran minacion en, la t también suele 

número de palabras acabadas en no sonar. Ejemplos: gli$i.en, listen, 

en, tales como: haven, heaven, hasten, fasten, chasten, often, que 

seven % eleven, even, frozen, happen, se pronuncian : glis'n, lis'n, jes'n, 

etc., que se pronuncian respecti- fas'n, ches'n, of 'en. Pero en sud- 

vamente : jév'n, jev'n (la e muy den, hyphen, slaven, kitefren, es pre- 

breve), sev'n, elév'n, iv'n, fróVn, ciso pronunciar claramente la e; 

jap'n. En otra clase de palabras, s¿den, jáifen, sléven, kíclien. 
que tienen una t antes de la ter- 



91 LECTUI1AS INGLESAS. 

P. Yes, but not by driving tliese poor people away 
from tliem. 

K. C. No, indeed? How then will you get their 
lands ? 

P. I mean to buy tlieir lands of tliem. 

K. C. Buy their lands of them? Why, man, you 
have already bought them of me. 

P. Yes, I know I have, and at a dear rate, too ; but 
I did it only to get thy good-will, not that I thought 
thou hadst any right to their lands. 

K. 0. How, man? no right to their lands? 

P. No, friend Charles, no right, no right at all : what 
right hast thou to their lands ? 

K. C. Why, the right of discovery, to be sure ; the 
right which the pope and all Christian • kings have 
agreed to give one another. 

P. The right of discovery? A strange kind of right, 
indeed. Now suppose, friend Charles, that some canoe- 
load of these Indians, crossing the sea, and discovering 
this island of Great Britain, were to claim it as their 
own, and set it up for sale over thy head, what wouldst 
thou think of it ? 

K. C. Why — why — why — I must confess, I should 
think it a piece of great impudence in them. 

P. Well, then, how canst thou, a Christian, and a 
Christian prince too, do that which thou so utterty con- 
demnest 180 in these people, whoin thou callest savages? 
Yes, friend Charles ; and suppose, again, that these 
Indians, on thy refusal to give up thy island of Great 
Britain, were to make war on thee, and, having weapons 
more destructive than thine, were to destroy many of 



lbü La n es muda en todo el verbo to conde mu. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 95 

thy subjects, and drive the rest away, — wouldst Ilion 
not think it horribly cruel ? 

K. C. I must say, friend William, that I should ; how 
can I say otherwise ? 

P. "Well, then, how can I, who cali myself a Chris* 
tian, do what I should abhor even in the heathen? 
No. I will not do it. But I will buy the right of the 
proper owners, even of the Indians themselves. By 
doing this, I shall imítate God himself, in his justice 
and mercy, and thereby insure his blessing in my 
colony, if I should ever live to plant one in North 
America. Friend of Peace. 



XXXII 

HOKROES OF WAR. 



1. Though the whole race of man is doomed to dis- 
solution, and we are hastening to our long-home ; yet, 
at each successive moment, life and death seem to di- 
vide between them the dominión of mankind, and life 
to have the larger share. It is otherwise in war ; death 
reigns there without a rival, and without control. 

2. War is the work, the element, or rather the sport 
and triumph 181 of Death, who here glories not only in 
the extent of his conquests, but in the richness of his 
spoil. In the other methods of attack, in the other 
forms which death assumes, the feeble and the aged, 
who at best can live but a short time, are usually the 
victims ; here they are the vigorous and the sfcrong. 

i8i p roni £ n dése tráiemf. 



96 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

3. It is remarked by the most ancient of póets, that 
in peace children bury their parents ; in war, parents 
bury their children : ñor is the diíference small. Chil- 
dren lament their parents, sincerely indeed, but with 
that modérate and tranquil sorrow which it is natural 
for those to feel who are conscious of retaining many 
tender ties, many animating prospects. 

4. Parents mourn for their children with the bitter- 
ness of despair ; the aged parent, the widowed mother, 
loses, when she is deprived of her children, everything 
but the capacity of suffering ; her heart, withered and 
desoíate, admits no other obj.ect, cherishes no other 
hope. It is Kachel, weeping for her children and re- 
fusing to be comforted, because they are not. 182 

5. But, to confine our attention to the number of the 
slain would gíve us a veiy inadequate idea of the rav- 
ages of the sword. The lot of those who perish in- 
stantaneously may be considered, apart from religious 
prospects, as comparatively happy, since they are ex- 
empt from those lingering diseases and slow torments 
to which other s are so Hable, 

6. We cannot see an individual expire, though a 
stranger or an enemy, without being sensibly moved 
and prompted by compassion to lend him every as- 
sistance in our power. Every trace of resentment 
vanishes in a moment ; every other emotion gives way 
to pity and terror. 

7. In the last extremities, we remember nothing but 
the respect and tenderness due to our common nature. 
What a scene, then, must a field of battle present, 
where thousands are left without assistance, and with- 

18a Porque ya no son. Es locución bíblica. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 97 

out pity, with their wounds exposed to the piercing 
air, while the blood, freezing as it flows, binds them to 
the earth amid the trampling of horses, and the in- 
sults of an enraged foe ! 

8. If they are spared by the humanity of the enerny, 
and carried from the field, it is but a prolongation of 
torment. Conveyed in uneasy vehicles, often to a re- 
mote 183 distance, through roads almost impassable, they 
are lodged in ill-prepared receptacles for the wounded 
and sick, where the variety of distress baffles all the 
efforts of humanity and skill, and renders it impossible 
to give to each the attention he demands. 

9. Far from their native home, no tender assiduities 
of friendship, no well-known voice, no wife, or mother, 
or sister are near to soothe their sorrows, relieve their 
thirst, or elose their eyes in death ! Unhappy man ! 
and must you be 184 swept into the grave unnoticed, and 
no friendly tear be shed for your sufferings or mingled 
with your dust ? 

10. We must remember, however, that as a very small 
proportion of military life is spent in actual combat, so 
it is a very small part of its miseries which must be 
ascribed to this source. More are consumed by the 
rust of inactivity than by the edge of the sword ; con- 
fined to a scanty or unwholesome diet, exposed in 
sickly climates, harassed with tiresome marches and 
perpetual alarms, their life is a continual scene of 
hardships and dangers. They grow familiar with hun- 
ger, cold, and watchfulness. Crowded into hospitals 



183 Femóte es aquí impropio, á lugar, y nunca despacio. Great 
pues no puede aplicarse mas que ó long hubiera sido correcto. 



98 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

and prisons, contagión spreads among their ranks, till 
the ravages of disease exceed those of the enemy. 

11. We have hitherto only adverted to the sufferings 
of those who are engaged in the profession of arms, 
without taking into our account the situation of the 
countries which are the scenes of hostilities. How 
dreadful to hold everything at the rnercy of an enemy, 
and to receive life itself as a boon dependent on the 
sword ! 

12. How boundless the fears which such a situation 
must inspire, where the issues of life and death are de- 
termined by no known laws, principies, or customs, and 
no conjecture can be formed of our destiny, except so 
far as it is dimly deciphered in characters of blood, in 
the dictates of revenge, and the caprices of power ! 

13. Conceive but for a moment the consternation 
which the approach of an invading army would impress 
on the peaceful villages in our own neighborhood. 
When you have placed yourselves for an instant in that 
situation, you will learn to sympathize with those un- 
happy countries which have sustained the ravages of 
arms. But how is it possible to give j^ou an idea of 
those horrors ! 

14. Here, you behold rich harvests, the bountv of 
Heaven, and the reward of industry, consunied in a 
moment, or trampled under foot, while lamine and 
pestilence follow the steps of desolation. There, the 
cottages of peasants given up to the flames, mothers 
expiring through fear, not for themselves, but their in- 
fauts ; the inhabitants ílying with their helpless babee 
in all dire.tions, miserable fugitives on their nativo 
Boil! 

15. In another place, you witness opulent cities taken 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 99 

by storm ; the streets, where no sounds were heard but 
those of peaceful industry, filled on a suelden with 
slaughter and blood, resounding with the cries of the 
pursuing and the pursued ; the palaces of nobles de- 
niolished, the houses of the rich pillaged, and everyage, 
sex, and rank mingled in promiscuous massacre and 
ruin ! Robert Hall. 



XXXIII. 

Character of Napoleón Bonaparte. 

1. He is fallen ! 185 We may now pause before that 
splendid prodigy, which towered among us like some 
ancient ruin whose frown terrified the glance its mag- 
nificence attracted. Grand, gloomy, and peculiar, he 
sat upon the throne a sceptred hermit, wrapt 166 in the 
solitucle of his own oríginality. A roind bold, inde- 
pendent, and decisive ; a will despotic in its dictates ; 
an energy that distanced expedition, and a conscience 
pliable to every touch of interest, raarked the outline 
of this extraordinary character — the most extraordinary, 
perhaps, that, in the annals of this world, ever rose, or 
reigned, or fell. Flung into life in the miclst of a revo- 
lutioñ that quickened every energy of a people who 
acknowledge no superior, he commenced his course, a 
stranger by birth, and a scholar by charity. With no 
friend but his sword, and no fortune but his talents, he 

isa p r0 núnciese fólen. To -be I86 Imperfecto irregular del ver- 
f alien, expresa mejor el esta- bo to wrap, que se conjuga tañi- 
do que ,to have fallen. bien regularmente. 



100 LECTÜKAS INGLESAS. 

rushed in the list wliere rank, and wealth, and genius 
bad arrayed themselves, and competition fled froin liim 
as from tlie glance of destiny. 

2. He knew no motive but interest ; acknowledged 
no criterion but success; be worsbipped no God but 
ambition, and with an Eastern devotion he knelt at the 
shrine of his idolatry. Subsidiary to this, there was no 
creed that he did not profess, there was no opinión that 
he did not promúlgate ; in the hope of a dynasty, he 
upheld the crescent ; for the sake of a divorce, he 
bowed before the cross ; the orphan of St. Louis, he 
became the adopted child of the republic ; and with a 
parricidal ingratitude, on the ruins both of the throne 
and tribune, he reared the throne of his despotism. A 
professed Catholic, he imprisoned the pope ; a pre- 
tended patriot, he impoverished the country ; and, in 
the ñame of Brutus, he grasped without rernorse, and 
wore without shame, the diadem of the Cnesars ! 

3. Through this pantomime of policy, fortune played 
the clown to his caprices. At his touch crowns cruin- 
bled, beggars reigned, systems vanished, the wildest 
theories took the color of his whim, and all that was 
venerable, and all that w r as novel, changed places with 
the rapidity of a drama. Even apparent defeat assumed 
the appearance of victory ; his flight from Egypt con- 
firmed his destiny; ruin itself only elevated him to 
empire. But if his fortune was great, his genius was 
transcendent ; decisión flashed upon his councils ; and 
it was the same to decide and to perform. To in- 
ferior intellects his combinations appeared perfectly 
impossible, his plans perfectly impracticable; but, in 
his liands, simplicity marked ' their developmont, and 
success vindicated their adoption. His person partook 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 101 

of the cliaracter of Lis mind ; if the one never yielded 
in the cabinet, the other never bent in the field. Nature 
had no obstacle that he did not surmount ; space no 
opposition he did not spurn ; and whether amid Alpine 
rocks, Arabian sands, or Polar snows, he seemed proof 
against peril, and empowered with ubiquity. 

4. The whole continent trembled at beholding the 
audacity of his designs, and the miracle of their execu- 
tion. Skepticisin bowed to the prodigies of his per- 
formance ; romance assumed the air of history, ñor was 
there aught too incredible for belief, or too fanciful for 
expectation, when the woiid saw a subaltern of Corsica 
waving his imperial flag over her most ancient capitals. 
All the visions of antiquity became commonplaces in 
his contemplation : kings were his people ; nations were 
his outposts ; and he disposed of courts, and crowns, 
and camps, and churches, and cabinets, as if they were 
titular dignitaries of the chessboard. Amid all these 
changes he stood immutable as adamant. 

5. It mattered little whether in the field or in the 
drawing-room ; with the mob or the levee ; wearing the 
jacobin bonnet or the iron crown ; banishing a Bragan- 
za or espousing a Hapsburg ; dictating peace on a raft 
to the Czar of Russia, or contemplating defeat at the 
gallows of Leipsig; he was still the same military 
despot. 

6. In this wonderful combination, his affectations of 
literature must not be omitted. The 187 jailer of the 
press, he affected the patronage of letters ; the 187 pro- 
scriber of books, he encouraged philosophy ; the 187 per- 



187 Obsérvese el artículo definido, que en semejantes casos se 
calla en español. 



102 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

secutor oí authors, and tho 187 mürderer of printers, he 
yet pretended 188 to the protection of iearning; the 1H7 
assassiu of Palm, the ,M silencer of de Btael, and^ thet"* 
denouncer oí Kotzebue, lie was tlie friend of David, the 
benefactor of De Lille, and sent his academic prize to 
the philosopher of England. 

7. Such a mcdley of contradictions, and at the same 
time such an individual consistency, were never united 
in the saine character. A'* ü royalist ; a ,M república* 
and an 189 emperor ; a 180 Mohammedan ; a 189 Catholic and 
a 1M patrón of the synagogue; a 1HJ subaltern and a 189 
sovereign ; a 189 traitor and a 18 " tyrant ; a lbJ Christian and 
an lfeJ infidel; he was, through all his vicissitudes, the 
same stern, impatient, inflexible original; the same 
mysterious, incomprehensible self ; the man without a 
model, and without a shadow. Phillips. 



XXXIV. 

Captumng the Wild Horse. 

1. We left the buffalo camp about eight o'clock, and 
had a toilsome and harassing march of two hours, over 
ridges of bilis, eovered \vith 19ü a ragged forest of scrub 
oaks, and broken by deep guilles. 

2. About ten o'clock in the morning, we carne to 



,SK Téngase presente que to pre- culo indefinido do se expresa en 

tend no se traduce por pretender, español. 
sino por fingir. "■"' To cover exige La prepon 

,MU Nótese que cu estos el artí- cion with t y no of. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 103 

where this line of rugged hills swept down into a val- 
ley, through which flowed the north fork of Red River. 
A beautiful meadow, about half a mile wide, enamelled 191 
with yellow autumnal flowers, stretched for two or 
three miles along the foot of the hills, bordered on the 
opposite side by the river, whose banks were fringed 
with cotton-wood trees, the bright foliage of which re- 
freshed and delighted the eye, after being wearied by 
the contemplation of monotonous wastes of brown 
forest. 

3. The meadow was finely diversified by 192 groves 
and clumps of trees, so happily disposed, that they 
seemed as if set out by the hand of art. As we cast 
our eyes over this fresh and delightful valley, we be- 
held a troop of wild horses, quietly grazing on a green 
lawn, about a mile distant, to our right, while to our 
left, at nearly the same distance, were several buffaloes ; 
some feeding, others reposing, and ruminating among 
the high, rieh herbage, under the shade of a clump of 
cotton-wood trees. The whole had the appearance of 
a broad, beautiful tract of pasture-land, on the highly- 
ornamented estáte of some gentleman farmer, with his 
cattle grazing abóut the lawns and meadows. 

4. A council of war was now held, and it was deter- 
minecl to profit by the present favorable opportunity, 
and try our hand at the grand hunting manoeuvre, 
which is called " ringing the wild horse." This re- 
quires a large party of horsemen, well mounted. They 
extend themselves in each direction, at certain dis- 



191 



Lo mismo debe advertirse 192 Consiguiente á lo prevenido 

de to enamel, y de los demás ver- en las notas 181 y 182, with hu- 

bos análogos que en español ri- biera sido aquí mas correcto que 

gen la preposición de. by. 



104 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

tances apart, and gradually form a ring of two or three 
miles in circumference, so as to surround the game. 
This must be done with extreme care, for the wild 
horse is the most readily alarmed inhabitant of the 
prairie, and can scent a hunter at a great distance, if to 
windward. 

5. The ring being formed, two or three ride toward 
the horses, which start off in an opposite direction. 
Whenever they approach the bounds of the ring, how- 
ever, a huntsman presents himself, and turns them from 
their course. In this way, they are checked, and driven 
back at every point, and kept gallopiog round and 
round this magic circle, un til, being completely tired 
down, it is easy for hunters to ride up beside them, 
and throw the lariat over their heads. The prime 
horses of the most speed, courage, and bottom, how- 
ever, are apt to break through, and escape, so that, in 
general, it is the second-rate 193 horses that are taken. 

6. Preparations were now made for a hunt of this 
kind. The pack-horses were now taken into the woods, 
and firmly tied to trees, lest 194 in a rush of wild horses 
they should break away. Twenty-five men were then 
sent, under the command of a lieutenant, to steal 
along 195 the edge of the valley, within the strip of wood 
that skirted the hills. They were to station themselves 
about fifty yards apart, within the edge of the woods, 
and not advance or show themselves until the horses 
dashed 198 in that direction. Twenty-five men were sent 
across the valley, to steal in like manner along the 



,t " K<coud-rate, esto es, de se- 1UB El imperfecto de indicativo 

guiido orden. por el de subjuntivo ¡ Should dcuh i 

1U4 No sea que. esto es, viniesen galopando. 
196 Deslizarse. 



LECTUKAS INGLESAS. 105 

river-bank that bordered the opposite side, and to sta- 
tion themselves among the trees. 

7. A third party of about the same number was to 
form a line, stretching across the lower part of the val- 
ley, so as to connect the two wings. Beattie, and our 
other half-breed, Antoine, together with the ever-offi- 
cioas Tonish, were to make a circuit through the woods, 
so as to get to the upper part of the valley, in the rear 
of the horses, and drive them forward, into the kind of 
sack that we had formed, while the two wings should 
join behind them, and make a complete circle. 

8. The flanking parties were quietly extending them- 
selves out of sight, on each side of the valley, and the 
residue were stretching themselves like the links of a 
chain across it, when the w r ild horses gave signs that 
they scented an enemy — snuffing the air, snorting, and 
looking about. At length, they pranced off slowly 
toward the river, and disappeared behind a green 
bank. 

9. Here, liad 197 the regulations of the chase been ob- 
served, they would have been quietly checked and 
turned back by the advance of a hunter from the trees ; 
unluckily, however, we had our wildfire, Jack-o'-lan- 
tern little Frenchman to deal with. Instead of keeping 
quietly up the riglit side of the valley, to get above the 
horses, the moment he saw them move toward the 
river, he broke out of the covert of woods, and dashed 
furiously across the plain in pursuit of them. This put 
an end to all system. The half-breeds, and half a 
score of rangers, joined in the chase. 



197 Nótese aquí had, imperfecto por cuyo motivo se da a la frase 
de subjuntivo, y la elipsis del ¿/*, la forma interrogativa. 
5* 



105 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

10. Away they all went over tlio green bank ; in a 
moment or two tho wild horses reappeared, and carne 
thtindering down the valley, with Frenchmen, lialf- 
breeds, and rangers, galloping and bellowing behind 
them. It was in vain that the line drawn across tho 
valley attempted to check and tura back the fagitives ; 
they were too hotly pressed by their pursuers : in their 
panic they dashed through the line, and clattered down 
the plain. 

11. The whole troop joined in the heacllong chase, 
some of the rangers without hats or caps, their hair 
ílying about their ears, and others with handkerchiefs 
tied round their heads. The buffaloes, which liad been 
ealmly ruminating among the herbage, heaved up their 
huge forms, gazed for a moment at the tempest that 
carne scouring down the meadow, then turned and took 
to heavy rolling flight. They were soon overtaken : 
the promiscuous throng were pressed together by the 
contracting sides of the valley, and away they went, 
pell-mell, hurry-skurry, wild buftalo, wild horse, wild 
huntsman, with clang and clatter, and whoop and hal- 
loo, tbat made the íorests ring. 

12. At length the buffaloes turned into a green 
brake, on the river-bank, while the horses dashed up a 
narrow defile of the bilis, with their pursuers cióse at 
their heels. Beattie passed several of them, having 
í\\c(\ his eye upon a fine Pawnee horse that liad his 
cara slit, and saddle-marks upon his back. He pressed 
hiiii gallantly, but lost him in the woods. 

13. Among the wild horses was a fine black maro, 
which in scrambling"' 8 up the defile, tripped and fell. 

198 In Bcrambling. El participio presente inglés, regido por La prepo- 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 107 

A yonng ranger sprang from his horse, and seized her 
by the mane and muzzle. Another ranger dismounted, 
and carne to his assistance. The mare struggled 
fiercely, kicking and biting, and striking with her fore- 
feet, but a noose was slipped over her head, and her 
struggles were in vain. • 

14. It was some time, however, before she gave over 
rearing and plunging, and lashing out with her feet on 
every side. The two rangers then led her along the 
valley by two strong lariats, which enabled them to 
keep at a sufficient distance on each side, to be out of 
the reach of her hoofs, and whenever she struck out in 
one direction, she was jerked in the other. In this 
way her spirit was gradually subdued. 

15. As to Tonish, who had marred the whole scheme 
by his precipitancj', he had been more successful than 
he deserved, having managed to catch a beautiful 
cream-colored colt about seven months oíd, that had 
not strength to keep up with its companions. The 
mercurial little Frenchman was beside himself with ex- 
ultation. It was amusing to see him with his prize. 
The colt would rear and kick, and struggle to get free, 
when Touish would take him about the neck, w^restle 
with him, jump on his back, and cut as many antics as 
a monkey with a kitten. 

16. Nothing surprised me more, however, than to 
witness how soon these poor animáis, thus taken from 
the unbounded freedom of the prairie, yielded to the 
dominión of man. In the course of two or three days 
the mare and colt went with the lead-horses, and be- 
came quite docile. W. Irving. 

sicion in, vale el infinitivo español bling up the defile, al trepar por el 
precedido de al, como : in scram- desfiladero. 



108 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

XXXV. 

Niágara Falls. 

1. The form of tlio Niágara Falls is that of an irregu- 
lar semicircle, about three-quarters of a mile in extent. 
This is divided into two distinct cascades by the inter- 
vention of Goat Island, the extreinity of which is per- 
pendicular, and in a line with the precipice, over which 
the water is projected. The cataract on the Canadá 
BÍde 1M of the river, is called the Horse-shoe, or Great 
Fall, frorn its peculiar form ; and that next the United 
States, the American Fall. 

2. The Table Eock, from which the Falls of the Niága- 
ra may be contemplated in all their grandeur, lies on an 
exact level with the edge of the cataract on the Canadá 
side, and, indeed, forms a part of the precipice over 
which the water rushes. It derives its ñame from the 
circumstance of its projecting beyond the cliffs that 
support it, like the leaf of a table. To gain this posi- 
tion, it is necessary to descend a steep bank, and to 
follow a path that winds among shrubbery and trees, 
which entirely conceal from the eye the scene that 
awaits him who traverses it. 

3. When near the termination of this road, a few 
stops carried me beyond all these obstructions, and a 
niagnificent amphitheatre of cataracts burst upon my 
view with appalling suddenness and majesty. How- 
ever, in a moment, the scene was concealed from my 

lwtf The Cumula xi<U', esto es, el mo en inglés <"1 emplear sustanti- 
lado Canadense. Es íreeuentísi- vos adjetivadamente. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 109 

eyes by a dense cloud of spray, which involved me so 
completely, that I did not daré to extricate myself. 

4. A mingled and thunder-like rushing filled my ears. 
I could see nothing, except when the wind made a 
chasm in the spray, and then immense cataracts seemed 
to encompass me on every side ; while, below, a raging 
and foaming gulf, of undiscoverable extent, lashed the 
rocks with its hissing waves, and swallowed, under a 
horrible obscurity, the smoking floods that were pre- 
cipitated into its bosom. 

5. At first, the sky was obscured by clouds, but, after 
a few minutes, the sun burst forth, and the breeze sub- 
siding at the same time, permitted the spray to ascend 
perpendicularly. A host of pyramidal clouds rose 
majestically, one after another, from the abyss at the 
bottom of the Fall ; and each, when it had ascended a 
little above the edge of the cataract, displayed a beau- 
tiful rainbow, which, in a few moments, was gradually 
transferred into the bosom of the cloud that immedi- 
ately succeeded. 

6. The spray of the Great Fall had extended itself 
through a wide space directly oyer me, and, reeeiving 
the full influence of the sun, exhibited a luminous and 
magnificent rainbow, which continued to overarch and 
irradíate the spot on which I stood, while I enthusiasti- 
cally contemplated the indescribable scene. 

7. Any person who has nerve enough may plunge 
his hand into the water of the Great Fall, after it is 
projected over the precipice, merely by lying down fíat, 
with his face beyond the edge of the Table Rock, and 
stretching out his arm to its utmost extent. The ex- 
periment is truly a horrible one, and such as I would 
not wish to repeat ; for, even to this day, I feel a shud- 



110 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

dering and recoiling sensation when I recollect having 
been in the postura above described. 

8. The body of water, which composes the middle 
part of the Great Fall, is so immense, that it descends 
nearly two-thirds of the space without being ruffled or 
broken ; and the solemn calmness with which it rolls 
o ver the edge of the precipice is finely contrasted with 
the perturbed appearance it assumes after having 
reached the gulf below. But the water, toward each 
side of the Fall, is shattered the moment it drops o ver 
the rock, and loses as it descends, in a great measure, 
the character of a fluid, being divided into pyramid- 
shaped fraginents, the bases of which are turned up- 
ward. 

9. The surface of the gulf, below the cataract, pre- 
sents a very singular aspect ; seeming, as it were, filled 
with an immense quantity of hoar-frost, which is agi- 
tated by small and rapid undulation. The particles of 
water are dazzlingly white, and do not apparently unite 
together, as might be supposed, but seem to continué 
for a time in a state of distinct comminution, and to 
repel each other with a thrilling and shivering motion, 
which cannot easily be described. 

10. The road to the bottom of the Fall presents 
many more difficulties than that which leads to the 
Table Rock. After leaving the Table Rock, the traveller 
must proceed down the river nearly half a mile, wheve 
he will come to a small chasm in the bank, in which 
tliere is a spiral staircase enclosed in a w r ooden build- 
ing. By descending the stair, which is seventy or 
eighty feet in perpendicular height, he will find himselí 
under the precipice, on the top of which he form 
walked. A high but sloping bank extends froin its 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 111 

base to the edge of the river ; and, on the summit of 
this, there is a narro w slippery path, covered with an- 
gular fraerments of rock, which leads to the Great Fall. 

11. The impending cliffs, hung with a profusión of 
trees and brushwood, overarch this road, and seem to 
víbrate with the thunders of the cataract. In some 
places, they rise abruptly to the height of one hundred 
feet, and display, upon their surfaces, fossil shells, and 
the organic remains of a former world ; thus sublimely 
leading the mind to contémplate the convulsions which 
nature has undergone since the creation. 

12. As the traveller advances, he is frightfully stunned 
by the appalling noise ; clouds of spray sometimes en- 
velop him, and suddenly check his faltering steps ; rat- 
tlesnakes start from the cavities of the rocks ; and the 
scream of eagles, soaring among the whirlwinds of 
eddying vapor, which obscure the gulf of the cataract, 
at intervals announce that the raging waters have 
hurled some bewildered animal over the precipice. 
After scrambling among piles of huge rocks that ob- 
scure his way, the traveller gains the bottom of the 
Fall, where the soul can be susceptible only of one 
emotion, that of uncontrollable terror. 

13. It was not until I had, by frequent excursions to 
the Falls, in some measure familiarized my mind with 
their sublimities, that I ventured to explore the recesses 
of the Great Cataract. The precipices over which it 
rolls is very much arched underneath, whiie the Ím- 
petus which the water receives in its descent, projects 
it far beyond the cliff, and thus an immense Gothic 
arch is formed by the rock and the torrent. Twice I 
entered this cavern, and twice I was obliged to retrace 
my steps, lest I should be suffocated by the blast of the 



112 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

dense spray that wliirled around me ; however, the 
third time, I succeeded in advancing about twenty-five 
yards. 

14. Here darkness began to encircle me. On one 
side, the black cliff stretched itself into a gigantic arch 
far above my head, and on the other, the dense and 
hissing torrent formed an impenetrable sheet of foam, 
with which I was drenched in a moment. The rocks 
were so slippery, that I could hardly keep my feet, or 
hold securely by them ; while the horrid din made me 
think the precipices above were tumbling down in 
eolossal fragments upon my head. 

15. A little way below the Great Fall, the river is, 
comparatively speaking, so tranquil that a ferry-boat 
plies between the Canadian and American shores, for 
the convenience of travellers. When I first crossed, the 
heaving flood tossed about the skiff with a violence 
that seemed very alarming ; but, as soon as we gained 
the middle of the river, my attention was altogether 
engaged by the surpassing grandeur of the scene be- 
fore me. 

16. I was now in the área of a semicircle of cataracts, 
more than three thousand feet in extent, and floated on 
the surface of a gulf, raging, fathomless, and inter- 
minable. Majestic cliffs, splendid rainbows, lofty trees, 
and columns of spray, were the gorgeous decorations 
of this theatre of wonders ; while a dazzling sun shed 

t refulgent glories upon every part of the scene. 

17. Surrounded with clouds of vapor, and stunned 
into a state of confusión and terror by the hideous 
noise, I looked upward to the height of one hundred 
and fifty feet, and saw vast floods, dense, awful, and 
stupendous, vehemently bursting over the precipice 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 113 

and rolling down as if the windows of heaven were 
opened to pour another deluge upon the earth. 

18. Loud sounds, resembling discharges of artillery 
or volcanic explosions, were now distinguí shable amid 
the watery tumult, and added terrors to the abyss 
from which they issued. The sun, looking inajestically 
through the ascending spray, was encircled by a radiant 
halo, while fragments of rainbows floated on every side, 
and momentarily vanished, only to give place to a suc- 
cession of others more brilliant. 

19. Looking backward, I saw the Niágara River, 
again becoming calm and tranquil, rolling magnifi- 
eently between the towering cliffs, that rose on either 
side. A gentle breeze ruffled the waters, and beautiful 
bircls fluttered around, as if to welcome its egress from 
those clouds, and thunders, and rainbows, which were 
the heralds of its precipitation into the abyss of the 
cataract. Howison. 



XXXVI. 

The Alhambra by Moonltght. 

[The palace or castle calleó! the Alhambra consists of the remains 
of a veiy extensive and ancient pile of builclings in Spain, erected by 
the Moors when they were rulers of the country.] 

1. I have given a picture of my apartment on 200 my 
first taking possession of it : a few evenings have pro- 
duced a thorough change in the scene and in my feel- 

200 Lo dicho en la nota 189, preposición on. On first taking 
sobre el participio presente regi- possession of it, al tomar por la 
do por in, se aplica también á la primera vez posesión de ella. 



114 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

ings. The moon, wliicli tlien was invisible, has graclu- 
ally gained upon the nights, and now rolls in f all splendor 
above the towers, pouring a flood of tempered light into 
every court and hall. The garden beneath my window 
is gently lighted up ; the orange and citrón trees are . 
tipped with silver ; the fountain sparkles in the moon- 
beams ; and even the blush of the rose is faintly visible. 

2. I have sat for hours at my window, inhaling the 
sweetness of the garden, and niusing on the checkered 
features of those whose history is dimly shadowed out 
in the elegant memorials around. Sometimes I have 
issued forth at midnight, when everything was quiet, 
and have wandered over the whole building. Who can 
do justice to a moonlight night in such a cliniate, and 
in such a place ? 

3. The temperature of an Andalusian midnight in 
surnmer is perfectly ethereal. Ve seem lifted up into 
a purer atmosphere ; there is a serenity of soul, a buoy- 
ancy of spirits, an elasticity of franie, that render mere 
existence enjoyment. The effect of moonlight, too, on 
the Alhambra has something like enchantment. Every 
rent and chasm of time, every mouldering tint and wea- 
ther stain disappears ; the marble resumes, its original 
whiteness ; the long colonnades brighten in the moon- 
beams ; the halls are illuminated with a softened ra- 
diance, until 201 the whole edifice reminds one of the 
enchanted palace of an Arabian tale. 

4. At such a time, I have ascended to the little pavilion, 
called the queen's toilet, to enjoy the varied and exten- 
sive prospect. To the right, the snowy summits of the 



201 Uhtü; literalmente, quiere; decir hasta que, y por extensión 
equivale aquí á, tic tal suerte que. 



LECTÜEAS INGLESAS. 115 

Sierra Ni vacia would glearn, like silver clouds, against 
the darkor firrnament, and all the outlines of tlie moun- 
tain would be softened, yet delicately defined. My 
delight, however, would be to lean over the parapet of 
tbe Tecador, and gaze down npon Grenada, spread out 
like a map below me, all buried in deep repose, and its 
white palaces and convenís sleeping as it were in the 
moonshine. 

o. Sornetimes I would hear the faint sounds of cas- 
tanets from some party of dancers lingering in the Ala- 
meda ; at other times I have heard the dubious tones 
of a guitar, and the notes of a single voice rising from 
some solitary street, and have pictured to myself some 
youthful cavalier serenading his lady's window, — a gal- 
lant custom of former days, but now sadly on the 
decline, except in the remote tow r ns and villages of 
Spain. 

6. Such are the scenes that have detained me for 

many an hour loitering about the courts and balconies 

of the castle, enjoying that mixture of reverie and sen- 

sation which steal away existence in a southern climate, 

and it has been almost morning before I have retired 

to my bed, and been lulled to sleep by the falling waters 

of the fountain of Lindaraxa. 

W- Irving. 



116 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

XXXVII. 

The Steamboat Tkial. 

1. When a large steamboat is built, witli the inten- 
tion of liaving her 202 employed upon the waters of a 
great river, slie 202 inust be provecí before put to service. 
Before trial it is somewhat doubtful whether slie will 
succeed. In the first place, it is not absolutely certain 
whether her machinery will work at all. There niay be 
some flaw in the iron, or an imperfection in some part 
of the workmanship, which will preven t the motion of 
her wheels. Or if this is not the case, the power of the 
machinery may not be sufficient to propel her through 
the water with such forcé as to overeóme the current ; 
or she may, when brought to encounter the rapids at 
some narrovv passage in the stream, not be able to forcé 
her way against their resistance. 

2. The engineer, therefore, resolves to try her in all 
these respeets, that her securitj^ and her power may be 
properly proved before she is intrusted with her valua- 
ble cargo of human lives. He cautiously builds a fire 
under her boiler ; he watches with eager interest the 
rising of the steam-guage, and scrutinizes every part of 
the machinery as it gradually comes under the control 
of the tremendous power which he is apprehensively 
applying. 

3. With what interest does he observe the first stroke 

"°- Téngase presente la regla Bes, nombres de cosas inanima- 
29 del " Procoptor/' Bobre el gé- das. 
ñero do algunos sustantivos ingle- 



LECTUKAS INGLESAS. 117 

of the ponderous pistón ! and when at length the fas- 
tenings of the boat are let go, 203 and the motion is com- 
municated to the wheels, and the mighty mass slowly 
moves away from the wharf, how deep and eager an 
interest does he feel in all her movernents, and in every 
indication he can discover of her future success ! 

4. The engine, however, works imperfectly, as every 
one must on its first trial ; and the object in this experi- 
ment is not to gratify idle euriosity, by seeing that she 
will move, but to discover and remedy every little 
irnperfection, and to remove every obstacle which pre- 
venís more entire success. For this purpose, you will 
see our engineer examining, most minutely and most 
attentively, every part of her complicated machinery. 
The crowd on the wharf ínay be simply gazing on her 
majestic progress, as she moves off from the shore, but 
the engineer is within, looking with faithful examination 
into all the minutise 204 of the motion. 

5. He scrutinizes the action of every lever and the 
friction of every joint ; here 205 he oils a bearing, there 205 
he tightens a nut ; one part of the machinery has too 
much play, and he confines it ; another too much fric- 
tion, and he loosens it ; now he stops the engine, now 
reverses her motion, and again sends the boat forward 
in her course. He discovers, perhaps, some great 
improvement of which she is susceptible, and when he 
returns to the wharf and has extinguished her fire, he 
orders from the machine-shop the necessary altera- 
tion. 

6. The next day he puts his boat to the trial again, 

203 Let go, dejado ir, esto es, 205 Here, aquí, y there, allí, valen 
soltado. en este caso ya . . . ya distributivo 

204 p r onúnciese maiñúchii. del español. 



118 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

and she glicles over the water more smoothly and 
swiftly than before. The jar which he had noticed is 
gone, and the friction reduced ; the beams play more 
smoothly, and the alteration which he has made pro- 
duces a more equable motion in the shaft, or gives 
greater effect to the stroke of the paddles upon the 
water. 

7. When at length her motion is such as to satisfy 
him upon the smooth surface of the river, he turns her 
course, we will imagine, toward the rapids, to see how 
she will sustain a greater trial. As he ulereases her 
steam, to give her power to overeóme the new forcé 
with which she has to contend, he watches, with eager 
interest, her boiler, inspeets the gauge and the safety- 
valves, and, from her movements under the increased 
pressure of her steam, he receives suggestions for 
further improvements, or for precautions which will 
insure greater safety. 

8. These he executes, and thus he perhaps goes on 
for many days, or even weeks, trying and examining, 
for the purpose of improvement, every working of tliat 
mighty power, to which he knows hundreds of lives are 
soon to be intrusted. This now is probation — trial for 
the sake of improvement. 206 And what are its results ? 
Why, after this course has been thoroughly and faith- 
fully pursued, this floating-palace receives upon her 
broad deck, and in her carpeted and curtained cabin, 
her four or five hundred passengers, who pour along in 
one long procession of happy groups, over the bridge 
of planks ; father and son, mother and children, young 

806 Triol f<>r the %áké ofimprove- un ensayo por ver si se descubre 
ment, literalmente, ensayo por la algún pinto susceptible de mejora, 
causa de mejoramiento; esto es, 



LECTÜBAS INGLESAS. 119 

husband and wife, all with iinplicit confidence trusting 
tliemselves and their dearest interests to her power. 

9. See her as she sails away ! How beautiful and 
yet how powerful are all her motions ! That beara 
glides up and down gently and smoothly in its grooves, 
and yet, 207 gentle as it seeins, hundreds of horses could 
not hold it still ; there is no apparent violence, but 
every movement is with irresistible power. How grace- 
ful is her forra, and yet how mighty is the momenturn 
with which she presses on her way ! 

10. Loaded with life, and herself the very symbol of 
life and power, she seeins soniething ethereal, unreal, 
whieh, ere we look again, will have vanished away. 
And though she has within her bosom a furnace glow- 
ing with furious fires, and a reservoir of death, the ele- 
ments of most dreadful ruin and conflagración, of 
destruction the most complete, and agony the most 
■anutterable ; and though her strength is equal to the 
united energy of two thousand men, she restrains it all. 

11. She was constructed by genius, and has been 
tried and improved by fidelity and skill ; and one man 
governs and controls her, stops her and sets her in 
motion, turns her this way and that as easily and cer- 
tainly as the child guides the gentle lamb. She walks 2oa 
over the one hundred and sixfcy miles of her route, with- 
out rest and without fatigue ; and the passengers, who 
have slept in safety in their berths, with destruction by 
water without and by fire within, defended only by a 
plank from the one, and by a sheet of copper from the 
other, land at the appointed time in safety. 

12. My reader, you have within you susceptibilities 

207 Nátese bien la elipsis del 208 Estilo metafórico, 
primer as. 



120 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

and powers of which you have little present conception ; 
energies which are hereafter to opérate in producing 
fulness of enjoyment or horrors of suffering, of which 
you now can form scarcely a conjecture. You are now 
on trial. God wishes you to prepare yourself for safe 
and happy action. He wishes you to look within, to 
examine the complicated movements of your hearts, to 
detect what is wrong, to modify what needs change, 
and to rectify every irregular motion. 

13. You go out to try your moral powers upon the 
stream of active life, and then return to retirement, to 
improve what is right and remedy what is wrong. Be- 
newed opportunities of moral practice are given 3'ou, 
that you may go on from strength to strength, until 
every part of that complicated moral machinery of 
which the human heart consists, will work as it ought 
to work, and is prepared to accomplish the mighty pur- 
poses for which your powers are designed. You are 
on trial, on probation now. You will enter upon active 
service in another world. Abbott. 



XXXVIII. 

LOVE OF ArPLAÜSE. 

1. To be insensible to public opinión, or to the esti- 
mation in which we are held by others, indicates any- 
thing rather than a good and generous spirit. It is, 
Indeed, the mark of a low and worthless character ; 
devoid of principie, and therefore devoid of sha me. A 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 121 

young man is not far from ruin when lie can say, with- 
out blushing, I don't 209 care what others think of me. 

2. But to have a proper regard to public opinión, is 
one thing ; to make that opinión our rule of action, 210 
is quite another. The one we may cherish consistently 
with the purest virtue, and the most unbending recti- 
tude ; the other we cannot adopt without an utter 
abandonment of principie and disregard of duty. 

3. The young man whose great aim is to please, who 
makes the opinión and favor of others his rule and 
motive of action, stands ready to adopt any sentiments, 
or pursue any course of conduct, however false and 
criminal, provided only that it be popular. 

4. In every emergency, his first question is, what will 
my companions, what will the world think and say of 
me, if I adopt this or that course of conduct ? Duty, 
the eternal laws of rectitude, are not thought of. Cus- 
tom, fashion, popular favor— these are the things that 
fill his entire visión, and decide every question of opin- 
ión and duty. 

5. Such a man can never be trusted ; for he has no 
integrity and no independence of mind, to obey the 
dictates of rectitude. He is at the mercy of every 
casual impulse and change of popular opinión ; and 
you can no more tell whether he will be right or wrong 
to-morrow, than you can predict the course of the wind, 
or what shape the clouds will then assume. 

6. And what is the usual consequence of this weak 
and foolish regard to the opinions of men ? What the 



209 Dorii, forma abreviada de do 21 ° Bule of action, literalmente, 

y not. La 3 a persona del singular regla de acción ; es decir, nor- 

de este verbo se contrae doesrit, ma. 
por does j not. 



122 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

end of tlius acting in compliance with custom in oppo- 
sition to one's own convictions of duty ? It is to lose 
the esteem and respect of the very men whom you thus 
attempt to please. Your defect of principie and hol- 
low-heartedness are easily perceived ; and though the 
persons to whom you thus sacrifice your conscience 
may affect to comrnend your complaisance, you may be 
assured that, inwardly, they despise you for it. 

7. Young men hardly commit a greater mistake than 
to think of gaining the esteem of others, by yielding 
to their wishes contrary to their own sense of duty. 
Such conduct is alwaj^s morally wrong, and rarely fails 
to deprive one both of self-respect and the respect of 
others. 

8. It is very common for young men, just commencing 
business, to imagine that, if they would advance their 
secular interests, they must not be very scrupulous in 
binding themselves down to the strict rules of rectitude. 
They must conform to custom ; and if, in buying and 
selling, they sometimes say things that are not true, 
and do the things that are not honest — why, their 
neighbors do the same ; and, verily, there is no getting 
along without it. There is so much competition and 
rivalry, that, to be strictly honest and yet succeed in 
business, is out of the question. 

9. Now, if ib were indeed so, 211 I would say to a young 
man : then, quit your business. Better dig, 212 and beg 
too, than to tamper with conscience, sin against God, 
and lose your soul. 

10. But is it so ? Is it necessary, in order to succeed 



811 Si en efecto fuese así. Ü W, delante de better, y to antea 

8ia Elipsis, pues se sobrentiende de diy. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 123 

in business, tliat you should adopt a standard of moráis 
more lax and pliable trian the one placed before you 
in the Bible ? Perhaps for a time a rigid adherence 
to rectitude miglit bear hard upon you ; but how would 
it be in the end ? Possibly your neighbor, by being 
less scrupulous than yourself, may invent a more expe- 
ditious way of acquiring a fortune. If he is willing to 
viólate the dictates of conscienee, to lie and cheat, and 
trample on the rules of justice and honesty, he may, 
indeed, get the start of you, and rise suddenly to wealth 
and distinction. 

11. But would you envy him his riches, or be willing 
to place yourself in his situation? Sudden wealth, es- 
pecially when obtained by dishonest means, rarely fails 
of bringing with it sudden ruin. Those who acquire it 
are of course beggared in their moráis, and are often, 
very soon, beggared in property. Their riches are cor- 
rupted ; and w r hile they bring the curse of God on 
their immediate possessors, they usually entail misery 
and ruin upon their families. 

12. If it be admitted, then, that strict integrity is not 
al way s the shortest way to success, is it not the surest, 
the happiest, and the best ? A young man of thorough 
integrity may, it is true, find it difficult, in the midst of 
dishonest competitors and rivals, to start in his business 
or profession ; but how long, ere he will surmount every 
difficulty, draw around him patrons and friends, and 
rise in the confidence and support of all who know him. 

13. What if, in pursuing this course, you should not, 
at the cióse of life, have so much money, by a few hun- 
dred dollars ? Will not a fair character, an approving 
conscienee, and an approving God, be an abundant 
compensation for this little deficieney of pelf ? 



124 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

14. Oh, there is an hour coming when one whisper 
of an approving mind, one smile of an approving God, 
will be accounted of more valué than the wealth of a 
thousand vvorlds like tliis. In that hour, my joung 
friends, nothing will sustain you but the consciousness 
of having been governed in life by worthy and good 
principies. Hawes. 



XXXIX. 

TlT FOPv Tat. 



Mrs. Bolingbróke. I wish I knew what was the mat- 
ter 213 with me this morning. Why do you keep the 
newspaper all to yourself, my dear? 

Mr. Bolingbróke. Here it is for you/ 14 my dear ; I 
have finished it. 

Mrs. B. I humbly thank you for giving it to me 
when you have done with it. I bate stale news. Is 
there anything 215 in the paper? for I cannot be at the 
trouble of hunting it. 

Mr. B. Yes, my dear ; there are the marriages of 
two of our friends. 

Mrs.B. Who? Who? 

Mr. B. Your friend, the vádow Nettleby, to her 
cousin, John Nettleby. 

Mrs. B. Mrs. Nettleby? Dear! 216 But why did 
you tell me ? 

■^¿(Jué tiene Y.? se traduce 2l5 Sobrentendiese la palabra 

en inglés: whai is tice matter wÜh m 

you? - 16 Dear, en forma de exclama- 

214 Tómalo. cion. vale Caramba ! 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 125 

Mr. B. Because you asked me, my dear. 

Mrs. B. Oh, but it is a hundred times pleasanter to 
read the paragraplí one's self. One loses all the pleas- 
ure of the surprise by being told. Well, whose was the 
otlier marriage ? 

Mr. B. Oh, my dear, I will not tell you ; I will leave 
you the pleasure of the surprise. 

Mrs. B. But you see I carmot find it. How pro- 
voking you are, my dear ! Do pray tell me. 

Mr. B. Our friend, Mr. Granby. 

Mrs. B. Mr. Granby? Dear! Why did you not 
make me guess? I should have guessed him directly. 
But why do you cali him our friend? I am sure he is 
no friend of mine, 217 ñor ever was. I took an aversión 
to him, 218 as you remember, the very first day I saw 
him. I am sure he is no friend of mine. 217 

Mr. B. I am sorry for it, my dear ; but I hope you 
will go and see Mrs. Granby. 

Mrs. B. Not I, indeed, my dear. "Who was she ? 

Mr. B. Miss Cooke. 

Mrs. B. Cooke ? But there are so many Cookes. 
Can't 219 you distinguish her any w r ay? Has she no 
Christian ñame ? 

Mr. B. Emma, I think. Tes, Emma. 

Mrs. B. Emma Cooke ? No ; it cannot be my 
friend Emma Cooke ; for I am sure she was cut out 
for an oíd maid. 

Mr. B. This lady seems to me to be cut out for a 
good wife. 

Mrs. B. May be so. I am sure m 220 never go to 

217 Yeáse la regla 78 del " Pre- 219 Oan% por can y not. 
ceptor," pág. 34. 220 TU por Ij will 

218 Le coBré aversión. 



126 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

see her. Pray, my dear, liow carne you to see so much 
of her? 

Mr. B. I have seen very little of her, my dear. I 
only saw hertwo or three times before she was married. 

Mrs. B. Then, my dear, how could you decide that 
slie was cut out for a good wife ? I am sure you 
could not judge of her by seeing her only two or three 
times, and before she was married. 

Mr. B. Indeed, my love, that is a very just observa- 
tion. 

3Irs. B. I understand that compliment perfectly, 
and thank you for it, my dear. I must own I can bear 
anything better than irony. 

Mr. B. Irony ? My dear, I was perfectly in earnest. 

Mrs. B. Tes, yes ; in earnest : so I perceive. I may 
naturally be dull of apprehension, but my feelings are 
quick enough ; I comprehend too well. Yes, it is im- 
possible to judge of a woman before marriage, or to 
guess what sort of a wife she will niake. I presume 
you speak from experience ; you have been disappointed 
yourself, and repent your choice. 

Mr. B. My dear, what did I say that was like this ? 
Upon my word, I meant no such thing. I really was 
not thinking of you in the least. 

Mrs. B. No, you never think of me now. I can 
easily believe that you were not thinking of me in the 
least. 

Mr. B. But I said that only to prove to j'ou that I 
could not be thinking ill of you, my dear. 

Mrs. B. But I would rather that you thought ill of 
me, than that you did not think of me at all. 

Mr. B. Well, my dear, I will even think ill of you, 
if that will please you. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 127 

Mrs. B. Do you laugli at me? When it comes to 
this, I am wretched indeed. Never man lauglied at the 
woman* he loved. As long as you had the slightest 
remains of love for me, you could not inake me an ob- 
ject of derision : ridicule and love are incompatible, 
absolutely incompatible. "Well, I have done my best, 
my very best, to inake yon happy, but in vain. I see I 
am not cid oíd to be a good wife. Happy, happy Mrs. 
Granby ! 

Mr. B. Happy, I hope sincerely, that she will be 
with my friend : but my happiness must depend on you, 
my love ; so, for my sake, if not for your own, be com- 
posed, and do not torment yourself with such fancies. 

Mrs. B. I do wonder 222 whether this Mrs. Granby 
is reallj- that Miss Emma Cooke. I' 11 go and see her 
directly ; see her I must. 223 

Mr. B. I am heartiiy glad of it, my dear ; for I am 
sure a visit to his wife will give my friend Granby real 
pie asure. 

JTrs. B. I promise you, my dear, I do not go to give 
him pleasure, or you either, but to satisfy my own 
cariosity. Miss Edgeworth. 



XL. 

Effects of Gambung. 

1. The love of gambling steals, perhaps, more often 
than any other sin, with an imperceptible influence on 

222 ¿ Si será en efecto esta Se- 223 Inversión que da mucha 
ñora Granby la Señorita Emilia fuerza á la frase. 
Cooke ? 



128 LECTUKAS INGLESAS. 

its victim. Its first pretext is inconsiderable, and falsely 
termed innocent play, with no more than the gentle 
excitement necessary to amusement. This plea, once 
indulged, is but too often "as the letting out of wa- 
ter." The interest imperceptibly grows. Pride of 
superior skill, opportunity, avarice, and all the over- 
whelming passions of depraved nature, ally themselves 
with the incipient and growing fondness. Dam and 
dike are swept away. The victim struggles in vain, 
and is borne down by the uncontrolled current. 

2. Thousands have given scope to the latent, gailty 
avarice, unconscious of the guest they harbored in their 
bosoms. Thousands have exulted over the avails of 
gambling, without comprehending the baseness of using 
the money of another, won without honest industry, 
obtained without an equivalent, and perhaps from the 
simplicity, rashness, and iuexperience of youth. Mul- 
titudes have commenced gambling, thinking only to win 
a small sum, and prove their superior skill and dexter- 
ity, and there pause. 

3. But it is the teaching of all time, it is the experi- 
ence of human nature, that effectual resistance to pow- 
erful propensities, if made at all, is usually made before 
the commission of the first sin. My dear reader ! let 
me implore you, by the mercies of God and the worth 
of your soul, to contémplate this enormous evil only 
from a distance. Stand firmly against the first tempta- 
tion, under whatsoever specious forms it may assail 
you. " Touch not." " Handle not." " Enter not into 
temptation." 

4. It is the melancholy and well-known character of 
this sin, that, where once an appetite for it has gained 
possession of the breast, the common motives, the gen- 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 129 

tle excitements, and the ordinary inducements to busi- 
ness or amusement, are no longer felt. It incorporales 
itself with the whole body of thought, and filis with its 
íascination all the desires of the heart. Nothing can 
henceforward arouse the spell-bound victim to a pleas- 
urable consciousness of existence but the destructive 
stimulus of gambling. 

5. Another appalling view of gambling is, that it is 
the prolific stem, the fruitf al parent of all other vices. 
Blaspheiny, falsehood, cheating, drunkenness, quarrel- 
ing, and murder, are all naturally connected with gam- 
bling; and what has been said, with so much power 
and truth, of another sin, may, with equal emphasis 
and truth, be asserted of this : " Allow yourself to be- 
come a confirmed gambler, and, detestable as this prac- 
tice is, it will soon be only one among many gross sins 
of which you will be guilty." Giving yourself up to the 
indulgence of another sinful course might prove your 
ruin ; but then you might perish only uncler the guilt 
of the indulgence of a single gross sin. 

6. But should 224 you become a gambler, you will in 
all probability descend to destruction with the added 
infamy of having been the slave of all kincls of iniquity, 
and "led captive by Satán at his will." Gambling 
seizes hold of all the passions, allies itself with all the 
appetites, and compels every propensity to pay tribute. 
The subject, however 225 plausible in his external de- 
portment, becomes avaricious, greedy, insatiable. Med- 
itations upon the card-table occupy all his day and night 



224 La omisión del if conclicio- come a gambier, vale, si te hicieses 

nal exige se ele á la frase la forma jugador, 

interrogativa, bien que no haya 225 Por mas . . . que sea. 
interrogación, pues should you be- 

6* 



130 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

dreams. Had lie tlie powor, he would annihilate all tlie 
hours of this our short life that necessarily intervene 
between tlie periods of his favorite pursuit. 

7. Cheating is a sure and inseparable attendant upon 
a continued course of gambling. We well know witli 
what horror the canons of the card-tablo repel this 
charge. It pains us to assert our deep and delibérate 
conviction of its truth. There must be prostration of 
moral principie, and silence of conscience, even to begin 
with it. Surely a man who regards the natural sense 
of right, laying the obligations of Christianity out of 
the question, cannot sit down with the purpose to win 
the money of another in this way. 

8. He must be aware, in doing it, that avarice and 
dishonest thoughts, it may be almost unconsciously to 
liimself, mingle with his motives. Having once closed 
his eyes upon the unworthiness of his motives, and 
deceived himself, he begins to study how he may 
deceive others. Every moralist has remarked upon 
the delicacy of conscience ; and that, from the first vio- 
lation, it becomes more and more callous, until finally 
it sleeps a sleep as of death, and ceases to remonstrate. 
The gambler is less and less scrupulous about the 
modes of winning, so that he can win. No person will 
be long near the gambling-table of high stakes, be the 
standing of the players what it may, without hearing 
the charge of cheating bandied back and forward ; or 
reading the indignant expression of it in their counte- 
nances. One-half of our fatal duels have their imnie- 
diate or remote origin in insinuations of this sort. 

9. The alternations of loss and gain ; the preternatu- 
ral excitement of the mind, and consequent depivssion 
when that excitement has passed away ; the baccha- 



LECTUKAS INGLESAS. 131 

nalian merriment of guilty associates ; the loss of natu- 
ral rest ; in short, the very atmosphere of the gambling- 
table, foster the temperament of harcl drinking. A 
keen sense of interest may, indeed, and often does, re- 
strain the gambler, while actually engaged in his 
employment, that he may possess the requisite coolness 
to watch his antagonist, and avail liimself of every pass- 
ing advantage. 

10. But the moment the high excitement of play is 
intermitted, the moment the passions vibrate back to 
the state of repose, what shall sustain the sinking 
spirits ; what shall renerve the relaxed physical nature ; 
what shall fortify the mind against the tortures of con- 
science, and the thoughts of " a judgment to come," but 
intoxication ? It is the experience of all time, that a 
person is seldom a gambler for any considerable period, 
without being also a drunkard. 

11. Blasphemy follovvs, as a thing of course ; and 
is, indeed, the well-known and universal dialect of the 
gambler. How often has my heart sunk within me, as 
I have passed the dark and diré receptacles of the gam- 
bler, and seen the red and bloated faces, and inhaled 
the mingled smells of tobáceo and potent drink ; and 
heard the loud, strange, and horrid curses of the play- 
ers ; realizing the while, that these beings so oceupied 
were candidates for eternity, and now on the course 
which, if not speedily forsaken, would lead them to 
irrevocable perdition. 

12. We have already said, that gambling naturally 
leads to quarrelling and murder. How often have we 
retired to our berth in the steamboat, and heard charges 
of dishonesty, accents of reviling and recrimination, and 
hints that these charges must be met and settled at 



132 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

another time and place, ring in our ears, as we Lave 
been attempting to commune with God, and settle in a 
right trame to repose ! Many corsés" 26 of young men, 
who met a violent death from tliis cause, Lave we seen 
carried to their long-home ! Every gambler, in the 
región wbere we write, is always armed to the teeth, 
and goes to his horrid pursuit, as the gladiator formerly 
presented himself on the arena of combat. 

13. The picture receives deeper shades, if w r e take 
into the grouping the wife, or the daughter, or the 
mother, who lies sleepless, and ruminating through the 
long night, trembling lest her midnight retirement shall 
be invaded by those who bring back the husband and 
the father wounded, or slain, in one of those sudden 
frays which the card-table, its aecompaniments, and the 
passions it excites, so frequently genérate. Suppose 
these forebodings should not be realized, and that he 
should steal home alive in the morning, with beggary 
and drunkenness, guilt and despair, written on his hag- 
gard countenance, and accents of sullenness and ill— 
temper falling from his tongue, how insupportably 
gloomy must be the prospects of the future to that 
f amily ! 

14. These are but feeble and general sketches of the 
misery and ruin to individuáis and to society from the 
indulgence of this vice, during the present life. If the 
wishes of unbelief were true, and there were no life 
after this, what perverse and miserable calculations 
would be those of the gambler, taking into view only 
the present world ! But, in any view of the cháracter 
and consequences of gambling, who shall daré cióse his 

w * Lo propio en este lugar seria corpses, que corsé es voz poética. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 133 

eyes upon its future bearing on the interest and the 
eternal welfare of his soul? Who shall clare lay out of 
the calculation the retributions of eternity ? 

15. Eacli of the sins that enters into this deadly com- 
pound of them all, must incur the threatened displeas- 
ure and punishment of the Almighty. If there be 
degrees in the misery and despair of the tenants of 
that región " where the worin dieth not, and the fire is 
not quenched," how must the persevering and impeni- 
tent gambler sink, as if " a millstone were hung about 
his neck, and he cast into the sea!" Say thou, my 
youthful reader, I implore thee, looking up to the Lord 
for a firm and unalterable purpose, "Iwill hold fast tny 
integrity and not let it go !" Timothy Flint. 



XLL 

Benefits of Literatüre. 

1. Hercules. Do you pretend to sit as high on Olym- 
pus as Hercules ? Did you kill the Nemsean lion, the 
Erymanthian boar, the Lernean serpent, and Stympha- 
lian birds? Did you destroy tyrants and robbers? 
You valué yourself greatly 227 on subduing one serpent. 
I did as mueh as that while I lay in my eradle. 

2. Cadmus. It is not on account of 228 the serpent 
that I boast myself a greater benefactor to Greece than 
you. Actions should be valued by their utility, rather 

2 * 7 Td tienes en mucho, por ha- 22 * On account of, por. 
ber vencido una sola serpiente. 



134 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

than 220 their splendor. I tauglit Greece the art oí 
writing, to which laws owe their precisión and perma- 
neney. You subdued monsters ; I civilized raen. It is 
from untamed passions, not from wild beasts, that the 
greatest evils arise to human society. By wisdom, by 
art, by the united strengtli of a civil community, men 
liave been enabled to subdue the whole race of lions, 
bears, and serpents, and, what is more, to bind by laws 
and wholesome regulations the ferocious violence and 
dangerous treachery of the human disposition. Had 230 
lions been destroyed only in single combat, men had 
liad 231 but a bad time of it ; and what but laws could 
awe the men who killed the lions ? 

3. The genuine glory, the proper distinction of the 
rational species, arises from the perfection of the men- 
tal powers. Courage is apt to be fierce, and strength 
is often exerted in acts of oppression ; but wisdom is 
the associate of justice. It assists her to form equal 
laws, to pursue right measures, to correct power, pro- 
tect weakness, and to unite individuáis in a common 
interest and general welfare. Héroes may kill tyrants, 
but it is wisdom and laws that prevent tyranuy and 
oppression. The operations of policy far surpass the 
lábors of Hercules, preventing many evils which valor 
and might cannot even redress. You héroes regard 
nothing but glory, and scarcely consider w r hether the 
conquests which raise your fame are really beneficial to 
your country. Unhappy are the people who are gov- 
erned by valor not directed by prudence, and not miti- 
gated by the gentle arts. 

4. Hercules. I do not expect to find an admirer of 

,J2tf Mas bien que por. del " Preceptor Elemental In- 

"° Véase la regla 180, pág. 7G, gles." 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 135 

my strenuous life in the man who taught his country- 
men to sit still and read, and to lose the hours oí youth 
and action in idle speculation and the sport of words. 

5. Cadmus. An ambition to have a place in the regis- 
ters of fame is the Eurystheus which imposes heroic 
labors on mankind. The Muses incite to action as well 
as entertain the hours of repose, and I think you should 
honor them for presenting to héroes so noble a recrea- 
tion as may prevent their taking up the distaff when 
they lay down the club. 

6. Hercules. Wits as well as héroes can take up the 
distaff. What think you 231 of their thin-spun systems 
of philosophy, or lascivious poems, or Milesian fables ? 
Nay, what is still worse, are there not panegyrics on 
tyrants, and books that blaspheme the Gods, and per- 
plex the natural sense of right and wrong ? I believe 
if Eurystheus were to set me to work again, he would 
find me a worse task than any imposed : he would 
make me read over a great library ; and I would serve 
it as I did the Hydra, I would burn it as I went on, 
that one chimera might not rise from another, to 
plague mankind. I should have valued myself more 
on clearing the library, than on cleansing the Augean 
stables. 

7. Cadmus. It is in those libraries only that the 
memory of your labor exists. The héroes of Marathón, 
the patriots of Thermopylse, owe their fame to me. All 
the wise institutions of lawgivers and all the doctrines 
of sages had perished in the ear, like a dream related, 
if letters had not preserved them. O Hercules ! it is 
not for the man who preferred Virtue to Pleasure to be 

231 Esta inversión, que es del estilo elevado, excusa el auxiliar do. 



136 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

an enemy to the Muses. Let Sardanapalus and tlie 
silken sons of luxury, wlio have wasted life in inglorious 
ease, despise the records of action, which bear no hon- 
orable testimony to their lives ; but true merit, heroic 
virtue, should respect the sacred source of lasting 
honor. 

8. Hercules. Indeed, if writers employed themselves 
only in recording the acts of great men, much might be 
said in their favor. But why do they trouble people 
with their meditations ? Can it be of any consequence 
to the world what an idle man has been thinking ? 

9. Cadmiis. Yes, it may. The most important and 
extensive advantages mankind enjoy are greatly owing 
to raen who have never quitted their closets. To them 
mankind are obliged for the facility and security of 
navigation. The invention of the compass has opened 
to them new worlds. The knowledge of the mechani- 
cal powers has enabled them to construct such won- 
derful machines as perform what the united labor of 
millions, by the severest drudgery, could not accom- 
plish. Agriculture, too, the most useful of arts, has re- 
ceived its share of improvement from the §ame source. 
Poetry, likewise, is of excellent use, to enable the mem- 
ory to retain with more ease, and to imprint with more 
energy upon the heart, precepts and examples of virtue. 
From the little root of a few letters, science has spread 
its branches over all nature, and raised its head to the 
heavens. Some philosophers have entered so far into 
the counsels of Divine Wisdom, as to explain much of 
the great operations of nature. The dimensions and 
distances of the planets, the causes of their revolutions, 
the path of comets, and the ebbing and flowing of tides, 
are understood and explained. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 137 

10. Can anything raise the glory of the human spe- 
cies more than to see a little creature, inhabiting a 
small spot, amicl innumerable workls, taking a survey 
of the universe, comprehending its arrangement, and 
entering into the scheme of that wonderful connection 
and correspondence of things so remote, and which it 
seems a great exertion of Omnipotence to have estab- 
lished? What a voluine of wisdom, what a noble 
theology, do these discoveries open to us ! "While 
some superior geniuses have soared to these sublime 
subjects, other sagacious and diligent minds have been 
inquiring into the most minute works of the Infinite 
Artificer : the same care, the same providence, is ex- 
erted through the whole ; and we should learn from it, 
that, to trae wisdom, utility and fitness appear perfec- 
tion, and whatever is beneficial, is noble. 

11. Hercules, I approve of science, as far as it is an 
assistant to action. I like the improvement of naviga- 
tion, and the discovery of the greater part of the globe, 
because it opens a wider field for the master-spirits of 
the world to bustle in. 232 

12. Cadnius. There spoke the soul of Hercules. 233 But 
if learned men are to be esteemed for the assistance 
they give to active minds in tbeir schemes, they are not 
less to be valued for their endeavors to give them a 
right direction, and modérate their too great ardor. 
The study of history will teach the legislator by what 
means states have become powerful, and in the private 
citizen they will incúlcate the love of liberty and order. 

232 Literalmente : abre un mas denodados del mundo un campo 
ancho campo para los maestro mas vasto para sus hazañas, 
espíritus del mundo alborotarse 233 Allí habló el alma de Hér- 
en ; esto es, abre á los hombres cules ; esto es : Tal es el dicta* 

men de Hércules. 



138 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

The writings of sages point out a prívate patli of virtue, 
and show tliat the best empire is selí-government, and 
that subduing our passions is the noblest of con- 
quests. 

13. Hércules. The true spirit of patriotism acts by a 
generous impulse, and wants neither the experience of 
history ñor the doctrines of philosophers to direct it. 
But do not arts and science render men effeminate, 
luxurious, and inactive? And can you deny that wit 
and learning are often made subservient to very bad 
purposes ? 

14. Cadmns. I will own that there are some natures 
so happily formed they scarcely want the assistance of 
a master and the rules of art to give thein forcé or grace 
in everything they do. But these favored geniuses are 
few. As learning flourishes only where ease, plentv, 
and mild government subsist, in so rich a soil, and 
under so soft a climata, the weeds of luxury will spring 
up among the flowers of art ; but the spontaneous 
weeds would grow more rank if they were allowed the 
undisturbed possession of the field. Letters keep a 
frugal températe nation from growing ferocious ; a rich 
one from becoming entirely sensual and debauched. 

15. Every gift of heaven is sometimes abused ; but 
good sense and fine talents, by a natural law, gr a vítate 
toward virtue. Accidents may drive them out of their 
proper direction ; but such accidents are an alarming 
ornen, and of diré portent to the times. For if virtue 
cannot keep to her allegiance those men who in their 
hearts confesa her divine right, and know the valué of 
her laws, ou whose fidelity and obedionce can she de- 
pend? May such geniuses never descend to flatter 
viee, encourage folly, or propágate irreligión, but exert 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 139 

all tlieir powers in the service of Virtue, and celébrate 

the noble choice of those who, like Hercules, preferred 

lier to Pleasure. 

Lord Lyttleton. 



XLII. 

Valué of Mathematics. 

1. Man may construct bis works by irregular and 
uncertain rules ; but God has made an unerring law 
for his whole creation, and made it, too, in respect to 
the physical sj^stern, upon principies which, as far as 
we now know, can never be understood without the aid 
of mathematics. 

2. Let us suppose a youth who despises, as many do, 
these cold and passionless abstractions of the mathe- 
matics. Yet he is intellectual ; he loves knowledge ; he 
would 234 explore nature, and know the reason of things : 
but he would do it without aid from this rigid, syllogis- 
tic, measuring, calculating science. He seeks, indeecl, 
no " royal road to geometry," but he seeks one not less 
difficult to find, in which geometry is not needed. 

3. He begins with the mechanical powers. He takes 
the lever, and readily understands that it will move a 
weight. But the principie on which clifferent weights 
at different distances are moved, he is forbidden to 
know, for they depend upon ratios and proportions. 
He passes to the inclined plañe, but quits it in disgust 
when he finds its action depends upon the relations of 

aa4 Quisiera. 



140 LECTUBAS INGLESAS. 

angles and triangles. The screw is still worse ; and 
wlien he comes to the wheel and axle, he gives thera up 
forever. They are all mathematical ! 

4. He would investígate the laws of falling bodies 
and moving fluids, and would know why their motion 
is accelerated at different periods, and upon what their 
momentum depends. But roots and squares, lines, 
angles, and curves, float before him in the mazy dance 
of a disturbed intellect. The very first proposition is a 
mystery, and he soon discovers that mechanical philos- 
ophy is little better than rnathematics itself. 

5. But he still has his senses. He will, at least, not 
be indebted to diagrams and equations for their enjoy- 
ment. He gazes with admiration upon the phenomena 
of light ; the many-colored rainbow upon the bosoni of 
the clouds ; the clouds themselves reflected, with all 
their changing shades, from the surface of the quiet 
waters. Whence 235 comes this beautiful imagery ? He 
investigates, and finds that every hue in the rainbow is 
made by a different angle of refraction, and that each 
ray reflected from the mirror has its angle of incidence 
equal to its angle of reflection ; and, as he pursues the 
subject further, in the construction of lenses and tele- 
scopes, the whole family of triangles, ratios, proportions, 
and conclusions arise to alarm his excited visión. 

6. He turns to the heavens, and is charmed with its 
shining host moving in solemn procession " through the 
halls of the sky," each star, as it rises and sets, rnark- 
ing time on the records of nature. He would know the 
structure of this beautiful systera, and search out if 
possible the laws which regúlate those distan t lights. 

236 ¿De dónde? Whence, no siendo ya del lenguage familiar, 
es reemplazado por where . . from. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 1±1 

But astronomy forever banishes him from lier presenco. 
She will have none near her to whóm mathematics is 
not a familiar friend. What can he know of her paral- 
laxes, anomalies, and precessions, who has never stud- 
ied the conic sections, or the higher order of analysis ? 
She sends him to some wooden orrery, from which he 
may gather as much knowledge of the heavenly bodies 
as a child does of armies from the gilded troopers of 
the toy-shop. 

7. But if he can have no companionship with optics, 
ñor astronomy, ñor mechanical phüosophy, there are 
sciences, he thinks, which haye better taste and less 
austerity of manners. He flies to chemistry, and her 
garments float loosely around him. For a while he 
goes gloriously on, iliuminated by the red lights and 
blue lights of crucibles and retorts. But soon he comes 
to compound bodies, to the composition of the elements 
around him, and finds them all in fixed relations. He 
finds that gases and fluids will combine with each 
other and with solids only in a certain ratio, and that 
all possible compounds are formed by n ature in immu- 
table proportion. Then starts up the whole doctrine of 
chemical equivalents, and mathematics again stares 
him in the face. 

8. Affrighted, he flies to mineralogy : stones he may 
pick up, jewels he may draw r from the bosom of the 
earth, and be no longer alarmed at the stern visage of 
this terrible science. But even here he is not safe. 
The first stone that he finds, quartz, contains a crystal, 
and that crystal assumes the dreaded form of geometry. 
Crystallization albires him on ; but, as he goes, cubes 
and hexagons, pyramids and dodecagons, arise before 
him in beautiful array. He w^ould understand more 



142 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

about tliem, but must wait at tlie portal of the temple 
till introduced within by that honored of time and 
science, our friendly Eaclid. 

9. And no.w where shall this student of nature, with- 
out tbe aid of matliematics, go for his knowledge or 
liis enjoyments ? Is it to natural history ? The very 
birds cleave the air in the form of the cycloid, and 
mathematics prove it the best. Their feathers are 
formed upon calculated mechanical principies ; the 
muscles of their frame are moved by them. The lit- 
tle bee has constructed his cell in the very geométrica!, 
figure and with the precise angles which mathemati- 
cians, after ages of investigation, have demonstrated to 
be that which contains the greatest economy of space 
and strength. Tes ! he who would shun mathematics 
must fly the bounds of " flaming space," and in the 
realms of chaos, that 

" dark, 



inimitable ocean ■ 



where Milton's Satán wandered from the wrath of 
Heaven, he may possibly find some spot visited by no 
figure of geometry, and no harmony of proportion. 
But nature, this beautiful creation of God, has no 
resting-place for him. All its construction is mathe- 
matical ; all its uses reasonable ; all its ends harmo- 
nious. It has no elements mixed with out regulated 
law ; no broken chord to make a false note in the music 
of the spheres. E. D. Mansbteijx 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 143 

XLni. 

On Lettee-wbitixg. 

1. Epistolary as well as 236 personal intercourse is, 
according to the mode in which it is carried on, one of 
the pleasantest or most irksome things in the world. 
It is delightful to drop in on a friend without the sol- 
emn prelude of invitation and acceptance, to join a so- 
cial circle where we may suffer our minds and hearts 
to relax and expand in the happy consciousness of per- 
fect security from invidious remark and carping criti- 
cism ; where we may give the reins to the sportiveness 
of innocent fancy, or the enthusiasm of warin-hearted 
feeling; where* we may talk sense or nonsense (I pity 
people wlio cannot talk nonsense), without fear of being 
looked into icicles by the coldness of unimaginatire 
people, living pieces of clock-work, who daré not them- 
selves utter a wórd, or lift up a little finger, without 
first weighing the important point in the hair-balance 
of propriety and good breecling. 

2. It is equally delightful to let the pen talk freely, 
and unpremeelitatedly, and to one by whom we are sure 
of being understood ; but a formal letter, like a ceremo- 
nious morning yisit, is tedious alike to the writer and 
receiver ; for the most part spun out with unmeaning 
phrases, trite observations, complimentary fiourishes, 
and protestations of respect and attachment, so far not 
deceitful, as they never deceive anybody. Oh, the 

238 Lo mismo que. 



144 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

misery oí having to compose a set, proper, weü-worded, 
correctly-poiuted, polite, elfegant epistle ! one that must 
liave a beginning, a middle, and an end, as methodi- 
cally arrang$d and portioned out as the several parta 
of a sermón under three heads, or the three gradationa 
of shade in a school-ghTs first landscape ! 

3. For my part, I would rather be set to beat hcmp, 
or weed in a turnip-field, than to write such a Letter 
exactly every inoiith, or every fortnight, at the precise 
point of time from the date of our correspondente last 
letter, that he or she wrote after the receptioii of qurs ; 
as if one's thoughts bubbled up to the well-head, at 
regular periods, a pint at a time, to be bottled off for 
immediate use ! Thought! what has thought to do in 
such a correspondence ? It murders thought, quenches 
fanc}^, wastes time, spoils paper, wears out innocent 
goose-quills. " Td rather be a kitten, and cry mew ! 
than one of those same" prosing letter-mongers. 

4. Surely in this age of invention something may be 
stiuck out to obvíate the necessity (if such necessiíy 
existe) of so tasking, degrading the human intellect. 
Why should not a sort of inute barrel-organ be con- 
structed on the plan of those that play sets of tunes 
and contra-dances, to indite a catalogue of polite epis- 
tles calculated for all the ceremonious observances of 
good breecling? Oh the unspeakable relief (could such 
a machine be invented) of having only to grind an 
answer to one of one's " dear, five hundred friends !" 

5. Or suppose there were to be an epistolaiy steam- 
engine. Ay, that's 237 the thing. Steam does every- 
thing now-a-days. Dear Mr. Brunel, set about it, I 

,J ' J7 TAafs, por that y ü. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 145 

beseech you, and achieve the uiost glorious of your 
undertakings. The block machine at Portsmouth 
would be nothing to it. That 238 spares manual labor ; 
this would relieve mental drudgery, and thousands yet 
unborn . . . But hold ! I am not so sure the female sex 
in general may quite enter into my views of the subjecfc. 

6. Those who pique themselves on the elegant style 
of their billets, or those fair scriblerinas just emanci- 
pated from boarding-school restraints, or the dragonism 
of their governess, just beginning to taste the fine enjoy- 
ments of sentimental, confidential, soul-breathing cor- 
respondence with some Angelina, Seraphina, or Laura 
Matilda ; to indite beautiful little notes, with long- 
tailed letters, upon vellum paper, with pink margins, 
sealed with sweet mottoes, and dainty devices, the 
whole deliciously perfumed with musk and attar of 
roses ; young ladies who collect " copies of verses," 
and charades, keep albums, copy patterns, make bread 
seáis, work little dogs upon footstools, and paint flowers 
without shadow — Oh ! no ! the epistolary stéam-engine 
will never come into vogue with those dear creatures. 
They must enjoy the " feast of reason, and the flow of 
soul," and they must write — yes! and how they do 
write ! 

7. But for another genus of female scribes, unhappy 
innocents ! who groan in spirit at the diré necessity of 
having to hammer out one of those aforesaid terrible 
epistles ; who, having in due form dated the gilt-edged 
sheet that lies outspread before them in appalling white- 
ness, having also felicitously achieved the graceful 
exordium, " My dear Mrs. P.," or, " My dear Lady V.," 

338 jyj uci ^ ¿¿¿^ a q Ue ll ( t eg |; 0t 



146 LECTÜIIAS INGLESAS. 

or, " My clear anyihing else," feel that thej are 

in for it, and must say something ! Oh, that something 
that must come of nothing ! those bricks that must be 
made without straw ! those pages that must be filled 
\ with words ! Yea, with words that must be sewed 
into sentences! Yea, with sentences that must seem to 
me^n something : the whole to be tacked together, all 
neátly^ fitted and dovetailed so as to form one smooth, 
polishéd surface ! 

8. TVliat were the labors of Hercules to such a 
task! 239 The very thought of it puts me into a mental 
perspiration ; and, from my inmost soul, I compassion- 
ate the unfortunates now (at this very moment, per- 
haps), screwed up perpendicularly in the seat of torture, 
having in the right hand a fresh-nibbed patent pen, 
dipped ever and anón into the ink-bottle, as if to hook 
up ideas, and under the outspread palm of the left hand 
a fair sheet of best JBath post (ready to receive thoughts 
yet unhatched), on which their eyes are riveted with a 
stare of disconsolate perplexity infinitely touching to a 
feeling mind. 

9. To such unhappy persons, in whose miseries I 
deeply sympathize . . . Have I not groaned under 
similar horrors, from the hour when I was first shut up 
(under lock and key, I believe), to indite a beautiful 
epistle to an honored aunt ? I remember, as if it were 
yesterday, the moment when she who liad enjoined the 
task entered to inspect the performance, which, by her 
calculation, shonld have been fully completed. I re- 
member how sheepishly I hung down my head, when 
she snatched from before me the paper (on which I liad 

239 ¿Qué son lashazafíasde Hércules para con semejante tarea ? 



LECTUBAS INGLESAS. 147 

made no further progress tlian " My dear ant,") angrily 
exclaiming, " What, child ! have you been shut up here 
three hours to cali your aunt a pismire? From that 
hour of humiliation I have too often groaned nnder the 
endurance of similar penance, and I have learned from 
my own sufferings to compassionate those of my dear 
sisters in affliction. To such unhappy persons, then, 
I would fain offer a few hints (the fruit of long experi- 
ence), which, if they have not already been suggested 
by their own observation, may prove serviceable in the 
hour of emergency. 

10. Let them....or suppose I address myself to one 
particular sufferer — there is something more confi- 
dential in that manner of communicating one ? s ideas. 
As Moore says, " Heart speaks to heart." I say, then, 
take always special care to write by candlelight, for not 
only is the apparently unimportant operation of snuff- 
ing the candle in itself a momentary relief to the de- 
pressing consciousness of mental vacuum, but not un- 
frequently that trifling act, or the brightening flame of 
the taper, elicits, as it were, from the dull embers of 
fancy, a sympathetic spark of fortúnate conception. 
When such a one occurs, seize it quickly and dex- 
terously, but, at the same time, with such cautious pru- 
dence, as not to huddle up and contract in one short, 
paltry sentence, that which, if ingeniously handled, 
may be wiredrawn, so as to undulate gracefully and 
smoothly over a whole page. 

11. For the more ready practice of this invaluable 
art of dilating, it will be expedient to stock your mem- 
ory with a large assortment of those precious words of 
many syllables, that fill whole lines at once; " incom- 
prehensibly, amazingly, decidedly, solicitously, incon- 



148 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

ceivably, incontrovertibly." An opportunity of using 
these, is, to a distressed spinster, as delightful as a 
copy all m's and n's to a child. " Command you may, 
your mind from play." They run on with such de- 
licious smootlmess ! Blackwood's Magazine. 



LXIV. 

Europe and America — Washington. 

[Extract from an address delivered by Daniel Webster, at the 
celebration of the completion of the Bunker Hill Monument, June 
17, 1843.] 

1. Few topics are more inviting, or more fit for philo- 
sophical discussion, than the action and influence of the 
New World upon the Oíd, or the contributions of Amer- 
ica to Europe. 

2. Her obligations to Europe for science and art, 
laws, lifcerature, and manners, America acknowledges 
as she ought, with respect and gratitude. And the 
people of the United States, descendants of the English 
stock, grateful for the treasures of knowledge derived 
from their English ancestors, acknowledge also with 
thanks and filial regard that among those ancestors, 
under the culture of Hampden and Sidney and other 
assiduous friends, that seed of popular liberty first ger- 
minated, which on our soil has shot up to its full height, 
uutil its branches overshadow all the land. 

3. But America has not failed to make returns. If 
she has not cancelled the obligation, or equalled it by 
others of like weight, she has at least made rcspectablo 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 149 

advances, and some approaclies toward equality. And 
she admits that, standing in the midst of civilized na- 
tions, and in a civilized age, a nation among nations, 
there is a high part which she is expected to act,' 240 for 
the general advance of human interests and human 
welfare. 

4. American mines have filled the mints of Europe 
with the precious metáis. The productions of the 
American soil and climate have poured out their abun- 
dance of luxuries for the tables of the rich, and of 
necessaries for the sustenance of the poor. Birds and 
animáis of beauty and valué have been added to the 
European stocks, and transplantations from the tran- 
scendent and unequalled riches of our forests have 
mingled themselves profusely with the elms and ashes 
and druidical oaks of England. 

5. America has made contributions far more vast. 
"Who can estimate the amount or the valué of the aug- 
mentaron of the commerce of the world that has re- 
sulted from America? Who can imagine to himself 
what would be the shock to the Eastern Continent, if 
the Atlantic were no longer traversable, or there were 
no longer American productions or American markets ! 

6. But America exercises influences, or holds out 
examples for the consideraron of the Oíd World, of a 
much higher, because they are of a moral and política! 
character. America has furnished to Europe proof of 
the fact that popular institutions, founded on equality 
and the principie of representation, are capable of main- 
taining governments — able to secure the rights of per- 
son s, property, and reputation. 

«40 ji ac ¿ a p ar ^ desempeñar un papel. 



150 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

7. America has pro ved tliat it is practicable to elévate 
the mass of mankind, — that portion wbich in Europe is 
callee! the laboiing or lower class, — to raise them to 
self-respect, to make them competent to act a part iri 
the great right and great duty of self-government ; and 
this, she has proved, may be done by the diffusion of 
knowledge. She holds out an example a thousand times 
more enchanting than ever was presented before to those 
nine-tenths of the human race who are born without 
hereditary fortune or hereditary rank. 

8. America has furnished to the world the character 
of Washington. And if our American institutions 
had done nothing else, that alone would have entitled 
them to the respect of mankind. "Washington ! " First 
in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his coun- 
trymen !" Washington is all our own ! 

9. The enthusiastic veneration and regard in which 
the people of the United States hold him, prove them 
to be worthy of such a countryman, while his reputation 
abroad refleets the highest honor on his country and its 
institutions. I would cheerfully put the question to any 
of the intelligence of Europe and the world — What char- 
acter of the century, upon the whole, stands out on the 
relief of history most puré, most respectable, most sub- 
lime ? and I doubt not that, by a suffrage approaching to 
unanimity, the answer would be — Washington ! 

10. This structure,* by its uprightness, its soliditv, 
its durability, is no unfit emblem of his character. His 
publie virtue and publie principies were as firm as the 
earth on which it stands ; his personal motives <is puro 
as the serene heaven in which its summit is lost. But, 

* El monumento de Bunkeres Hill. 



LECTÜEAS INGLESAS. 151 

indeed, though a fit, it is an ina Jequate emblem. Tow- 
ering high above tlie column which our hands have 
builded, beheld not by the inhabitants of a single city 
or a single state, ascends the colossal grandeur of his 
character and his life. In all the constituents of the 
one, in all the acts of the other, in all its titles to 
immortal loye, adrniration, and renown, it is an Ameri- 
can production. 

11. It is the embodiment and yindication of our trans- 
Atlantic liberty. Born upon our soil of parents also 
born upon it, never for a moment having had a sight of 
the Oíd World ; instructed aecording to the modes of his 
time only in the spare but wholesome elementary knowl- 
edge which our institutions provide for the children of the 
people ; growing up beneath, and penetrated by, the gen- 
uine influence of American society ; growing up amid 
our expanding, but not luxurious civilization ; partaking 
in our great destiny of labor, our long contest with 
unreclaimed nature and uncivilized man, our agony of 
glory, the war of independence, our great victory of 
peace, the formation of the Union, and the establish- 
ment of the Constitution ; — he is all, all our own ! That 
crowded and glorious life — 

" Where multitudes of virtues passed along, 
Each pressing foremost in the mighty throng, 
Contending to be seen, then making room 
For greater multitudes that were to come" — 

that life was the life of an American citizen. 

12. I claim him for America. In all the perils, in 
every darkened moment of the state, in the midst of the 
reproaches of enemies and the misgivings of friends, 
I turn to that transcendent ñame for courage and for 



152 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

consolation. To him wlio denies or doubts whether our 

fervid liberty can be conibined with law, with order, 

with the security of property, with tlie pursuits and 

advancement of happiness ; to him who denies that our 

institutions are capable of producing exaltation of soul 

and the passion of true glory ; to him who denies that 

we have contributed any to the stock of great lessons 

and great examples ; — to all these I reply by pointing 

to Washington ! 

Webster. 



XLY. 

Injudicious Haste in Study. 

1. The eagerness and strong bent of the mind after 
knowledge, if not warily regulated, is often a hinder- 
ance to it. It still presses into farther discoveries and 
new objects, and catches at the variety of knowledge, 
and, therefore, often stays not 241 long enough on what 
is before it to look into it as it sliould, for haste to pur- 
sue what is yet out of sight. 

2. He that rides post through a country may be 
able, from the transient view, to tell, in general, how 
the parts lie, and may be able to give some loóse de- 
scription of here a mountain, and there a plain ; here a 
morass, and there a river ; woodland in one part, and 
savannas in another. 

3. Such superficial ideas and observations as these, 
he may collect in galloping over it ; but the more use- 



' ¿A1 La inversión excusa, el auxiliar do. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 153 

ful observations of the soil, plants, animáis, and inhab- 
itants, with their several sorts and properties, must 
necessarily escape him ; and it is seldom men ever dis- 
cover the rich mines without some digging. 

4. Nature commonly lodges her treasures and jewels 
in rocky ground. If the matter be knotty, and the 
sense lies deep, the mind must stop and buckle to it, 
and stick upon it with labor and thought and cióse con- 
templation, and not leave it until it has mastered the 
difficulty, and got possession of truth. 

5. But, here, care must be taken to avoid the other 
extreme ; a man must not stick at every useless nicety, 
and expect mysteries of science in every trivial question 
or scruple that he may raise. He that will stand to 
pick up and examine every pebble that comes in his 
way, is as unlikely to return enriched and laden with 
jewels, as the other that travelled full speed. 

6. Truths are not the better ñor the worse for their 
obviousness or difficulty ; but their valué is to be meas- 
ured by their usefulness and tendency. Insignificant 
observations should not take up any of our minutes ; 
and those that enlarge our view, and give light toward 
further and useful discoveries, should not be neglected, 
though they stop our course and spend some of our 
time in fixed attention. John Locke. 



XLVI. 

The true Test of a Book. 

1. Toung readers, you whose hearts are open, whose 
understandings are not yet hardened, and whose feel- 



154 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

ings are neither exliausted ñor incrusted b} T the world, 
take from me a better rule than any professor of criti- 
cism wjll teach you. Would you know whether the 
tendency of a book is good or evil, examine in what 
state of mind you lay it down. 

2. Has it induced you to suspect tliat what you have 
been accustomed ío think unlawful, may, after al], be 
innocent ; and that that 242 may be harmless which you 
have hitherto been taught to think dangerous ? Has 
it tended to make you dissatisfied and impatient under 
the control of others, and disposed you to relax in that 
self-government without which both the laws of God 
and man tell us there can be no virtue, and, conse- 
quently, no happiness ? 

3. Has it attempted to abate your admiration and 
reverence for what is great and good, and to diminish 
in you the love of your country and your fellow-crea- 
tures ? Has it addressed itself to your pride, your 
vanity, your selfishness, or any other of your evil pro- 
pensities ? Has it defiled the imagination with what is 
loathsome, and shocked the heart with what is mon- 
strous ? 

4. Has it disturbed the sense of right and wrong, 
which the Creator has implanted in the human soul ? 
If so, if you have felt that such were the effects that 
it was intended to produce, throw the book into the 
fire, whatever ñame it may bear on the title-page, 
Throw it into the fire, young man, though it should 
have been the gift of a friend ; young lady, away with 
the whole set, tliough it should be the prominent rarni- 
ture of a rosewood bookcase. Southey, 

841 Nótense los dus that: el primero es que, el segundo aquello. 



LECTUEAS INGLESAS. 155 

XLVIL 

The tkue Test of Integeity. 

1. Suppose a clerk has it in his power to defraud his 
employer (as young men of necessity are intrusted with 
large suins of money or other property), and he is per- 
suaded that the opportunity is one which, if enibraced, 
will put it forever out of the power of any human being 
to discover it, he might thus reason with himself : 

2. Here is an occasion, in which I can appropriate to 
myself a sum of money, and no one but the All-seeing 
Eye will behold my deed of guilt. It may be a nucleus, 
around which I can soon gather a fortune, and the 
wealth of my employer will remain undiminished. On 
tbe other hand, the act may be discovered, and my 
prospects blasted ; and the possibility of my character 
being ruined, is a difficulty that deters me. I will not 
run the hazard. 

3. That young man, being honest from the fear of 
detection alone, is a dishonest youth. When the time 
comes round, and brings with it a temptation unclogged 
by any danger of detection, that young man will prove 
himself false as the sea. He clings to fidelity solely 
because by it he believes his interest wdll best be pro- 
inoted. 

4. He has looked at fraud in the face, and calculated 
deliberately the loss and gain of practising it ; but fear 
of detection, the prospect of rising in the firm, and a 
conscience that might destroy his peace, have decided 
him to act in such a manner as to exelude the only 



156 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

element of honesty in the act — viz., 24b a regare! to tbe 
law of Heaven ! 

5. Yv lien a certain young man in Egypt was tempted 
to viólate the rights of his master's household, lie did 
not stop to calcúlate the policy of the fraud, or balance 
the loss or gain which might result. His eye flashed 
up to Heaven, and he asked the fair temptress : " How 
can I do this great wickedness, and sin against God?" 

W. H. Van Doren. 



XLYIII. 

The Three Heavy Stones. 

1. It was on the confines of the desert, amid barren 
and almost inaccessible rocks, that Ben Achmet, the 
Dervis, led a life of austerity and devotion. A cave in 
the rock was his dwelling. Roots and fruits, the scanty 
produets of the sterile región he inhabited, satisfied his 
hunger, and the fountain that bubbled up from the 
lower part of a neighboring cliff slaked his thirst. 

2. He had formerly been a priest in a magnificent 
mosque, and scrupulously conducted the ceremonies 
of the Mohammedan faith ; but disgusted with the 
hypocrisy and injustice of those around him, he aban- 
donad the mosque and his authority as a priest, be- 
taking himself to the desert, to spend his days as an 
anchorite, in self-denial and devotion. 

3. Years rolled over the head of Ben Achmet, and tho 
fame of his sanctity spread abroad. He often supplied 

a4! * Viz., abreviatura de videlicet, esto es : á saber. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 157 

the traveller of the desert with water from his little 
well. In times of pestilence, he left his solitary abode 
to attend to the sick and comfort the dying in the vil- 
lages that were scattered around, and often did he 
stanch the blood of the wounded Arab, and heal him 
of his wounds. His fame was spread abróad ; his 
ñame inspired veneration, and the plundering Bedouin 
gave up his booty at the command of Ben Achmet, the 
Dervis. 

4. Akaba was an Arabian robber ; he had a band of 
lawless men under his command, ready to do his bid- 
ding. He had a treasure-house stored with ill-gotten 
wealth, and a large number of prisoners. The sanctity 
of Ben Achmet arrested his . attention ; his conscience 
smote him on account of his guilt, and he longed to be 
as famed for his devotion as he had been for his crimes. 

5. He sought the abode of the Dervis, and told him 
his desires. " Ben Achmet," said he, " I have five 
hundred cimeters ready to obey me, numbers of slaves 
at my command, and a goodly treasure-house filled 
with riches : tell me how to add to these the hope of a 
happy immortality ?" 

6. Ben Achmet led him to a neighboring cliff that was 
steep, rugged, and high, and pointing to three large 
stones that lay near together, he told him to lift them 
from the ground, and to follow him up the cliff. Aka- 
ba, laden with the stones, could scarcely move ; to 
ascend the cliff with them was impossible. " I cannot 
follow thee, Ben Achmet," said he, "with these bur- 
dens." " Then cast down one of the stones," replied 
the Dervis, " and hasten after me." Akaba dropped 
one of the stones, but still found himself too heavily 
encumbered to proceed. 



158 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

7. " I tell thee it is inrpossible," cried the robber 
cliieftain ; " thou tliyself couldst not proceed a step with 
such a load." " Let go another stone, tlien," said Ben 
Achmet. 

8. Akaba readily dropped another stone, and, with 
great difficulty, clambered the cliff for awhile, till, ex- 
hausted with the effort, he again cried out that he 
could come no further. Ben Achmet directed him to 
drop the last stone, and no sooner liad he done this 
than he mounted with ease, and soon stood with his 
conductor on the summit of the cliff. 

9. " Son," said Ben Achmet, "thou hast three bur- 

dens which hinder thee in thy way to a better world. 

Disband thy troops of lawless plunderers, set thy pris- 

oners at liberty, and restore thy ill-gotten wealth to its 

owners. It is easier for Akaba to ascend this cliff with 

the stones that lie at its foot, than for him to journey 

onward to a better world with power, pleasure, and 

riches in his possession." 

Anonymous. 



XLIX. 

Enemies of the Whale. 

1. The only natural enemies the whale is known to 
have, are the swordfish, thrasher, and killer. This 
latter is itself a species of whale, that has sharp teeth, 
and is exceedingly swift in the water, and wilP'" bite 

'"* W¡/lvn este caso no es signo del futuro, sino del présenle, é in- 
dica la aptitud. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 159 

and worry a whale until quite dead. When one of 
them gets among a gara, or sehool, of whales, lie spreads 
great consternation, and the tirnid creatures fly every 
way, like deer chased by tlie hounds, and fall an easy 
prey to the whale-boats that may be near enough to 
avail themselves of the opportunity. 

2. I have lieard a captain detail with interest a 
scene of this kind, in which the killers and harpooners 
were together against the poor whale, and the killers 
actually succeeded in pulling under and making oíí 
with a prize which the whalernen thought themselves 
sure of. In the United States exploring squadron, on 
board the Peacock, as we learn from the narrative of 
Commander Wilkes, they witnessed a sea-fight between 
a whale and one of these enemies. The sea was 
smooth, and offered the best possible view of the 
combat. 

3. First, at a distance from the ship, a whale was 
seen floundering in a most extraordinary way, lashing 
the smooth sea hito a perfect foam, and endeavoring, 
apparently, to extricate himself from some annoyance. 
As he approached the ship, the struggle continuing, and 
becoming more violent, it was perceived that a fish, about 
twenty feet long, held him by the jaw : his spoutings, 
contortions, and throes, all betokening the agony of the 
liuge monster. 

4. The whale now threw himself at full length upon 
the water with open month, his pursuer still hanging to 
his under jaw, the blood issuing from the wound dyeing 
the sea for a long distance round. But all his flounder- 
ings were of no avail : his pertinacious enemy still main- 
tained his hold, and was evidently getting the advantage 
of him- Much alarm seemed to be felt by the many 



lfiO LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

other whales about. 245 Such was the turbulence with 
which they passed, that a goocl view could not be liad 
of thera, to inake out moro clearly the description. 

5. These fish attack a whale in the same way that a 
dog baits a bull, and worry him to death. They are 
endowed with immense strength, armed with strong, 
sharp teeth, and, generally, seize the whale by the 
lower jaw. It is said the only part they eat of them is 
the tongue. The sword-fish and thrasher have been, 
also, seen to attack the whale together ; the sword-fish 
driving Iris tremendous weapon into the body from be- 
neath upward, 246 and the thrasher fastened to his back, 
and giving him terrific blows with his flail. 

6. The thrasher having no power to strike through 
the water, it has been observed by all who have wit- 
nessed these strange combats, that it seems to be the 
instinctive war policy of the sword-fish to make his at- 
tack from below : thus causing the whale to rise above 
the surface, which, under the goad of the cruel sword 
of the enemy, he has been known to do to a great 
height : the unrelenting thrasher meanwhile holding 
on like a leech, and dealing his blows unsparingly 
through the air, with all the forcé of his lengthy frame. 

H. T. Ciieever. 



L. 

HOW TO MEET ADVERSITY. 

1. Men become indolent through the reverses of for- 
tune. Surely despondency is a grievous thing, and a 

iib Alrededor. * 4 * De abajo arriba. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 161 

heavy load to bear. To see disaster and wreck in tlie 
present, and no light in the future, but only storms, 
lurid by the contrast of past prosperity, and growing 
darker as they advance ; to wear a constant expecta- 
tion of woe like a girdle ; to see want at the door, im- 
periously knocking, while there is no strength to repel 
or courage to bear its tyranny — indeed this, this is 
dreadful enough. But there is a thing more dreadful. 
It is more dreadful if the man is wrecked with his 
fortune. 

2. Can anything be more poignant 247 in anticipation 
than one's own self, unnerved, cowed down, and slack- 
ened into utter pliancy, and helplessly drifting and 
driven down the troubled sea of life ? Of all things on 
earth, next to his God, a broken man should eling to a 
courageous industry. If it brings nothing back, and 
saves nothing, it will save hiin. 

3. To be pressed down by adversity has nothing in 
it of disgrace ; but it is disgraeeful to lie down nnder 
it like a supple dog. Indeed, to stand eomposedly in 
the storm, amidst its rage and w r ildest devastations ; to 
let it beat over you, and roar around you, and- pass by 
you, and leave you undismayed — this is to be a man. 

4. Adversity is the mint in which God stamps upon 
us His image and superscription. In this matter, men 
may learn of inseets. The ant w T ill repair his dwelling 
as often as the mischievous foot crushes it ; the spider 
will exhaust life itself before he will live without a 
web ; the bee can be decoyed from his labor neither 
by plenty ñor scarcity. If summer be abundant, it 
toils none the less ; if it be parsimonious of flowers, 

247 Pronuncíese póinant. 



162 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

the tiny laborer sweeps a wider circle, and by industry 
repairs the frugality of the season. Man should be 
ashamed to be rebuked in vain by the spider, the ant, 
and the bee. Henry Ward Beecher. 



LI. 

Etvees. 



1. There are few subjects in physical geography 
which present so wide a field for speculation as rivers, 
whether we regard them in a historical, political, eco- 
nómica], or scientific point of view. 248 

2. They are associated with the earliest efforts of 
mankind to emerge from a state of barbarism ; but 
they are no less serviceable to nations which have 
reached the acmé of civilization. la the earliest ages 
they were regarded with veneration, and became the 
objects of a grateful adoration, surpassed only by that 
paid to the sun and the host of heaven. 

3. Ñor is this surprising ; for, in countries where the 
labors of the husbandman and shepherd depended, for 
a successful issue, on the falling of periodical rains, or 
the melting of the collected snows in a far distant 
country, such rivers as the Nile, the Ganges, and the 
Indos were the visible agents of nature in bestowin^ 
on the inh abitan ts of their banks all the blessings of 
a rich and spontaneous fertility ; and henee their wa- 

248 Ya se consideren bajo el punto de visla histórico, ya político, 
económico, ó cicnlííico. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 163 

ters were held sacred, and they received, and, to this 
day, retain the adoration of the coun tries through 
which they flow. 

4. But it is by countries which have already made 
progress in civilization, to which, indeed, they largely 
contribute, that the advantages of rivers are best ap- 
preciated, in their adaptation to the purposes of navi- 
gation, and in their application to the useful arts. 

5. Like the veins and arteries of the human body, 
which convey life and strength to its remotest extreini- 
ties, rivers vivify, maintain, and excite the efforts of 
human industry, whether we regard them, near their 
source, as the humble instruments of turning a mili, 
in their progress, as facilitating the transport of agri- 
cultura! or manufacturing produce from one district to 
another, or as enriching the countries at their mouths 
with the varied producís of distant lands. 

6. This has been admirably expressed by Pliny : 
" The beginnings of a river," he says, " are insignificant, 
and its infancy is frivolous ; it plays among the flowers 
of a meadow ; it v^aters a garden, or turns a little mili. 
Gathering strength in its youth, it becomes wild and 
impetuous. 

7. " Impatient of the restraints which it still meets 
with in the hollows among the mountains, it is restless 
and fretful ; quick in its turning, and unsteady in its 
course. Now it is a roaring cataract, tea-ring up and 
overturning whatever opposes its progress, and it shoots 
headlong down from a rock ; then it becomes a sulien 
and gloomy pool, buried in the bottom of a glen. 

8. " Recovering bread th by repose, it again dashes 
along, till, tired of uproar and mischief, it quits all that 
it has swept along, and leaves the opening of the val- 



164: LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

ley strewed witli tlie rejected waste. Now quitting its 
rctirement, it comes abroad into tbe world, journeying 
with. more prudence and discretion through cultivated 
fields, yielding to circumstances, and winding round 
what would trouble it to overwhelm or remove. 

9. " It passes through the populous cities, and all the 
busy haunts of men, tendering its services on every 
side, and becomes the support and ornament of the 
country. Increased by numerous alliances, and ad- 
vanced in its course, it becomes grave and stately in 
its motions, loves peace and quiet, and in majestic si- 
lence rolls on its mighty waters till it is laid to rest in 
the vast abyss." Brande. 



LII. 

How to Make a Scholar. 

1. Costly apparatus and splendid cabinets have no 
magical power to make scholars. In all circumstances, 
as 249 a man is, under God, the master of his own for- 
tune, so 249 is he the maker of his own mind. The 
Creator has so 250 constituted the human intellect, that 250 
it can only grow by its own action ; and, by its own 
action and free will, it will certainly and necessarily 
grow. 

2. Every man must, therefore, edúcate himself. His 
book and teacher are but helps ; the work is his. A 
man is not educated until he has the ability to summon, 
in an emergency, all his mental pow T ers in vigorous ex- 

249 Así como . . . así. ,,6Ü De tal modo . . . que. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 165 

ercise to effect his proposed object. It is not tlie man 
who has seen most, or read most, who can do tliis ; such 
a one is in danger of being borne down, like a beast of 
burden,by an overloaded mass of otlier men's thoughts. 
3. Ñor is it the man who can boast of native vigor 
and capacity. The greatest of all warriors in the siege 
of Troy, had not the pre-eminence, because nature had 
giren him strength, and" 51 he carried the largest bow, 
but because self-discipline had taught him how to 
bend it. 



LUÍ. 

The Best Kixd of Revenge. 

1. Some years ago, a warehouseman in Manchester, 
England, published a scurrillous pamphlet, in which he 
endeavored to hold up the house of Grant Brothers to 
ridicule. AVilliam Grant remarked upon the occurrence 
that the man would live to repent what he had done, 
and this Tvas conveyed by some tale-bearer to the libel- 
ler, who said, " Oh, I snppose he thinks I shall some 
time be in his debt ; but I will take good care of that." 
It happens, however, that a man in business cannot 
alwajs choose who shall be his creditors. The pamph- 
leteer became a bankrvtpt, and the brotliers held an 
acceptance of his which had been indorsed to them by 
the drawer, who had also become a bankrupt. 

2. The wantonlv libelled men had tiras become cred- 

361 Elipsis viciosa de la conjunción because. 



166 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

itors of the libeller ! They now liad it in tlieir power 
to make him repent of his audacity. He conld not 
obtain his certifícate without their signature, and with- 
ont it he could not enter into business again. He had 
obtainéd the number of signatures required by the 
bankrupt law except one. It seemed folly to hope that 
the firm of " the brothers" would supply the deficiency. 
What ! they who had cruelly been made the laughing- 
stock 262 of the public, forget the wrong and favor the 
wrong-doer? He despaired. But the claims of a wife 
and children forced him at last to make the application. 
Humbled by misery, he presented himself at the count- 
ing-house of the wronged. 

3. Mr. William Grant was there alone, and his first 
words to the delinquent were, "Shut the door, sir!" — 
sternly uttered. The door was shut, and the libeller 
stood trembling before the libelled. He told his tale, 
and produced his certifícate, which was instantly 
clutched by the injured merchant. " Yon wrote a 
pamphlet against us once!" exclaimed Mr. Grant. 
The supplicant expected to see his parchment thrown 
into the fire. But this was not its destination. Mr. 
Grant took a pen, and, writing something upon the 
document, handed it back to the bankrupt. He, poor 
wretch ! expected to see " rogue, scoundrel, libeller " 
inscribed, but there, in fair round characters, the signa- 
ture of the firm. 

4. " We make it a rule," said Mr. Grant, "never to 
refase signing the certifícate of an honest tradesman, 
and we have never heard that you were anything else. 
The tears started into the poor man's eyes. "Ah!" 

' 2b ' ¿ Hazmereir. 



LECTTJKAS INGLESAS. 167 

said Mr. Grant, " my saying was true. I said yon would 
live to repent writing that pamphlet. I did not mean 
it as a threat. I only meant that some day you would 
know ns better, and be sorry you had tried to injure us. 
I see you repent of it now." "X do, I do!" said the 
grateful man ; " I bitterly repent it." " Well, well, my 
dear fellow, you know us now. How do you get on ? 
What are you going to do?" The poor man stated 
that he had friends who could assist him when his cer- 
tifícate was obtained. "But how are } t ou off in the 
mean time ?" 

5. And the answer was, that, having given up every 
farthing to his creditors, he had been compelled to 
stint his family of even common necessaries, that he 
might be enabled to pay the cost of his certifícate. 
" My dear fellow, this will not do ; your family must 
not suffer. Be kind enough to take this ten-pound 
note 253 to your wife from me. There, there, my dear 
fellow ! Nay, don't cry ; it will be all well with you 
yet. Keep up your spirits, set to work like a man, and 
you will raise your head among us yet." The over- 
powered man endeavored in vain to express his thanks : 
the swelling in his throat forbade words. He put his 
handkerchief to his face, and vvent out of the door cry- 

ing like a child. 

Chambers. 

253 Diez libra billete, esto es billete de á diez libras (esterlinas). 



108 LECTUKAS INGLESAS. 

LXXIV. 

What is a Gentleman. 

1. A gentleman is just a gentle-m&n ili — no more, no 
less ; a diamond polished that was firsfc a diamond in 
the rough. A gentleman is gentle. A gentleman is 
modest. A gentleman is courteous. A gentleman is 
generous. A gentleman is slow to take offense, as 
being one that never gives it. A gentleman is slow to 
surmise evil, as being one that never thinks it. A gen- 
tleman goes armed only in consciousness of right. A 
gentleman subjects his appetites. A gentleman refines 
bis taste. A gentleman subdues his feelings. A gen- 
tleman deems every other better than himself. 

2. Sir« Philip Sydney was never so much a gentle- 
man — mirror though he was of England's knighthood — 
as when, upon the fielci of Zatphen, as he lay down in 
his ovvn blood, he waived the draught of cold spring 
water that was brought to quench his mortal thirst in 
favor of a dying soldier. St. Paul described a gentle- 
man when he exhorted the Philippian Christians : 
"Whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are 
puré, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things 
are of good report, if there be any virtue, and if there 
be any praise, think on these things." G. AV. Doane. 

264 En efecto, gentleman es pa- y man, hombre; esto es un hom- 
labra compuesta, de gentle, suave, bre de maneras suaves. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 169 

LY. 

Eaely Gkeciau Histort. 

1. Nearly all that is of interest and information to us 
in the history of the world prior to the Christian era is 
einbraced in the history of tlie Jews 3 and in Grecian and 
Eoinan history. To the Bible, chiefly, we are to look 
for the details of the foriner. Grecian history folio ws 
next in the order of time, beginning far back in the 
gloom of antiquity, with the supposed fonnding of 
Argos in 1856 before the Christian era, and extending 
down to the conquest of Greece by the Eomans in the 
year 1-16, B. c. After this latter period, and during 
several centuries, the history of the then known world 
is observed in the overshadowinsf, first, of the líoman 
republic, and afterward of the Rornan enipire. All 
that is known of Grecian history during a period of 
more than a thousand years after the date arbitrarily 
assigned for the founding of Argos, rests on no better 
basis than the songs and traditionary legends of bards 
and story-tellers. 

2. During this long period it is impossible to dis- 
tinguish ñames and events, real and historicar, from 
fictitious creations which so confound the human and 
the divine as to mock all attempts at elucidation. T^e 
must therefore set asicle as merely pleasing fictions, to 
be classed with the legends of the gods, the stories of 
Cecrops, and Cranaus, and Danaus, the acconnt of the 
Argonautic expedition, and the labors of Hercules ; 
and even the beautiful story of Helen and the Trojan 



170 LECTUEAS INGLESAS. 

war, " the rnost splendid geni in the Grecian legends," 
is declared by the historian Grote to be " essentially a 
legend, and nothing more." 

3. But out of this thousand years of darkness a 
something tangible and reliable has, nevertheless, been 
obtained, which may be dignified with the ñame of his- 
tory — a history of what the people thought, though not 
of what they <3id. From fable, and legend, and tradi- 
tion, we learn what was the religious belief of the early 
Greeks, and this has been embodied in what is called 
Grecian mythology. 

4. The early Greeks, like all rude, uncultivated tribes, 
probably associated their earliest religious emotions 
with the character of surrounding objects, and ascribed 
its appropriate deity to every manifestation of power 
in the visible universe. Thus they had nymphs of the 
forests, rivers, meadows, and fountains, and gods and 
goddesses almost innumerable, some terrestrial, others 
celestial, according to the places over which they were 
supposed to preside, and rising in importance in pro- 
portion to the power they manifested. The foundation 
of this religión, like all others, w T as a belief in higher 
existences which have an influence over the destiny of 
mortals. The process by which the beings of Grecian 
mythology naturally aróse out of the teeming fancies 
of the ardent Greek mind, is beautifullj r described by 
the poet Wordsworth. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 171 

LVI. 

The Persian Wars. 

1. Passing over the " fabulous period" of Grecian his- 
tory, which may be presumed to end about the time of 
the cióse of the supposed Trojan war, and the " uncer- 
tain period," which embraces an account of the institu- 
tions of Lycurgus, the Messenian wars, and the 
legislation of Solón, we come down to what is called 
the " authentic period," which begins with the causes 
that led to the first Persian war. 

2. Darius, king of Persia, exasperated against Athens 
on account of the assistance which she had given to the 
Greek colonies of Asia Minor in their revolt against 
the Persian power, resolved upon the conquest of all 
Greece ; but in the third year of the war, 490 B. c, his 
army, numbering a hundred thousand men, was de- 
feated with great slaughter by a forcé of little more 
than ten thousand Greeks, on the plains of Marathón. 

3. Ten years later, Xerxes, the son and successor of 
Darius, opened the second Persian war by invading 
Greece in person, at the head of the greatest army the 
world has ever seen, and whose numbers have been 
estimated at more than two millions of fighting men. 
This immense host, proceeding by the way of Thessaly, 
had arrived without opposition at the narrow defile of 
Thermopylse, between the mountains and the sea, where 
the Spartan Leónidas was posted with three hundred 
of his countrymen and some Thespian allies, in all less 
than a. thousand men. 



172 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

4. The Spartans were forbidden by their laws ever to 
flee from an enemy ; 255 they had taken an oath never to 
desert their standards ; and Leónidas and his country- 
men, and their few allies, prepared to sell their lives as 
dearly as possible. Bravely meeting the attack of the 
Persian host, and retreating into the narrowest of the 
pass as their numbers were thinned by the storm of 
arrows, and by the living mass that was hurled upon 
them, they fought with the valor of desperation until 
every one of their nuniber had fallen. A monunient 
was afterward erected on the spot bearing the following 
inscription : " Go, stranger, and tell at Lacedaemon that 
we died liere in obedience to her laws." 



LYII. 

The Era of Grecian Eloquence and Literatüre. 

1. The golden age 256 of Grecian eloquence and litera- 
ture is embodied in a period of a hundred and thirty 
years, reckoning from the time of Pericles ; and during 
this period Athens bore the palm alone. Of the many 
eminent Athenian orators, the most distinguished were 
Lysias, Isocrates, ¿Eschines, and Demosthenes. Among 
historians whose works are still venerated may be men- 
tioned, as most conspicuous, the ñames of Herodotus, 
Thucydides, Xenophon, and Polybius ; among poets 
and dramatists, ^Eschylus, Sophocles, Eurípides, and 

Las leyes de los espartanos a6fl La edad de oro. 
les prohibían el huir jamas de 
un enemigo. 



LECTÜEAS INGLESAS. 173 

Aristophanes ; and among philosophers, Sócrates, 
Plato, and Aristotle. Volumes would be requisite to 
describe the character and works of these writers, and 
to convey a just idea of the indebtedness of the mod- 
erns to the lights which they kindled. 

2. The Greeks were exceedingly fond of the drama, 
which we may now look back upon as one of the best 
expositors of the Athenian mind in the departments of 
politics, religión, and philosophy. In the time of Pén- 
eles a large number of dramas was presented on the 
Athenian stage every year ; the whole population of 
Athens flocked to the theatres to wifcness them : and 
when we reflect that these representations embraced 
not only, as at first, the religious notions of the Greeks, 
but that they were finally extended to every subject of 
political and private life, we shall be satisfied that so 
powerful poetic influences were never brought to act 
upon any other people. 

3. Of the very great degree of license which was 
given to the Grecian drama in attacking, under the 
veil of satire, existing institutions, politicians, phiioso- 
phers, poets, and even private citizens by ñame, some 
idea may be formed from " The Knights" of Aristo- 
phanes, in which a chorus of singers, coming npon the 
stage, commences an attack upon Cleon, a corrupt po- 
litical demagogue who had gained such consideration 
by flattering the lower orders and railing at the higher, 
that he stood in the situation of head of a party. 



174 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

LVIII. 
The Latter Days of Grecian History. 

1. About fifty years after the batfcle of Plataea the 
Grecians became involved in a seríes of clomestic con- 
tests, called the " Peloponnesian wars," which continued, 
with occasional intervals of peace, until Philip, King 
of Macedón, by the successful battle of Cheronrea, 
broke up the feeble Grecian confederacy, and soon 
after succeeded, by inducing the conquered States to 
elect him commander-in-chief of all the Grecian forces. 
It was wliile Philip was plotting against the liberties 
of Greece that his intrigues called forth from the Athe- 
nian Demosthenes, the greatest of Grecian orators, 
those famous " Philippics" which have immortalized 
both the orator and the object of liis invectives. 

2. Alexander the Great, the son and successor of 
Philip, carried out the plans of his father by a suc- 
cessful invasión of the Persian dotninions ; but on his 
death, in the thirty-third year of his age, B. c. 324, the 
vast empire which he liad so suddenly built up was as 
suddenly broken in pieces, and the Grecian States 
again became a prey to civil dissensions, which were 
terminated only by the subjection of all Greece to the 
dominión of the Eomans, the year 146 before the 
Christian era. This poiut is the proper 8 " termination 
of Grecian history ; for, " as rivers flow into the sed, 
so does the history of all the nations, known to have 



r Aquí termina verdaderamente la historia griega. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 175 

existed previously in tlie regions round the Mediterra- 
nean, termínate in the history of Eonie." 

3. With the loss of her liberties, the glory of Greece 
passed away. Her population had been gradually 
diminishing since the period of the Persian wars ; and 
from the epoch of the Román conquest the spirit of 
the nation sunk into despondency, and the energies of 
the people gradually wasted, until, at the time of the 
Christian era, Greece existed only in the remembrance 
of the past. Then, many of her cities were desoíate, 
or liad sunk to insignificant villages, while Athens 
alone maintained her renown for philosophy and the 
arts, and became the instructor of her conquerors ; large 
tracts of land, once devoted to tillage, were either bar- 
ren or had been converted into pastures for sheep and 
vast herds of cattle ; while the rapacity of Eoman gov- 
ernors had inflicted upon the sparse population im- 
poverishment and ruin. 



LIX. 

Early Eoman History. 

1. The early history of Eome, as recorded by Livy 
and other early writers, from the period of the sup- 
posed founding of the city by Eomulus, about 258 the 
year 753 B. c., 259 down to the banishment of the Tar- 
quins and the abolition of royalty, 510 B. c. — and even 

•¿58 p or j os a ^ os ^53 antes de * 259 B. C, abreviatura de beforó 
nuestra era. CJirist, antes de Cristo. 



17G LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

perhaps a century or two later — is of very doubtftil au- 
thenticity, and was probably compiled froto legendary 
poems that liad been transmitted from generation to 
generation, and often rehearsed, to the sound of music, 
at the banquets of the great. 

2. The historian Macaulay has aimed to reconstruct 
sorae of these poetic legends, which he has given to the 
world under the title of "Lays of Ancient lióme," and 
which are supposed to ha ve been recited by ancient 
minstrels who were in no wise above the passions and 
prejudices of their age and country. It is stated by all 
the Latin historians that, a few years after the expul- 
sión of the Tarqnins for their clespotism and crimes, 
the neighboring Etruscans, to which nation they be- 
longed, endeavored to restore the tyrants to power, and 
carne against Eome with an overwhelming forcé. The 
Romans, repulsed at first, fled across a wooden bridge 
over the Tiber, when the Román cónsul ordered the 
bridge to be destroyed, to prevent the enemy from en- 
tering the city. The continuation of the legend is sup- 
posed to ha ve been narrated by one of the Román 
minstrels, at a period one hundred years later than the 
events there recorded. 



LX. 

Patrician and Plebeian Contests. 

1. During several hundred years after the overthrow 

of royalty, the history of the Román republic is filled 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 177 

with accounts of the fierce civil contests wliicli raged 
between the patrician aristocracy and the common 
people or plebeians, relieved by an occasional episode 
of a war with some of the surrounding people. At 
first, the patricians were the wealthy and ruling class : 
they held all the high military commands ; they made 
the laws; and they reduced the plebeians to a con- 
dition differing little from the most abject slavery. 

2. At length, in the year 493 b. a, after an open rap- 
tare between these two classes, and the withdrawal of 
the plebeians from the city, a reconciliation was eí- 
fected, and magistrates, called tribunes, were allowed 
to be chosen by the people to watch over their rights, 
and prevent abuses of authority. About forty-five 
years later, however, ten persons, called decenivirs, 
who were appointed to compile a bocly of laws for the 
commonwealth, having managed to get the powers of 
the government into their own hands, ruled in the 
most tyrannical manner, and oppressed the plebeians 
worse than ever. 

3. But an unexpected event — a prívate injury — ac- 
complished what wrongs of a more public nature liad 
failed to effect. The wicked Appius Claudius, a leacl- 
ing decemvir, liad formed the design of securing the 
person of the beautiful Virginia, daughter of Virginius ; 
but, fincling her betrothed to another, in order to ac- 
complish his purpose he procured a base dependent to 
claim her as his slave. As had been concerted, Vir- 
ginia was brought before the tribunal of Appius him- 
self, who ordered her to be surrendered to the claimant. 
It was then that the distracted father, having no other 
ineans of saving his daughter, stabbed her to the heart 
in the presence of the court and the assembled people. 



178 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

The people aróse in tbeir miglit ; the power o.f tlio 
" wickecl ten'' was overthrown ; and Appius, having 
been impeached, died in prison, probably by bis own 
hand. 

4. About eighty years after tlie death of Virginia the 
plebeians succeeded, after a struggle of five years 
against every species of fraud and violence (especially 
on the part of Claudius Crassus, grandson of the 
infamous Appius Claudius), in obtaining the full ac- 
knowledgment of their rights, and all possible legal 
guarantees for their preservation. It is during this 
struggle that a popular poet (as Macaulay supposes), 260 
a zealous adherent of the tribunes, makes his appear- 
anee in the publie market-place, and announces that he 
has a new song that will cut the Claudian family to the 
heart. He takes his stand on the spot where, accord- 
ing to tradition, Virginia, more than seventy years ago, 
was seized by the base dependent of Appius, and there 
relates the sfcory. 



LXI. 

The Carthaginian Waus. 

1. After the Eomans had reduced all Italy to their 
dominión, about 270 years before the Christian era, 
they began to extend their influence abroad, when an 
interference with the affairs of Sicily brought on a war 
Avitli Carthage, at that time a powerful republie on tho 

' 2C0 Según lo supone Macaulay. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 179 

northern African coast, 261 superior in strength and re- 
sources to the Bornan. The Carthaginians were origi- 
nally a Tyrian colony from Phoenicia ; and not only had 
tliey, at this time, extended their dominión over the 
surrounding African tribes, but they had foreign posses- 
sions in Spain, and also in Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, 
Malta, and other islands of the Mediterranean. 

2. In the year 263 before Christ the first Punic war 
began ; and, after it had continued eight years with 
varied success, the Bomans sent the Cónsul Begulus, 
at the head of a large army, to carry the war into 
África. On the passage across the Mediterranean, the 
Carthaginian fleet, bearing not less than a hundred and 
fifty thousand men, was met and defeated ; but in a 
subsequent battle on land the Bornans themselves were 
defeated with great loss, and Regulus himself, being 
taken prisoner, was thrown into a dungeon. Five years 
later, however, the Carthaginians were in turn defeated 
in Sicily, w T ith a loss of twenty thousand men, and the 
capture of more than a hundred of their elephants, 
which they had trained to fight in the ranks. 

3. It was then that the Carthaginians sent an em- 
bassj^ to Borne with proposals of peace. Begulus was 
taken from his dungeon to accompany the embassy, the 
Carthaginians trusting that, weary of his long captivity, 
he would urge the senate to accept the proffered terms ; 
but the inflexible Boman persuaded the senate to reject 
the proposal and continué the war, assuring his coun- 
trymen that the resources of Carthage were already 
nearly exhausted. Bound by his oath to return if 



261 Seria mas correcto decir ; the northern, 6 nortfi, coast of 

África. 



180 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

peaoe were not concluded, he voluntarily went l>:ick, in 
spite oí the prayers and entreatíes of his friends, to 
meet fche fate which awaited him. It is generally 
stated that afterhis return to Carthage hewas torturad 
to death by tho exasperated Carthaginians. 



LXII. 

The Newspaper. 

1. Notliing wliicli is familiar to us strikes us as won- 
derful. Were miracles repeated every day, we should 
come to glance at them very heedlessly. We get used 
to rainbows, and stars, and sunsets, and the flashing 
tires of the north. Surprise wears away in time from 
the greatest discoveries and inventions; and we send 
thought through the air, and ride in carriages with- 
out horses, and in ships against the wind, just ae eare- 
lessly and composedly as thongh such thinga had 
always been. 

2. Fletcher, the oíd dramatist, was connted as halí 
erazy wlien he put into the mouth of Arbaces this rant- 
ing promise : 

" He shall liave chariots easier than air, 
Which I have invented ; and thyself, 
That art the messenger, shalt ride before him, 
On a horse cut out of an en tire diamonc}, 
That shall be made to go with golden wheels, 
] know not how yet." 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 181 

3. The wonder of tbe promise has long ago been real- 
ized ; and, if the poetry of the dream should yet come 
to pass, and loeomotives cut from solid diamonds, and 
car-wheels wrought from gold, should become common, 
we should ride after them with as little surprise as now 
we talk beneath the azure and the gold of God's glo- 
rious firmament. Who can forget the feeling of awe 
which carne over him, when, for the first time, he re- 
ceived a telegraphic dispatch from a distant city, trans- 
mitted from New York to New Orleans, actually 262 in 
advance of time itself! This approaches spiritual 
power more nearly than anything we have seen and 
handled. 

4. The times of which we are writing are remark- 
able for the extensión of periodical literature, especially 
for the ubiquity of the newspaper. The authors of the 
Spectator, the Tattler, the Rambler, had no conception 
of the modera newspaper. It seems like putting the 
gravity of our readers to the test, when we ñame this 
as one of the most wonderful and powerful agents of 
our times. It is made of rags, ropes, rushes, and lamp- 
black. 

5. Great pains are taken in fitting up the visitant to 
make a respectable appearance in our mansions ; but, 
in its best trim, its pretensions are very humble. It is 
dumb, yet it tells us of all which is done upon the earth. 
It bears, in its own ñame, the initiais of the four points 
of the compass, N. E. W. S. 263 — neivs. Keeking, in hot 
haste, as if out of breath, it delivers its message, and 
then is crumpled up, and thrown into the waste-paper 



262 Positivamente. 263 North, norte ; East, este ; 

West, oeste ; South, sur. 



132 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

basket, to ignite the mormug's fire. Yet is there nothing 
more worthy of preservatiou ; for it is the great díal- 
plate on the clock of time. 

6. An artist expends great time and labor in paint- 
ing a panorama, and crowds find delight in gazing 
upon the can vas ; yet it is of a limited space, — a ruin, 
a river, a city — Thebes or Jerusalem, the Nile, tlie 
Hudson, or the Mississippi. . But a newspaper is a 
daguerreotype of the whole world, — its warrings and 
diplomacies, its buyings and sellings, its governments 
and revolutions, its rnarryings, births, and deaths. 

7. A newspaper is a real microcosrn, — the world 
macle smaller, held in the hand, and brought under the 
eye. The huge telescope of Sir John Herschel is so 
swung, that it reflects all the distant wonders of the 
sky, which sweep across its lenses, upon a small hori- 
zontal table under the eye of the observer ; and anal- 
agous to this, a newspaper brings all the occurrences of 
remote continents, incidents at the North Pole and the 
Antipodes, under the light of your reading-lamp, and 
within the space of your parlor table. The evening 
has come, the damp sheet is spread out before you, and 
with an ill-concealed impatience you sit down to see 
w T hat new spectacle " Time, the scene-shifter" has pre- 
pared for your astonished and delighted ej'e. 

8. The whole world is in motion before you. This is 
no small gossip about what took place under your own 
windows ; but as Isaiah, in the visions of prophecy, be- 
held tlie concourse from all quarters of the earth, tlie 
dromedaries from Midian and Ephah, the ships of Tar- 
shish, and the forces of the Gentiles hasteiiing to the 
rendezvous, so, in sober fact, the most remote and im- 
probable agencies, from the four winds under heaven, 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 183 

are hurrying tlirough the air and over the sea, to de- 

liver their sepárate tidings in that small sheet of paper 

which you now hold in your hand. 

William Adams. 



LXIII. 

SüPERIORITY OF WlSDOM. 

1. Every other quality 264 is subordínate and inferior 
to wisdom, in the same sense as the masón who lays 
the bricks and stones in a building is inferior to the 
architect who drew the plan and superintends the 
work. The former executes only what the latter con- 
trives and directs. Now, it is the prerogative of wis- 
dom to preside over every inferior principie, so as to 
regúlate the exercise of every power, and limit the in- 
dulgence of every appetite, as shall best conduce to one 
great end. 

2. It being the province of wisdom to preside, it sits 
as umpire on every difficulty, and so gives the final 
direction and control to all the powers of our nature. 
Henee, it is entitled to be considered as the top and 
summit of perfection. It belongs to wisdom to deter- 
mine when to act, and when to cease ; when to reveal, 
and when to conceal a matter ; when to speak, and 
when to keep silence ; when to give, and when to re- 
ceive ; in short, to regúlate the measure of all things, 

264 Obsérvese bien la construc- toda otra cualidad, y quiere decir, 
cion tan diferente de la española : todas las demás cualidades. 
every other quality, literalmente : 



181 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

as well as to determine the end, and provide the means 
of obtaining the end pursued in every delibérate courae 
of action. 

o. Every particular faculty or skill, besides, should 
be under the direction of wisdom ; for each is quite 
incapable of directing itself. The art of navigation, for 
instance, will teach us to steer a ship across the ocean ; 
but it will never teach us on what occasions it is proper 
to take a voyage. The art of war will instruct us how 
to marshal an army, or to fight a battle to the greatest 
advantage ; but we must learn from a higher school 
when it is fitting, just, and proper to wage war or to 
make peace. 

4. The art of the husbandman is to till the earth and 
bring to maturity its precious fruits : it belongs to an- 
other skill to regúlate the consumption of these fruits 
by a regard to our health, fortune, and other circum- 
stances. In short, there is no faculty we can exert, no 
species of skill we can apply, that does not require a 
superintending hand — that does not look up, as it were, 
to some higher principie for guidance, and this guide 
Wisdom. Robert Hall. 



LXIV. 

EOMANTIC STORY. 



1. There is a cavern in the island of Hoonga, one of 
the Tonga islands, in the South Pacific Occan, whioh 
can only be entered by diving into the sea, and which 
has no other light than that which is reflected from the 






LECTURAS INGLESAS. 185 

bottom of the water. A young chief cliscovered it 
accidentally while diving after a turtle, and the use 
which lie made of his disco very will probably be sung 
in more than one European language, so beautifully is 
it adapted for a tale in verse. 

2. There was a tyrannical governor of Vavaoo, against 
whom one of the chief s formed a plan of insurrection. 
It was betrayed, and the chief, with all his family and 
kin, was ordered to be destroyed. He had a beautiful 
daughter, betrothed to a chief of high rank, and she 
also was included in the sentence. The youth who had 
found the cavern, and had kept the secret to hirnself, 
loved this damsel. He told her the danger in time, 
and persuaded her to trust to him. They got into a 
canoe : the place of her retreat was described to her on 
the way to it, — those women swim like mermaids, — she 
dived after him, and rose in the cavern. In the widest 
part, it is about fifty feet ; its médium height being 
about the same, and it is hung with stalactites. 

3. Here he brought her the choicest food, the fines t 
clothing, mats for her bed, and sandal-oil to perfume 
herself with. Here he visited her as often as was con- 
sistent with prudence ; and here, as may be imagined, 
this Tonga Leander wooed and won the maid, whom, 
to make the interest complete, he had long loved in 
secret, when he had no hope. Meantime he prepared, 
\\ith all his dependents, male and female, to emigrate 
in secret to the Figi 265 Islands. 

4. The intention was so well concealed that they 
embarked in safety, and his people asked him, at the 
point of their departure, if he would not take with him 

•¿es p r onimciase fídclú. 



186 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

a Tonga wife ; and accordingly, to their great aston- 
ishment, having steered cióse to tlie rock, he desired 
theni to wait while lie went into the sea to fetcli her, 
jumped overboard, and just as they were beginning to 
be seriously alarined at bis long disappearance, he rose 
with his mistress from the water. This story is not 
deficient in that which all such stories should have, to 
be perfectly delightful — a fortúnate conclusión. The 
party remained at the Fijis till the oppressor died, and 
then returned to Vavaoo, where they enjoyed a long 
and happy life. Aítonymous. 



LXV. 

The Chínese Prisoner. 

1. A certain emperor of China, on his accession to 
the throne of his ancestors, commanded a general re- 
léase of all those who were confined in prison for debt. 
Among that number was an oíd man, who had fallen an 
early victim to adversity, and whose days of imprison- 
ment, reckoned by the notches he had cut on the door 
of his gloomy cell, expressed the annual circüit of more 
than fifty suns. 

2. With trembling hands and faltering steps he de- 
parted from his mansión of sorrow : his eyes were daz- 
zled with the splendor of light, and the face of nature 
presented to his view a perfecta paradise. The jail in 
which he had been imprisoned stood at some distance 
from Pekín, and to that city he directed his course, im- 
patient to enjoy the caresses of his wife, his children, 
and his friends. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 187 

3. Having witli difficulty found liis way to tlie street 
in which his decent mansión had formerly stood, bis 
heart became more and more elated at every step he 
advanced. With joy he proceeded, looking eagerly 
around ; but he observed few of the objects with which 
he had been formerly conversant. A magnificent edi- 
fice was erected on the site of the house which he had 
inhabited ; the dwellings of his neighbors had assumed 
a new forrn ; and he beheld not a single face of which 
he had the least remembrance. 

4. An aged beggar, who, with trembling limbs, stood 
at the gate of an ancient pórtico, from which he had 
been thrust by the insolent domestic who guarded it, 
struck his attention. He stopped, therefore, to give 
him a small pittance out of the amount of the bounty 
with which he had been supplied by the emperor, and 
received, in return, the sad tidings that his wife had fallen 
a lingering sacrifice to penury and sorrow ; that his 
children were gone to seek their fortunes in distant or 
unknown climes ; and that the grave contained his 
nearest and most valued friends. 

5. Overwhelmed with anguish, he hastened to the 
palace of his sovereign, into whose presence his hoary 
locks and mournful visage soon obtained admission ; 
and, casting himself at the feet of the emperor, " Great 
Prince," he cried, Cí send me back to that prison from 
which mistaken mercy has delivered me ! I have sur- 
vived my family and friends, and even in the midst of 
this populous city I find myself in a dreary solitude. 
The cell of my dungeon protected me from the gazers 
at my wretchedness ; and whilst secluded from society 
I was the less sensible of the loss of its enjoyments. 
I am now tortured w T ith the view of pleasure in w r hich 



188 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

I cannot particípate, and clie with thirst, though 
streams of delight surround me." Percival. 



LXYI. 

Eeply to Sir Eobert Walpole. 

1. The atrocious crime of being a young man, wliich 
tlie honorable gentleman has, with such spirit and 
decency, charged upon me, I shall neither attempt to 
palliate ñor deny ; but content myself with hoping, that 
I may be one of those whose'follies cease with their 
youth, and not of that number 266 who are ignorant in 
spite of experience. Whether youth can be imputed to 
a man as a reproach, I will not assume the province of 
determining ; but surely age may become justly con- 
temptible, if the opportunities which it brings have 
passed away without improvement, and vice appears to 
prevail when the passions have subsided. The wretch 
who, after having seen the consequences of a thousand 
errors, continúes still to blunder, and whose age has only 
added obstinacy to stupidity, is surely the object either 
of abhorrence or contempt, and deserves not that his 
gray hairs should secure him from insult. Much more 
is he to be abhorred, who, as he has advanced in age, 
has receded from virtue, and become more wicked, with 
less temptation ; who prostitutes himself for money* 
which he cannot enjoy, and spends the remains of his 
life in the ruin of his country. 

266 Esta construcción es preci- no de aquel número que; micn- 
samente lo opuesto de la españo- tras en españolse (liria : y no de] 
la; el inglés dice literalmente: y número de aquellos que. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 189 

2. But youth is not rny only crime ; I am accused of 
acting a theatrical part. A theatrical part may either 
imply some peculiarity of gesture, or a dissimulatioa oí 
my real sentiments, and an adoption of tlie opinions 
and language of another man. In the first sense, the 
charge is too trifling to be confuted ; and deserves 
only to be mentioned that it may be despised. I am at 
liberty, like every other man, to use my own language ; 
and though, perhaps, I may have some ambition to 
please this gentleman, I sliall not lay myself under 
any restraint, ñor very solicitously copy his diction or 
bis míen, however matured by age, or modelled by ex- 
perience. 

3. But if any man shall, by cliarging me with theatri- 
cal behavior, imply tliat I utter any sentiments but my 
own, I shall treat him as a calumniator and a villain ; 
ñor shall any proteetion shelter him from the treatment 
he deserves. I shall on such an occasion, without 
scruple, trample upon all those forms with which w T ealth 
and dignity intrench themselves, ñor shall anything but 
age restrain rny resentment ; age, w r hich always brings 
one privilege, that of being insolent and supercilious, 
without punishment. 

4. But with regard to 267 those whom I have offended, 
I am of opinión, that if I had acted a borrowed part, I 
should have avoicled their censure : the heat that of- 
íended them w T as the ardor of conviction, and that zeal 
for the service of my country which neither hope ñor 
fear shall influence me to suppress. I will not sit un- 
concerned while my liberty is invaclecl, ñor look in si- 
lence upon public robbery. I will exert my endeavors, 

267 En cuanto á. 



190 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

at wliatever hazard, to repel tlie aggressor, and drag 
the thief to justice, whoever niay protect him in his 
villainies, and whoever niay partake of his plunder. 

Pitt. 



LXVII. 

The Fortune-teller. 

1. Harley sat down on a large stone by the wayside 
to take a pebble from his shoe, when he saw, at some 
distance, a beggar approaching him. He had on a 
loóse sort of coat mended with different-colored rags, 
among which the blue and russet were predominant. 
He had a short, knotty stick in his hand ; and on the 
top of it was stuck a ram's hora ; he wore no shoes, 
and his stockings had entirely lost that part of them 
which would have covered his feet and ankles ; in his 
face, however, was the plump appearance of good- 
humor ; he walked a good round pace, and a crooked- 
legged dog trotted at his heels. 

2. " Our delicacies," said Harley to himself, " are 
fantastic ; they are not in nature ! That beggar walks 
over the sharpest of these stones barefooted, whilst I 
liave lost the most delightful dream in the world from 
the smallest of them happening to get into my shoe !" 
The beggar had by this time come up, and pulling off 
a piece of a hat, asked charity of Harley. The dog 
began to beg too. It was impossible to resist both ; 
and, in truth, the want of shoes and stockings had 
made both unnecessary, for Harley had destined six- 
pence for him before. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 191 

3. The beggar, on receiving it, poured forth blessings 
without number ; and, with a sort of smile on his coun- 
tenance, said to Harley " that if he wanted to have his 
fortune told" — Harley turned his eye briskly upon the 
beggar ; it was an unpromising look for the subject of 
a prediction, and silenced the prophet irnmediately. u I 
would much rather learn," said Harley, " what it is in 
your power to tell me. Tour trade must be an enter- 
taining one ; sit down on this stone, and let me know 
something of your profession ; I have often thought 
of turning fortune-teller for a week or two, myself." 

4. " Master," replied the beggar, " I like your frank- 
ness much ; for I had the humor of plain-dealing in 
me from a child : but there is no doing with it in this 
world ; we must do as we can ; and lying is, as you cali 
it, my profession. But I was in some sort forced to 
the trade, for I once dealt in telling the truth. I was 
a laborer, sir ; and gained as much as to make me 
live. I never laid by, indeed ; for I was reckoned a 
piece of a wag, and your wags, I take it, are seldom 
rich, Mr. Harley." " So," said Harley, " You seem to 
know me." "Ay, there are few folks in the country 
that I don't know something of : how should I tell for- 
tunes else?" 268 " True ; but go on with your story ; 
you were a laborer, you say, and a wag : your industry, 
I suppose, you left with your oíd trade ; but your hu- 
mor you preserved to be of use to you in your new." 

5. " What signifies sadness, sir ? a man grows lean 
on't. But I was brought to my idleness by degrees ; 
sickness first disabled me, and it went against my 
stomach to work ever after. But in truth I was for a 

268 ¿ Cómo, de otra manera, podría yo decir la buena fortuna ? 



192 LECTÜKAS INGLESAS. 

long time so weak, tliat I spit blood whenever I at- 
tempted to work. I liad no relatiou living, and I never 
kept a friend above a week, when I was able to joke. 
Thus I was forced to beg my bread, and a sorry trade 
I liave found it, Mr. Harley. I told all my misfortunes 
truly, but they were seldom believed ; and the few wlio 
gave me a half-penny as they passed, did it with a 
shake of the head, and an injunction not to trouble 
them with a long story. In short, I found that people 
don't care to give alnis without some security for their 
money ; such as a wooden leg or a withered arm, for 
example. So I changed my plan, and instead of tell- 
iog my own misfortunes, began to prophesy happiness 
to others. 

6. This I found by 269 much the better way. Folks 
will always listen when the tale is their own, and of 
many who say they do not believe in fortune-telling, I 
Lave known few on whom it had not a very sensible 
effect. I pick up the ñames of their acquaintance ; 
amours and little squabbles are easily gleaned among 
servants and neighbors ; and, indeed, people themselves 
are the best intelligencers in the world for our purpose. 
They daré not puzzle us for their own sakes, for every 
one is anxious to hear what they wish to believe ; and 
they who repeat it, to laugh at it when they have done, 
are generally more serious than their hearers are apt 
to imagine. With a tolerably good memory, and some 
share of cunning, I succeed reasonably well as a for- 
tune-teller. With this, and showing the tricks of that 
dog there, I make shift to pick up a livelihood. 

7. My trade is none of the most honest, yet people 

' J0U Podria omitirse la preposición by. 



LECTUKAS INGLESAS. 193 

are not much cheated af ter all, who give a few half- 
pence for a prospect of happiness, which I have heard 
some persons say is all a man can arrive at in this world. 
But I must bid you good-day, sir ; for I have three 
miles to walk before noon, to inform some boarding- 
school young ladies whether their husbands are to be 
peers of the realm or captains in the army ; a question 
which I promised to answer them by that time." 

8. Haiiey had drawn a shilling from his pocket ; but 
Virtue bade him consicler on whom he was s^oing: to 
bestow it. Virtue held back his arm ; but a milder 
form, a younger sister of Virtue's, not so severe as 
Virtue, ñor so serious as Pity, smiled upon him ; his 
fingers lost their compression ; ñor did Virtue appear 
to catch the money as it fell. It had no sooner reached 
the ground, than the watchful cur (a trick he had been 
taught) snapped it up ; and, contrary to the most ap- 
proved method of stewardship, delivered it immediately 
into the hands of his master. _ IVIackenzie. 



LXVIII. 

The Toühnament. 

1. * * * The music of the challengers breathed, from 
time to time, wild bursts, expressive of triumph or 
defiance ; while the elowns grudged a holiday which 
seemed to pass away in inactivity ; and oíd knights 
and nobles lamented the decay of martial spirit, and 
spoke of the triumphs of their younger days. Prince 
John began to talk to his attendants about making 
ready fhe banquet, and the necessity of adjudging the 



194 LECTU11AS INGLESAS. 

prize to Brian de Bois-Guilbert, 270 who had, with a sin- 
gle spear, overthrown two knights, and foiled a third. 

2. At lengtli, as the music of the cliallengers con- 
cluded one of those long and high flourishes with which 
they had broken the silence of the lists, it was an- 
swered by a solitary trumpet, which breathed a note of 
defiance, from the northern extremity. All eyes were 
turned to see the new champion which these sounds 
announced, and no sooner were the barriers opened 
than he paced into the lists. 

3. As far as could be judged of a man sheathed in 
armor, the new adven turer did not greatly exceed the 
rniddle size, and seemed to be rather slender than 
strongly made. His suit of armor was forined of steel, 
richly inlaid with gold ; and the device on his shield 
was a young oak-tree pulled up by the roots, with the 
single word, " Disinheiited." He was mounted on a 
gallant black horse, and as he passed through the lists, 
he gracefully saluted the prince and the ladies, by low- 
ering his lance. The dexterity with which he managed 
his steed, and something of youthful grace which he 
displayed in his manner, won him the favor of the muí- 
titude, which some of the lower classes expressed by 
calling out, í£ Touch Ralph de Vipont's shield, touch 
the Hospitaller's shield : he has the least sure seat ; he 
is your cheapest bargain." 

4. The champion moving onward amid the well- 
meant hints, ascended the platform by the sloping alley 
which led to it from the lists, and, to the astonishment 
of all present, riding straight up to the central pavilion, 
struck with the sharp end of his spear the shield of 

ais Pronuncíese brcüan de boa gu¿lb¿r. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. K5 

Brian de Bois-Guilbert until it rang again. All stood 
astonished at his presumption, but none more so than 
the redoubted knight whom he had thus defied to 
mortal combat, and who, little expecting so rude a chal- 
lenge, was standing carelessly at the door of his pavilion. 

5. " Have you confessed yourself, brother," said the 
Templar, Guilbert, " and have you heard mass this 
morning, that you peril your life so frankly ?" " I am 
fitter to meet death than thou art," answered the Disin- 
herited Knight ; for by this ñame the stranger had re- 
corded himself in the book of the tourney. " Then 
take your place in the lists," said De Bois-Guilbert, 
" and look your last upon the sun ; for this night thou 
shalt sleep in paradíseo " Gramercy for thy courtesy," 
replied the Disinherited Knight ; " and to requite it, I 
advise thee to take a fresh horse and a new lance, for, 
by my honor, you will need both." 

6. Having expressed himself thus confidently, he 
reined his horse backward down the slope Avhich he 
had ascended, and compelled him in the same manner 
to move backward through the lists, till he reached the 
northern extremity, where he remained stationary, in 
expectation of his antagonist. This feat of horseman- 
ship again attracted the applause of the multitude. 

7. However incensed at his adversary for the pre- 
can.tion which he recommended, the Templar did not 
neglect his advice ; for his honor was too nearly con- 
cerned to permit his neglecting any means which might 
insure victory over his presumptuous opponent. He 
changed his horse for a pro ved and fresh one of great 
strength and spirit. He chose a new and tough spear, 
lest the wood of the former might have been strained 
in the previous encounters he had sustained. Lastly, 



19G LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

he laid aside his shield, which liad received sonie little 
damage, and received another from his squires. 

8. When the two cliampions stood opposed to each 
other at the two extremities of the lists, the public 
expectation was strained to the highest pitch. Few 
augured the possibility that the encounter could termí- 
nate well for the Disinherited Knight, yet his courage 
and gallantry secured the general good wishes of the 
spectators. The trumpets liad no sooner given the 
signal, than the champions vanished from their posts 
with the speed of lightning, and closed in the centre of 
the lists with the shock of a thunderbolt. The lances 
burst into shivers up to the very grasp, and it seemed 
at the moment that both knights had fallen, for the 
shock had made each horse recoil backward upon its 
haunches. The address of the riders recovered their 
steeds by the use of the bridle and spur ; and having 
glared on each other, for an instant, with eyes that 
seemed to flash fire through the bars of their visors, 
each retired to the extremity of the lists, and received 
a fresh lance from the attendants. 

9. A loud shout from the spectators, waving of scarfs 
and handkerchiefs, and general acclamations, attested 
the interest taken in the encounter. But no sooner had 
the knights resumed their station than the clamor of 
applause was hushed into a sil en ce so deep and so 
dead, that it seemed the multitude were afra id to 
breathe. A few minutes' pause having been allówed* 
that 971 the combatants and their horscs miglit recove» 
breath, the trumpets again sounded the onset. The 
champions a second time sprung from their stations, 

271 Para que. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 197 

and met in the centre of the lists, with the same speed, 
the same dexterity, tlie same violence, but not the 
same equal fortune as before. 

10. In the second encounter, the Templar aimed at 
the centre of his antagonist's shield, and struck it so 
fairly and forcibly, that his spear went to shivers, and 
the Disinherited Knight reeled in his saddle. On the 
other hand, the champion had, in the beginning of his 
career, directed the point of his lance toward Bois- 
Guilbert's shield ; but changing his aim almost in the 
moment of encounter, he acldressed to the helmet, a 
mark more difficult to hit, but which, if attained, ren- 
dered the shock more irresistible. Fair and true he 
hit the Templar on the visor, where his lance's point 
kept hold of the bars. Yet even at this disadvantage, 
Bois-Guilbert sustained his high reputation ; and had 
not the girths of his saddle burst, he might not have 
been unhorsed. As it chanced, however, saddle, horse, 
and man rolled on the ground under a cloud of dust. 

11. To extricate himself from the stirrups and fallen 
steed was to the Templar scarce the work of a moment ; 
and stung with madness, both at his disgrace, and the 
acclamations by which it was hailed by the spectators, 
he drew his sword, and waved it in defiance of his 
coüqueror. The Disinherited Knight sprung from 
his steed, and also unsheathed his sword. The mar- 
shals of the field, however, spurred their horses be- 
tween them, and reminded them that the laws of the 
tournament did not, on the present occasion, permit 
this species of encounter, but that to the " Disinherited 
Knight" the meed of victory was fairly and honorably 
awarded. Walteh Scott. 



198 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

LXIX. 

HOMEE AND VlRGIL. 

1. Upon the whole, 272 as to the comparative merit of 
tliese two great princes of epic poetry, Homer and Vir- 
gil, the former must undoubteclly be admitted to be the 
greater genius ; the latter to be the more correct writef. 
Homer was an original in his art, and discovers both 
the beauties and the defects which are to be expected 
in an original author, compared with those who suc- 
ceed him ; more boldness, more nature and ease, more 
sublimity and forcé ; bnt greater irregularities and 
negligences in composition. 

2. Virgil has, all along, kept his eye upon Homer : 
in many places, he has not so much imitated, as he has 
literally translated him. The description of the storm, 
for instance, in the first ¿Eneid, and Eneas's speech 
upon that occasion, are translations from the fifth book 
of the Odyssey ; not to mention almost all the símiles 
of Yirgil, which are no other than copies of those of 
Homer. The pre-eminence in invention, therefore, 
must, beyond doubt, he ascribed to Homer. As to the 
pre-eminence in judgment, though many critics are dis- 
posed to give it to Virgil, yet, in my opinión, it kangs 
doubtfal. In Homer, we discern all the Greek vivacity ; 
in Virgil, all the Román stateliness. Homer's imagina- 
tion is by much the most rich and copious ; Virgil's the 
most chaste and correct. The strength of the former 

8751 Todo bien considerado. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 199 

lies in bis power of warming the fancy ; that of the lat- 
ter, in his power of touching tlie heart. 

3. Homer's style is more simple and animated ; Vir- 
gil's more eleganfc and uniform. The first has, on many 
occasions, a sublirnity to which the latter never attains ; 
but the latter, in return, never sinks below a certain 
degree of epic dignity, which 273 cannot be so clearly 
pronounced of the former. Not, 274 however, to detract 
from the admiration due to both these great poets, 
most of Homer's defects may reasonably be imputed, 
not to his genius, but to the manners of the age in 
which he lived ; and for the feeble passages of the 
¿Eneid, this excuse ought to be admitted, that it was 
left an unfinished work. Blair. 



LXX. 

Discontent. — An Allegory. 

1. It is a celebrated thought of Sócrates, that if all 
the misfortunes of mankind were cast into a public 
stock, in orcler to be equally distributed among the 
w r hole species, those who now think themselves the 
most unhappy would prefer the share they are already 
possessed of, before that which would fall to them by 
such a división. Horace has carried this thought a 
good deal further, and supposes that the hardships or 
misfortunes we lie under, are more easy to us than 

273 La que. 274 Not to detract from, por no disminuir. 



2Ü0 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

tliose of any other person would be, in case 275 we could 
change conditions with him. 

2. As I was ruminating on these two remarks, and 
seated in my elbow-chair, I insensibly fell asleep ; when, 
on a sudden, methought there was a proclamation 
niade by Júpiter, that every mortal should bring in his 
griefs and calamities, and throw them together in a 
heap. There was a large plain appointed for the pur- 
pose. I took my stand in the centre of it, and saw, 
with a great deal of pleasure, the whole human species 
marching, one after another, and throwing down their 
several loads, which immediately grew up into a pro- 
digious mountain, that seemed to rise above the clouds. 

3. There was a certain lacly of a thin, airy shape, 
who was very active in this solemnity. She carried a 
magnifying-glass in one of her hands, and was clothed 
in a loóse, flowing robe, embroidered with several fig- 
ures of fiends and spectres, that discovered themselves 
in a thousand chimerical shapes, as her garments hov- 
ered in the wind. There was something wild and dis- 
tracted in her looks. Her ñame was Fancy. She led 
up every mortal to the appointed place, after having 
very officiously assisted him in making up his pack, 
and laying it upon his shoulders. My heart nielted 
within me to see my fellow-creatures groaning under 
their respective burdens, and to consider that prodi- 
gious bulk of human calamities which lay before me. 

á. There were, however, several persons who gave me 
great diversión upon this occasion. I observed one 
bringing in a pack very carefully concealed under an 



275 Expresar aquí la conjunción that seria contrario á la índole de 
la lengua inglesa. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 201 

oíd embroiclered cloak, which, upon his 276 throwing it 
hito the heap, I discovered to be Poverty. Another, after 
a great deal of puffing, threw down Lis baggage, which, 
upon exarnining, I found to be liis wife. There were 
multitudes of lovers saddled with very whimsical bur- 
dens, composed of darts and flames ; but, what was 
very odd, though tliey sighed as if their hearts would 
break under these bundles of calamities, they could not 
persuade themselves to cast thein into the heap, when 
they came up to it ; but, after a few f aint efforts, shook 
their heads and marched away as heavy laden as they 
carne. 

5. I saw multitudes of oíd women throw down their 
wrinkles, and several young ones who stripped them- 
selves of a tawny skin. There were very great heaps 
of red noses, large lips, and rusty teeth. The truth of 
it is, I was surprised to see the greatest part of the 
mountain made up of bodily deformities. Observing 
one advancing toward the heap, with a larger cargo 
than ordinary upon his back, I found, upon his near 
approach, that it was only a natural hump, which he 
disposed of, with great joy of heart, among this collee- 
tion of human miseries. 

6. There were, likewise, distempers of all sorts, 
though I could not but observe that there were many 
more imaginary than real. One little packet I could 
not but take notice of, which was a complication of all 
the diseases incident to human nature, and was in the 
hand of a great many fine people. This was called the 
spleen. But what most of all surprised me was, that 
there was not a single vice or folly thrown into the 

*™ Al arrojarla él sobre el montón. 
9* 



202 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 



whole heap : at whicli I was very much astonished, 
having concluclecl within myself, that every one would 
take this opportunity of getting rid of his passions, 
prejudices, and frailties. 

7. I took notice, in particular, of a very proflígate 
fellow, who, I did not question, carne loaded with his 
crimes ; but upon searching his bundle, I found, that 
instead of throwing his guilt from him, he liad only 
laid down his meraory. He was followed by another 
worthless rogue, who flung away his modesty instead 
of his ignorance. 

8. When the whole race of manldnd had thus cast 
away their burdens, the phantorn which had been so 
busy on this occasion, seeing me an 277 idle spectator of 
what had passed, approached toward me. I grew un- 
easy at her presence, w T hen, of a sudden, she held her 
magnitying-glass full before my ey'es. I no sooner 
saw my face in it, than I was startled at the shortness 
of it, which now appeared in its utmost aggravation. 
The immoderate breadth of the features made me very 
much out of humor with my own countenance, upon 
which, I threw it from me like a mask. It happened 
very luckily, that one who stood by me had just before 
thrown down his visage, which, it seems, was too long 
for him. It was, indeed, extended to a most shameful 
length ; I believe the very chin was, modestly speak- 
ing, as long as my whole face. We had both of us an 
opportunity of mending ourselves ; and all the contri- 
butions being now brought in, every man was at liberty 
to exchange his misfortunes for those of another person. 

9. As we stood round the heap, and surveyed the 

,¿ ' n Obsérvese el artículo indefinido, que en español se calla cu scuie 
jantes casos. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 203 

several materials of wliich it was composed, there was 
scarce a mortal in this vast rnultitude who did not dis- 
cover what he thought pleasures and blessings of life ; 
and wondered how the owners of them ever carne to 
look upon them as burdens and grievanees. As we 
were regarding very attentively this confusión of mis- 
eries, this chaos of calamities, Júpiter issued a second 
proclamation, that every one was now at liberty to ex- 
change his affiiction, and to return to his habitation 
with any such other bundle as he should select. Upon 
this, Fancy began to bestir herself, and parcelling out 
the whole heap with incredible activity, recommended 
to every one his particular packet. The hurry and 
confusión at this time was not to be expressed. Some 
observations, which I made at the time, I shall com- 
municate to the public. 

10. A venerable gray-headed man, who had laid 
down the colic, and who, I found, wanted an heir to 
his estáte, snatched up an undutiful son, that had been 
thrown into the heap by his angry father. The grace- 
less youth, in less than a quarter of an hour, pulled the 
oíd gentleman by the beard, and had liked to have 
knocked his brains out ; so that the true father coming 
toward him with a fit of the gripes, he begged him to 
take his son again, and give him back his colic ; but 
they were incapable, either of them, to recede from the 
choice they had made. A poor galley-slave, who had 
thrown dow T n his chains, took up the gout in their 
stead, but made such wry faces, that one might easily 
perceive that he was no great gainer by the bargain. 

11. The female world were very busy among them- 
selves in bartering for features ; one was trucking a 
lock of gray hairs for a carbuncle, and another was 



20i LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

making over 278 a short waist for a pair of round shoul- 
clers ; but on all these occasions tliere was not one of 
them who did not tbink ihe new blemish, as soon as 
she liad got it into her possession, niuch more disagree- 
able tlian the oíd one. 

12. I must not omit my own particular adventure. 
My friend with a long visage liad no sooner taken upon 
him my short face, but he made such a grotesque figure 
in it, that as I looked upon him I could not forbear 
laughing at myself, insomuch that I put my own face 
out of countenance. The poor gentleman was so sen- 
sible of the ridicule, that I found he was ashamed of 
what he had done. On the other side, I found that I 
myself liad no great reason to triumph, for as I went to 
touch my forehead, I missed the place, and clapped my 
finger upon my upper lip. Besides, as my nose was 
exceedingly prominent, I gave it two or three unlucky 
knocks as I was playing my hand about my face, and 
aiming at some other part of it. 

13. I saw two other gentlemen by me who were in 
the same ridiculous circumstances. These had made 
a foolish swap, between a couple of thick bandy legs 
and two long trap-sticks that liad no calves to them. 
One of these looked like a man walking upon stilts, and 
was so lifted up in the air above his ordinary height, 
that his head turned round with it ; while the other 
made such awkward circles, as he attempted to waik, 
that he scarce knew how to move forward upon his new 
supporters. Observing him to be a pleasant kind of a 
fellow, I stuck my cañe in the ground, and told him I 
would lay a bottle of wine that he did not march up 
to it on a straight line, in a quarter of an hour. 

'■ ¿7b Making ocer } cambiando. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 205 

14. The heap was at last distributed among the two 
sexes, who made a most piteous sight as they wan- 
dered up and down under the pressure of their several 
burdens. The whole plain was filled with murmurs and 
complaints, groans and lamentations. Júpiter at length 
taking compassion on the poor mortals, ordered them 
a second time to lay down their loads, with a design to 
give every one his own again. They discharged thera- 
selves with a great deal of pleasure ; after which, the 
phantom who had led them into such gross delusions 
was commanded to disappear. There was sent in her 
stead a goddess of quite a different figure : her motions 
w r ere steady and composed, and her aspect serious, but 
cheerful. She, every now and then, cast her eyes tovv- 
ard heaven, and fixed them on Júpiter. Her ñame was 
Patience. She had no sooner placed herself by the 
Mount of Sorrows, but, what I thought very remark- 
able, the whole heap sunk to such a degree that it did 
not appear a third so big as before. She afterward re- 
turned every man his own proper calamity, and teach- 
ing him how to bear it in the most commodious man- 
ner, he marched off with it contentedly, being very well 
pleased that he had not been left to his own choice as 
to the kind of evil which fell to his lot. 

15. Besides the several pieces of morality to be 
drawn out of this visión, I learnt from it never to re- 
pine at my own misfortunes, or to envy the happiness 
of another ; since it is impossible for any man to forra 
a right judgrnent of his neighbor's sufferings : for which 
reason, also, I am determined never to think too lightly 
of another's complaints, but to regard the sorrows of 
my fellow-creatures with sentiments of humanity and 
compassion. Addison. 



206 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

LXXL 

COLLOQUIAL POWERS OF ÜR. FrANKLIN. 

1. Never ha ve I known 279 such a fireside companion. 
Great as he was both as a statesman and philosopher, 
he never shone in a light more winning than when he 
was seen in a domestic circle. It was once my good 
fortune to pass two or three weeks with him, at the 
honse of a prívate gentleman, in the back part of Penn- 
sylvania, and we were confined to the house during 
the whole of that time by the unremitting constancy 
and deptli of the snows. But confinement could never 
be felt where Franklin was an inmate. His cheerful- 
ness and his colloquial powers spread around him a 
perpetual spring. 

2. When I speak, however, of his colloquial powers, 
I do not mean to awaken any notion analogous to that 
which Boswell has given us of Johnson. The conver- 
saron of the latter continually reminds one of the 
" pomp and circumstance of glorious war." It was, 
indeed, a perpetual contest for victory, or an arbitrary 
or despotic exaction of homage to his superior talents. 
It was strong, acute, prompt, splendid, and vociferous ; 
as loud, stormj 7 , and sublime as those winds which he 
rvpiesents as shaking the Hebrides, and rocking the 
oíd castle which frowned on the dark-rolling sea be- 
neath. 

3. But one gets tired of storms, however sublimo 

»w Elegante inversión : lo más I never, y demás análogos, entre el 
corriente es colocar el adverbio | auxiliar y el verbo. 



LECTUEAS INGLESAS. 207 

they may be, and longs for the more orderly current of 
nature. Of Franklin no one ever became tired. There ■ 
was no ambition of eloquence, no effort to shine in 
anything which came from him. There was nothing 
which made any demand upon either your allegiance 
or your admiration. His manner was as unaffected as 
infancy. It was nature's self. He talked like an oíd 
patriaren ; and bis plainness and simplicity put yon at 
once at your ease, and gave you the full and free pos- 
session and use of your faculties. His tbougbts were 
of a character to shine by their own light, without any 
adventitious aid. They only required a médium of 
visión like his puré and simple style, to exhibit to the 
highest advantage their native radiance and beauty. 

4. His cheerfulness was unremitting. It seemed to 
be as much the effect of a systematic and salutary ex- 
ercise of the mind, as of its superior organization. His 
wit was of the first order. It did not show itself merely 
in occasional corruscations ; but without any effort or 
forcé on his part, it shed a constant stream of the 
purest light over the whole of his discourse. Whether 
in the company of commons or nobles, he w T as always 
the same plain man ; always most perfectly at his ease, 
with his faculties in full play, and the full orbit of his 
genius f ore ver clear and unclouded. 

5. And then, the stores of his mind were inexhaust- 
ible. He had commenced life with an attention so 
vigilant, that nothing had escaped his observation ; and 
a judgment so solid, that every incident was turned to 
advantage. His youth had not been wasted in idie- 
ness, ñor overcast by intemperance. He had been, all 
bis life. a cióse and deep reader, as well as thinker ; 
and by the forcé of his own powers, had wrought up 



208 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

the raw mataríais which he liad gathered from books, 
witli sucli exquisite skill and felicity, tliat he had added 
a- hundred-fold to their original valué, and justly inade 
them his own. AViut. 



LXXIL 

The Moon and Stars. — A Fable. 

1. On the fourtli day of creation, when the sun, after 
a glorious, but solitary course, went down in the even- 
ing, and darkness began to gather over the face of the 
uninhabited globe, already arrayed in the exuberance 
of vegetation, and prepared, by the diversity of land 
and water, for the abode of uncreated animáis and 
man, — a star, single and beautiful, stepped forth into 
the firmament. Trembling witli wonder and delight in 
new-found existence, she looked abroad, and belield 
nothing in lieaven or on earth resembling herselt. But 
she was not long alone ; now one, then another, here a 
third, and there a fourtli resplendent companion had 
joined her, till, light after light stealing through the 
gloom, in the lapse of an liour the whole heniisphere 
was brilliantly bespangled. 

2. The planets and stars, witli a superb comet flam- 
ing in the zenith, for awhile contemplated themselves 
and each other ; and every one, from the largest to the 
least, was so perfectly well pleased witli himself, that 
he imagined the rest only partakers of his felicity ; he 
being the central luminary of his own universa, and all 
the hosts of heaven besides displayed around liim in 
graduated splendor. Ñor were any undeceived in re- 
gare! to themselves, though all saw their associates in 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 209 

their real situations and relative proportions, — self- 
knowledge being the last knowledge acquired either in 
tlie sky or below it till, — bending over the ocean in 
their turns, they discovered what they supposed afc first 
to be a new heaven, peopled with beings of their own 
species. But when they perceived further, that no 
sooner had any one of their company touched the hori- 
zon than he instantly disappeared ; they then recog- 
nized themselves in their individual forms, reflected 
beneath according to their places and configurations 
above, from seeing others, whom they previously knew, 
reflected in like manner. 

3. By an attentiye but mournful self-examination in 
that mirror, they slowly learned humility ; but every 
one learned it only for himself, none believing what 
others insinuated respecting their own iníeriority, till 
they reached the western slope, from whence they 
could identify their true visages in the nether element. 
Ñor was this very surprising ; stars being only visible 
points, without any distinction of lirubs, each was all 
eye ; and though he could see others roost correctly, he 
could neither see himself ñor any part of himself, till 
he carne to reflection. The comet, however, having a 
long train of brightness, streaming sun-ward, could re- 
view that, and did review it with ineffable self-com- 
placency. Indeed, after all pretensions to precedence, 
he was at length acknowledged king of the hemisphere, 
if not by the universal assent, by the silent envy of all 
his rivals. . 

4. But the object which attraeted most attention, and 
astonishment too, was a slender thread of light that 
scarcely could be discerned through the blush of even- 
ing, and vanished soon after nightfall, as if ashamed 



210 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

to appear in so scanty a form, like an unfinished work 
of ereation. It was tlie moon — the first new moon. 
Timidly, she looked around apon tho glittering multi- 
tude tliíit crowded the dark serenity of space, and filled 
it witli lifc and beauty. Minute indeed they seenied to 
her, but perfect in symmetry, and formed to sliine for- 
ever ; while slie was unsliapen, incomplete, and evau- 
escent. In her humility, she was glad to hide herself 
from their keen glances in the friendly bosom of the 
ocean, wishin-g for immediate extinction. 

5. When she was gone, the stars looked one at 
another with inquisitive surprise, as much as to say, 
" AVhat a figure !" It was so evident that they all 
thotíght alike, and thought contemptuously of the ap- 
parition (though at íirst they almost doubted whether 
they should not be frightened), that they soon began 
to talk freely concerning her ; of course not with audi- 
ble accents, but in the language of intelligent sparkles, 
in which stars are accustomed to converse with tele- 
graphic precisión from one end of heaven to the other, 
and which no dialect on earth so nearly resembles as 
the language of the eyes ; the only one, probably, that 
lias survived in its purity, not only the confusión of 
Babel, but the revolutions of all ages. Her crooked 
form and her shyness, w r ere ridiculed and censured 
from pole to pole. For what purpose such a monster 
could have been created, not 280 the wisest could con- 
jeture ; yet, to tell the truth, every one, though glad 
to be countenanced in the affectation of scorn bj the 
rest, liad secret misgivings concerning the stranger, and 
envied the delicate brillianey of her light. 

* H0 Ni siquiera. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 211 

6. All the gay company, however, quickly returned to 
tlie admiration of themselves, and the inspection of 
each other. Thus the first night passed away. But, 
when the east began to dawD, consternation seized the 
whole army of celestials, each feeling himself fainting 
into invisibility, and, as he feared, into nothingness, 
whüe his neighbors were, one after another, totally dis- 
appearing. At length the sun aróse, and filled the 
heavens and clothed the earth with his glory. How 
he spent that day, belongs not to this history ; but it is 
elsewhere recorded that, for the first time froni eternity, 
the lark, on the wings of the morning, sprang up to 
salute him ; the eagle, at noon, looked undazzled on his 
splendor ; and when he went down beyond the deep, 
the leviathan was sporting amid the multitude of 
waves. Montgomery. 



LXXIII. 

Mechanical Wonders of a Feather. 

1. Every single feather is a mechanical wonder. If 
we look at the quill, we find properties not easily 
brought together — strength and lightness. I know few 
things more remarkable than the strength and lightness 
of the very pen with which I am now writing. If we 
cast our eye toward the upper part of the stem, we see 
a material rnade for the purpose, used in no other class 
of animáis, and in no other parí of birds ; tough, light, 
pliant, elastic. The pith, also, which feeds the feathers, 
is neither bone, flesh, membrane, ñor tendón. 

2. But the most artificial part of the feather is the 



212 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

beard, or, as it is sometimes called, the vane, which we 
usually strip off from one side, or both, when we make 
a pen. The sepárate pieces of which tliis is composed 
are called threads, filaments, or rays. Now, the first 
thing which an attentive observer will remark, is how 
much stronger the beard of the feather shows itself to 
be when pressed in a direction perpendicular to its 
plañe, than when rubbed either up or down in the line 
of the stem. He will soon discover that the threads of 
which these beards are composed are fíat, and placed 
with their flat sides toward each other ; by which 
means, while they easily bend for the approaching of 
each other, as any one may perceive by drawing his 
finger ever so lightly upward, they are much harder to 
bend out of their plañe, which is the direction in which 
they have to encounter the impulse and pressure of 
the air, and in which their strength is wanted. 

3. It is also to be observed, that when two threads, 
separated by accident or forcé, are brought together 
again, they immediately reclasp. Draw your finger 
down the feather, which is against the grain, and yon 
break, probably, the junction of some of the contigu- 
ous threads ; draw your finger up the feather, and you 
restore all things to their former state. It is no coin- 
mon mechanism by which this contrivance is effected. 
The threads or laminse above mentioned are interlaced 
with one another ; and the interlacing is performed by 
means of a vast number of fibres or teeth, which the 
threads shoot fortli on each side, and which hook and 
grapple together. 

4. Fifty of these fibres have been counted in one- 
twentieth' 2 * 1 of an inch. They are crooked, but curvea 

' ihJ La vigésima parte. 



LECTUEAS INGLESAS. 213 

after a clifferent manner : for those which proceecl frorn 
the thread on the side towarcl the extremity are longer, 
more flexible, and bent downward ; whereas, tliose 
which proceed frorn the side toward the beginning or 
quill end of the feather are shorter, firmer, and turned 
upward. "When two larainse, therefore, are pressed 
together, the crooked parts of the long fibres fall into 
the cavity made by the crooked parts of the others ; 
just as the latch, which is fastened to a door, enters 
into the cavity of the catch fixed to the door-post, and, 
there hpoking itself, fastens the door. Paley. 



LXXIV. 

Chaeácter of Louis Fourteenth. 

1. Concerning Louis the Fourteenth, the world seems 
at last to ha ve formed a correct judgrnent. He was not 
a great general ; he was not a great statesnian ; but he 
w r as, in one sense of the word, a great king. Jsever 
was there so consummate a master of what James the 
First of England called kincj-craft, — of all those arts 
which most advantageously display the merits of a 
prince, and most completely hide his defects. 

2. Though his internal administration was bad ; 
though the military triumphs which gave splendor to 
the early part of his reign were not achieved by him- 
self ; though his later years were crovv'ded with defects 
and humiliations ; though he was so ignorant that he 
scarcely understood the Latín of his mass-book ; though 



21tt LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

he fell under the control of a cunning Jesuit, and of a 
more cunning oíd woman ; he succeeded in passing 
himself off on his people as a being above humanity. 
And this is the more extraordinary because he did not 
seclude himself from the public gaze, like those Orien- 
tal despots whose faces are never seen. and whose very 
ñames it is a crime to pronounce lightly. 

3. It has been said that no man is a hero to his 
valet ; and all the world saw as much of Louis the 
Fourteenth as his valet could see. Five hundred peo- 
ple assembled to ^see him shave and put on his clothes 
in the morning. He then kneeled down at the side of 
his bed and said his prayers, while the whole assembly 
awaited the end in solemn silence, the ecclesiastics on 
their knees, and the laymen with their hats before their 
faces. He walked about his gardens with a train of 
two hundred courtiers at his heels. All Yersailles carne 
to see him diñe and sup. He was put to bed at night 
in the midst of a crowd as great as that which liad met 
to see him rise in the morning. He took his very 
emetics in state, and vomited majestically in the pres- 
ence of all his nobles. Yet, though he constantly 
exposed himself to the public gaze, in situations in 
which it is scarcely possible for any man to preserve 
much personal dignity, he, to the last, impressed those 
who surrounded him with the deepest awe and rever- 
ence. 

4. The illusion which he produced on his worshippers 
can be compared only 282 to those illusions to which 
lovers are proverbially subject during the season of 
courtship. It was an illusion which affected even the 

2 * 2 Solo puede compararse. 



LECTUKAS INGLESAS. 215 

senses. The contemporaries of Louis thought hini tall. 
Voltaire, who might have seen him, and who had lived 
with some of the most distinguished mernbers of his 
court, speaks repeatedly of his majestic stature. Yet, 
it is as certaiu as any fact can be, that he was rather 
below than abóve the middle size. He had, it seems, 
a way of holding hiinself, a way of walking, a way of 
swelling his ehest and rearing his head, which deceived 
the eyes of the multitude. Eighty years after his death 
the royal cemetery was violated by the revolutionists ; 
his coffin was opened ; his body was dragged out ; and 
it appeared that the prince, whose majestic figure had 
been so long and loudly extolled, was in truth a little 
man. 

5. His person and government have had the same 
fate. He had the art of making both appear grand 
and august, in spite of the clearest evidence that both 
were below the ordinary standard. Death and time 
have exposed both the deceptions. The body of the 
great king has been measured more justly than it was 
measured by the courtiers, who were afraid to look 
above his shoe-tie. His public character has been scru- 
tinized by men free from the hopes and fears of Boi- 
leau and Moliere. In the grave, the most majestic of 
princes is only five feet eight. In history, the hero and 
the politician dwindle into a vain and feeble tyrant, the 
slave of priests and women, little in war, little in gov- 
ernment, little in everything but the art of simulating 
greatness. 

6. He left to his infant successor a famished and 
miserable people, a beaten and humble army, provinces 
turned into deserts by misgovernment and persecution, 
factions dividing the army, a schism raging in the 



216 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

court, an immense debt, an innumerable houseliold, in- 
estimable jewels and farniture. All the sap and nutrir 
ment of the state seemed to have been drawn, to feed 
one bloated and unwholesome excrescence. The na- 
tion was withered. The court was morbidly flourish- 
ing. Yet, it does not appear that the associations 
which attached the people to the rnonarchy had lost 
strength during his reign. He had neglected or sacri- 
ficed their dearest interests, but he had struck their 
imaginations. The very things which ought to have 
made him unpopular, the prodigies of luxury and inag- 
nificence with which his person was surrounded, while, 
beyond the enclosure of his parks, nothing was to be 
seen but starvation and despair, seemed to increase tlus 
respectful attachment which his people felt for him. 

Macaulay. 



LXXV. 

Anecdote of the Duke of Newcastle. 

1. At the election of a certain borough in Cornwall, 
where the opposite interests were almost equally poised, 
a single vote was of the highest importance. This ob- 
ject the Duke, by well-applied argument and personal 
application, at lengtli attained ; and the gentleman he 
recommended gained the election. In the warmth of 
gratitude, his grace poured forth acknowledgments and 
promises without ceasing on the fortúnate possessor 
of the casting vote ; called him his best and dearest 
friend ; protested that he should consider himself as 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 217 

forever inclebted to him ; that he would serye him by 
night or by day. 

2. The Cornish voter, who was an honest fellow, and 
would not have thought himself entitled 283 to any re- 
ward, but for such a torrent of acknowledgments, 
thanked the Duke for his kindness, and told hiin, " The 
supervisor of excise was oíd and infirm, and if he would 
have the goodness to recommend his son-in-law to the 
commissioners, in case of the oíd man's death, he should 
think himself and his family bound to render his grace 
every assistance in his power, on any future occasion." 
" My dear friend, why do you ask for such a trifling 
empkyment ?" exclaimed his grace, " your relative 
shall have it, the moment the place is vacant, if you 
will but cali my attention to it." " But how shall I 
get admitted to you, my lord ? for in London, I under- 
stand, it is a very difficult business to get a sight of you 
great folks, though you are so kind and complaisant to 
us in the country." " The instant the man dies," replied 
the Duke, " set out, post-haste, for London ; drive di- 
rectly to my house, and be it by night or by day, thun- 
der at the door ; I will leave word with my porter, to 
show you up-stairs directly ; and the employment shall 
be disposed of according to your wishes." 

3. The parties separated : the Duke drove to a friend's 
house in the neighborhood, without a wish or desire to 
see his new acquaintance till that day seven years ; but 
the memory of a Cornish elector, not being burdened 
with such a variety of objects, was-more retentive. The 
supervisor died a few months after, and the Duke's 



285? Que no se hubiera creído acreedor, ó con derecho, á recompensa 
alguna. 



218 LECTÜEAS INGLESAS. 

humble friend, relying on the word of a peer, was con- 
veyed to London post-haste, and ascended with alac- 
rity the steps of that noblenian's palace. 

4. The reader should be informed, that just at this 
time, no less a person than the King of Spain was ex- 
pected houiiy to depart, — an event in which the minis- 
ter of Great Britain was particularly concerned ; and 
the Duke of Newcastle, on the very night that the pro- 
prietor of the decisive vote arrived at his door, had 
sat up anxiously expecting dispatches from Madrid. 
Wearied by official business and agitated spirits, he 
retired to rest, having previously given particular in- 
structions to his porter not to go to bed, as he ex- 
pected, every minute, a messenger with advices of the 
greatest importance, and desired he might be shown 
up-stairs the moment of his arrival. 

5. His grace was sound asleep ; and the porter, set- 
tled for the night in his arm-chair, had already com- 
menced a sonorous nap, when the vigorous arm of the 
Cornish voter roused him from his slumbers. To his 
first question, " Is the Duke at home ?" the porter 
replied, " Yes, and in bed ; but has left particular 
orders that, come when you will, you are to go up to 
him directly." " Biess him, for a worthy and honest 
gentleman," cried our applicant for the vacant post, 
smiling and nodding w T ith approbation at the prime 
minister's kindness ! " How punctual his grace is ! I 
knew he would not deceive me : let me hear no more 
of lords and dukes not keeping their word ; I verily 
believe they are as honest and mean as any other folks.'' 
Having ascended the stairs as he was speaking, he was 
ushered into the Duke's bedehamber. 

6. " Is he d(íad ?" exclaimed his grace, rubbing his 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 219 

eres, and scarcely awakéned from dreaming of the 

King of Spain — " is lie dead?'' " Yes, my lord/ 1 cried 
tlie eager expectant, delighted to find the election 
promise, with all its circumstances, so fresh in the 
nobleinan's nieruorv. £í TYhen did lie die ?" í; The dar 
before yesterdav, exactly at half-past one o'clock, after 
being coiifined three wééts to his bed, and taking a 
power of doetor's stuff ; and I hope youi grace will be 
as good as voiir word, and let mv son-in-law succeed 
hini/' 

7. The Duke, by this time perfectly awake, was stag- 
gered at the impossibility of reeemng intelligence from 
Madrid in so sliort a space of time ; and perplexed at 
the absnrdity of a king's messenger applying for his 
son-in-law to succeed the King of Spain : " Is the man 
drunk, or mad ? Where are your dispatches ?" ex- 
claimed his grace, hastily drawiiig baek his cnrtain ; 
where, instead of a royal courier, his eager eye recog- 
nized at the bedside the weil-known counteuance of 
his friend from Cornwali, making low bows, with hat 
in hand, and ' ; hoping my lord wonld not forget the 
gracious promise he was so good as to make, in favor 
of his son-in-law. at the last election.*' 

8. Texed at so untimely a disturbanee, and disap- 
pointed of news from Spain, the Duke frowned for a 
inora ent ; bnt chagrin soon gave way to niirth, at so 
singular and ridiculous a combination of circumstances, 
and, yielding to the impulse, he sunk upon the bed in 
a Tiolent fit of laughter, which was communicated in a 
moment to the attendants. 

9. The relator of this little narrative concludes with 2M 

r -~ s * Es impropia la preposición with aquí; lo corrente es 5¡y. 



220 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

observing, "Althongh the Duke of Newcastle could 
not replace the relative of his oíd acquaintance on the 
throne of His Catholic Majesty, he advanced him to a 
post not 285 less honorable — he made him an excise- 
nian. Anonymous. 



LXXYI. 

Eeception of Columbus in Spain. 

1. The fame of the discovery of a new world had 
resounded throughout Spain ; and, as the route of 
Colambus lay through several of the finest and most 
populous provinces, his journey appeared like the pro- 
gress of a sovereign. Wherever he passed, the sur- 
rounding country poured forth its inhabitants, who 
lined the road, and thronged the villages. In the large 
towns, the streets, windows, and balconies were filled 
with eager spectators, who rent the air with acclama- 
tions. His journey was continually impeded by the 
multitude pressing to gain a sight of him, and of the 
Indians, who were regarded with as much admiration 
as if they had been natives of another planet. It was 
impossible to satisfy the craving curiosity which assailed 
himself and his companions, at every stage, with innu- 
merable questions. Popular rumor, as usual, had ex- 
aggerated the truth, and had filled the newly found 
country with all kinds of wonders. 

2. It was about the middle of April that Columbus 
arrived at Barcelona, where every prepararon had 

,¿tü Not less honorable no es buen inglés : seria correcto no fan. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 221 

been made to give him a solemn and magnificent 
reception. The beauty and serenity of the weather, in 
that genial season and favored chínate, contributed to 
give splendor to this memorable ceremony. As he 
drew near the place, many of the more youthful cour- 
tiers and hidalgos of gallant bearing, together with a 
vast concourse of the populace, carne forth to greet and 
welcome him. 

3. First were paraded the Indians, painted according 
to their savage fashion, and clecorated with tropical 
feathers and with their national ornaments of gold ; 
after these were borne various kinds of live parrots, 
together with stuffed birds, and animáis of unknown 
specíes, and rare plants, supposed to be of precious 
qualities ; while great care was taken to make a con- 
spicuous display of Indian eoronets, bracelets, and 
other decorations of gold, which might give an idea of 
the wealth of the newiy-discovered regions. After 
these followed Columbus, on horsebacb, surrounded by 
a brilliant cavalcade of Spanish chivalry. 

4. The streets were almost impassable from the 
countless multitude ; the windows and balconies were 
iined with the fair ; the very roofs were covered with 
spectators. It seemed as if the public eye could not 
be sated with gazing on these trophies of an unknown 
world, or on the remarkable man by whom it had been 
discovered. There was a sublimity in the event, that 
mingled a solemn feeling with the public joy. It was 
looked upon as a vast and signal dispensation of Prov- 
idence in reward for the piety of the monarchs ; and 
the majestic and venerable appearance of the dis- 
coverer, so different from the youth and buoyancy 
w T hich are generally expected from roving enterprise, 



222 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

seemed in harmony with tlie grandeur and dignity of 
bis achievement 

5. To receive him with suitable pomp and distiuc- 
tion, tbe sovereigns had ordered their thrones to be 
placed in public, under a rich canopy of brocade of 
gold, in a vast and splendid saloon. Here, the king 
and qneen awaited bis arrival, seated in state, with the 
Prince Juan beside tbem, and attended by tbe digni- 
taries of their court and the principal nobility of Spain, 
all impatient to behold the man who had conferred so 
incalculable a benefit upon the nation. 

6. At length Columbus entered the hall, surrounded 
by a brilliant crowd of cavaliers, among wliom he was 
conspiouous 288 for bis stately and commanding person, 
which, with bis countenance rendered venerable by bis 
gray hairs, gave him the august appearance of a sena- 
tor of Eome. A modest smile lighted up bis features, 
showing that he enjoyed the state and glory in which 
he carne ; and certainly nothing could be more deeplv 
moving, to a mind inflamed by noble ambition, and 
conscious of having greatly deserved, than the testi- 
moniáis of the admiration and gratitude of a nation, or 
ráther of a world. As Columbus approached, the sov- 
ereigns rose, as if receiving a person of the highest 
rank. Bending bis knees, he requested to kiss their 
hands ; but there was some hesitation on the part of 
their majesties to permit this act of vassalage. Raiaing 
him in the fnost gracious manner, they ordered him to 
seat himself in their presence ; a rare honor in ibis 
proud and punctilious court. 

7. At the request of their majesties, Columbus now 



■ M Se distinguía. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 223 

# 

gave an acconnt of the most striking events of liis 
voyage, and a description of the islands which he liad 
discovered. He displayed the specirnens he had brought 
of unknown birds and other animáis ; of rare plants, of 
medicinal and aromatic virtue ; of native golcl, in clust, 
in crude niasses, or labored into barbarie ornainents ; 
and, above all, the natives of these countries, who were 
objeets of intense and inexhaustible interest, since there 
is nothing to man so curious as the varieties of his own 
species. All these he pronouncecl mere harbingers of 
greater discoveries he had yet to make, which would 
add realms of incalculable wealth to the clominions of 
their majesties, and whole nations of proselytes to the 
true faitli. 

8. The words of Columbus were listened to 287 with 
profound emotion by the sovereigns. Wten he had 
finished, they sunk on their knees, and raising their 
clasped hands to heaven, their eyes fillecl with tears of 
joy and gratitude, they poured fortli thanks and praises 
to God for so great a providence. All present followed 
their example : a deep and solemn enthusiasm pervaded 
that splendid assembly, and prevented all common ac- 
clamations of triumph. The anthem of Te Deum lauda- 
mus, chanted by the choir of the royal chapel, with the 
melodious accompaniments of the Instruments, rose up 
from the midst, in a full bocly of sacred harmony, bear- 
ing up, as it were, the feelings and thoughts of the 
auditors to heaven ; " so that," says the venerable Las 
Casas, the historian of the occasion, " it seemed as if, 
in that hour, they communicated w T ith celestial de- 



287 Literalmente : las palabras de i verbo to listen exige siempre tras 
Colon fueron escuchadas á : el | él la preposición to. 



224 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

lights." Such was the solemn and pious manner in 
which the brilliant court of Spain celebrated tliis sub- 
lime event ; offering up a grateful tribute of melody 
and praise, and giving glory to God for the discovery 
of ano tli er world. 

9. When Columbus retired from the royal presence, 
he was attended to his residence by all the court, and 
followed by the shouting populace. For many days he 
was the object of universal curiositj', and wherever he 
appeared he was surrounded by an admiring multitude. 

W. Irying. 



LXXYII. 

EüLOGY ON CANDLE-LIGHT. 

1. Hail, candle-light ! without disparagernent to sun 
or moon, the kindliest luminary of the three ; if we may 
not rather style thee their radiant deputy, mild viceroy 
of the moon ! We love to read, talk, sit silent, eat, 
drink, sleep, by candle-light. It is everybody's sun 
and moon : it is our peculiar and household planet. 
Wanting it, what savage, unsocial nights must our an- 
cestors have spent, wintering in caves and unilluminated 
fastnesses! They must have lain about, and grumbled 
at one another in the clark. What repartees could 
have passed, when you must have felt about for a 
smile, and handled a neighbor's cheek, to be sure that 
he understood it? This accounts for the seriousness 
of the eider poetry. It has a sombre casty derived 
from the tradition of those unlanterned nights. 

2. Jokes carne in with candles. We wonder how 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 225 

they saw to pick up a pin, if they liad any. How did 
they sup? What a medley of chance carving they 
must have made of it ! Here, one had got the leg of a 
goat, when he wanted a liorse's slioulder ; there, another 
had dipped his scooped palm in a kidskin of wild 
honey, when he ineditated right mare's milk. There 
is neither good eating ñor drinking in the dark. The 
senses give and take reciprocally. Can you tell 288 veal 
from pork without light? or distinguish sherry from 
puré Malaga ? Take &wdy the candle from the smok- 
ing man ; by the glimmering of the left ashes he knows 
that he is still smoking ; but he knows it only by an 
inference, till the restored light coming in to the aid of 
the olfactories, reveáis to both senses the full aroma. 
Then, how he redoubles his puffs, how he burnishes ! 

3. There is absolutely no such thing as reading but 
by a candle. We have tried the affectation of a book 
at noon-day, in gardens, and in sultry arbors ; but it 
was labor thrown away. Those gay motes in the beam 
come about you, hovering and teasing, like so many 
coquettes, that will have you all to their self, and are 
jealous of your abstractions. By the midnight taper 
the writer digests his meditations. By the same light 
you must approach to their perusal, if you would catch 
the fíame, the odor. It is a mockery, all that is re- 
ported of the influential Phoebus. No true poem ever 
owed its birth to the sun's light. They are abstracted 
works : 

" Things that were born, when none but the still night 
And his dumb candle saw his pinching throes." 



9 Puedes distiuguir la ternera del puerco ? 
10* 



226 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

4. Daylight mar furnish the images, the crude mate- 
rial ; but for the fine sliapings, tlie true turning and 
filing, they must be contení to hold their inspiration oí 
tlie candle. The mild, internal liglit tliat reveáis tliem, 
like fires on the domestic hearth, goes out in the sun- 
shine. Night and silenee cali out the starry fancies. 
Milton's morning hymn, we would hold a good wager, 
was penned' at midnight ; and Taylor's richer descrip- 
tion of a sunrise smells decidedly of a taper. Even our- 
self, in these our humbler lucubrations, tune our best 
measured cadenees (prose has her cadenees) not un- 
frequently to the charm of the drowsy watchman, 
" blessing the doors," or the wild sweep of winds at 
midnight. Even now a loftier speculation than we have 
yet attempted courts our endeavors. We would indi te 
something about the solar system. Betty, bring the 
candles. Charles Lambe. 



LXXVIIL 

Adyantages of a Well-cultiyated Mind. 

1. How much soever a person may be engaged in 
pleasures, or encumbered with business, he will cer- 
tainly have some moments to spare for thought and 
reflection. No one, who has observed how heavily the 
vacuities of time hang upon minds unfurnished with 
images, and unaecustomed to think, will be at a loss to 
make a just estímate of the advantages of possessin^ a 
copious stock of ideas, of which the combinatioi) may 
take a multiplicity of forms, and be varied to infinity. 

2. Mental oceupations are a pleasing relief from 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 227 

bodily exertions, ancl frorn that perpetual hurry and 
wearisome attention which, in most of the employments 
of life, niust be given to objects which are no other- 
wise interesting than as they are neeessary. The mind, 
in an hour of leisure, obtaining a short vacation from 
the perplexing cares of this World, finds, in its own 
contenrplations, a source of amusement, of solace, and 
of pleasure. The tiresome attention that must be given 
to an infinite number of things (which, singly and sepa- 
rately taken, are of little moment, but, collectively 
considered, form an important aggregate), requires to 
be sometimes relaxed by thoughts and reflections of a 
more general and extensive nature, and directed to ob- 
jects, of which the examination may open a more spa- 
cious field of exercise to the mind, give scope to its 
exertions, expand its ideas, present new combinations, 
and exhibit to the intellectual eye images new, various, 
sublime, or beautiful. 

3. The time of action will not always continué. The 
young ought always to have this consideration present 
to their mind, that they must grow oíd, unless prema- 
turely cut off by sickness or accident. They ought to 
contémplate the certaiñ approach of age and decrepi- 
tucle, and consider that ail temporal happiness is of 
uncertain acquisiíion, mixed with a variety of alloy, 
and, in wh ate ver degree attained, only of short and 
precarious duration. Every day brings some disap- 
pointment, some diminution of pleasure, or some pros- 
tration of hope ; and every moment brings us nearer to 
that period, when the present scenes shall recede from 
view, and future prospects cannot be formed. 

4. This consideration displays, in a very interesting 
point of view, the beneficial effects of furnishing the 



228 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

mind with a stock of ideas that may amuse it in leisure, 
accompany it in solitude, dispel the gloom of melan- 
choly, lighten the pressure of misfortune, dissipate the 
vexation arising from baffled projects, of disappointed 
Lopes, and relieve tLe tedium of that season of life 
when new acquisitions can no more be made, and the 
mind can no longer flatter and delude us with its illu- 
sory Lopes and promises. 

5. WLen life begins, like a distant landscape, gradu- 
ally to disappear, the mind can receive no solace but 
from its own ideas and reflections. Philosophy and 
literature, a knowledge of tLe works of God and of tLe 
laws which govern thé material and intellectual world, 
will tLen farnisL us witL an inexhaustible source of tLe 
most agreeable amusements, wLicL, if blended with the 
sustaining power of our divine religión, will render oíd 
age as happy as youth was joyous. 

6. The man of letters, when 289 compared with one 
that is illiterate, exhibits nearly the same contrast as 
that which exists between a blind man, and one that 
can see ; and, if we consider how much literature en- 
larges tLe mind, and Low mucL it multiplies, adjusts, 
rectifies, and arranges tLe ideas, it may well be reck- 
oned equivalent to an additional sense. It aftbrds 
pleasures wLicL wealtli cannot procure, and which 
poverty cannot entirely take away. A well-cultivated 
mind places its possessor beyond tLe reacL of tLose 
trifling vexations and disquietudes which continually 
Larass and perplex tLose wLo Lave no resources witliin 
tLemselves ; and, in some measure, elevates Lim abo ve 
the smiles and frowns of fortune. Bfgland. 

* 89 Literalmente : cuando com- I en español se calla el adverbio 
parado ; esto es, comparado, pues | cuando. 



. LECTÜEAS INGLESAS. 229 

LXXIX. 

The Will. 

Oharacters. — Swipes, a brewer ; Currie, a saddler ; Frank. Mn> 
lington, and 'Squire* 90 Dkawl. 

Swipes. A sober occasion this, Brother Currie. Wlio 
would have thoueht tlie oíd ladv was so near her end ? 

Currie. Ah ! we must all die, Brother Swipes ; and 
those who live longest outlive the inost. 

Stvipes. True, true ; but since we must die and leave 
our earthly possessions, it is well that the law takes 
such good care of us. Had the oíd lady her senses 
when she departed ? 

Cur. Perfectly, perfectly. 'Squire Drawl told me 
she read every word of the will aloud, and never signed 
her ñame better. 

Swipes. Had you any hint from the 'Squire what 
disposition she made of her property ? 

Cur. Not a whisper ; the 'Squire is as cióse as an 
under-ground tomb : but one of the witnesses hinted to 
me that she had cut off her graceless nephew, Frank, 
without a shilling. 

Swipes. Has she, good soul, has she ? You know I 
come in, then, in right of my wife. 

Cur. And I in my own right ; and this is no doubt 

290 Abreviatura, ele esquive, es- ponde al don español. En los 

cudero ; es una especie de título sobrescritos se usa esta palabra, 

que se da familiarmente á los lia- contraída así : Usqr., que vale 

cendados y demás hombres acó- también clon, y excusa el Mr. 

modados del campo, y corres- (contracción de Müter, señor). 



230 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

the reason why we have been called to liear tlie reading 
of the wilL 'Squire Drawl knows how things should be 
clone, though lie is as air-tight as one of your beer- 
barrels. But here comes the young repróbate. He 
must be present, as a matter of course, jou know. 
[Enter Frank Millington.] Your servant, young gen- 
tleman. So your benefactress lias left you at last. 

Sioipes. It is a painful thing to part with oíd and 
good friends, Mr. Millington. 

Frank. It is so, 291 sir ; but I could bear lier loss 
better liad I not so often been ungrateful for lier kind- 
ness. Slie was niy only friend, and I knew not lier 
valué. 

Cur. It is too late to repent, Master Millington. 
You will now liave a chance 292 to earn j r our own bread. 

Simpes. Ay, ay, 293 by the sweat of your brow, as 
better people are obliged to. You would make a fine 
brewer's boy, if you were not too oíd. 

Cur. Aye, or a saddler's lackey, if held with a tight 
rein. 

Frank, Gentlemen, your remarks imply that my 
aunt has treated me as I deserved. I am above your 
insults, and only hope you will bear your fortune as 
modestly as I shall mine submissively. I shall retire. 
[Going : he meets 'Squire Dhawl.] 

'Squire. Stop, stop, young man. We must have 
your presence. Good-morning, gentlemen ; you are 
early on the ground. 

Cur. I hope the 'Squire is well to-day. 



•2 '3 -2 



Así es, señor. * pa Ya, ya. Es voz afirmativa ; 

Literalmente: V. ahora ten- úsase muy poco en los Estados 
(Irá una suerte ele ganar su pro- Unidos. 
pió pan; esto es, ya podrá V. ga- 
na su vida trabajando. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 231 

'Squire. Pretty 234 comfortable, for an invalid. 

Sicipes. I trust the clamp air has not afíected jour 
lungs again. 

'Squire. No, I believe not. But since the heirs-at* 
law 295 are all convened, I shall now proceed to opéu the 
last will and testament of your deceased relative, aecord- 
ing to law. 

Sioipes. [ While the 'Squire is breahing the sea!.] It is 
a trying thing, to leave all one's possessions, 'Squire, in 
this rnanner. 

Gur, It really makes me feel melaneholy, when I 
look round and see everything but 296 the venerable 
owner of these goods. Well 297 did the preacher say, 
" all is vanity." 

'Squire. Please to be seated, gentlemen. 298 [He puts 
on his spectacles and begins to read shwly.] " Imprimís ; 
whereas 290 my nephew, Francis Millington, by his dis- 
obedience and ungrateful conduct, has shown himself 
unworthy of my bounty, and incapable of managing 
my large estáte, I do hereby 300 give and bequeath all 
my houses, farms, stocks, bonds, moneys, and property, 
both 3<r personal and real, to my dear cousins, Samuel 
Swipes, of Malt-Street, brewer, and Christopher Ourrie, 
of Fly-Court, saddler." [The 'Squire takes qff his spec- 
tacles to icipe them.] 

Sioipes, Generous creature ! Kind soul ! I ahvays 
loved lier. 

Cur. She was good, she was kind ; — and, Brother 

294 Bastante bien, para un en- 298 Sírvanse sentarse, caballe- 
ferrno. Pretty, literalmente, es ros. 

bonito. ~" Por cuanto. 

295 Herederos legales. 30() Por la presente. 
'" But aquí válemenos. S01 Así personal como efectiva. 



296 
2U7 



Bien dice el predicador. 



232 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

Swipes, when we divide, I think I'll take the mansión- 
liouse. 

Stvipes. Not so fast, 302 if you please, Mr. Currie. 
My wife has long liad her eye 303 upon that, and must 
have it. 

Cur. Tliere will be two words 304 to tliat bargain, Mr. 
Swipes. And, besides, I ought to have the first choice. 
Did I not lend her a new chaise every time she wished 
to ride ? And who knows what influence — 

Swipes. Am I not named first in her will ? and did 
I not furnish her with my best small beer for more 
than six months ? and who knows — 

Frank. Gentlemen, I must leave you. [Going.] 

5 Squirc. [Pitfting on Iris spectacles very delibera! ] ely.~\ 
Pray, gentlemen, keep your seats, 305 I have not done 
yet. Let me see ; where wasl? Ay, " All my prop- 
erty, both personal and real, to my dear cousins, Samuel 
Swipes, of Malt-Street, brewer," — 

Sierpes. Yes ! 

'Squire. u And Christopher Currie, of Fly-Court, 
saddler." 

Cur. Yes ! 

'Squire. " To have and to hold, 306 in trust, for the 
solé and exclusive benefit of my nephew, Francis Mil- 
lington, until he shall have attained 307 the age of 
twenty-one years ; by which time 308 I hope he will have 



y02 Poco á poco. 305 Palabra por palabra : con- 

808 Hace mucho tiempo que mi serven Vds. 9US asientos ; es decir; 

esposa tiene puestos los ojos en espérense V<K 

ella. aü(i Literalmente: para tener y 

H04 Literalmente: habla dos conservar ; esto es para suyo. 

palabras en esc convenio; estoes, 80 ' Hasta (pie tenga 21 años de 

se necesitarán dos para hacer ese edad. 

arreglo. aos Para cuya época. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 233 

so far 309 reformed his eyil liabits as that he may safely 
be intrusted with the large fortune which I liereby be- 
queath to him." 

Siuipes. What is all this ? You don't mean that we 
are hunibugged? 310 In trust ! How does that appear? 
Whereisit? 

'Squire. There ; in two words of as good oíd Eng- 
lish as I eyer penned. 

Cur. Pretty well too, 311 Mr. 'Squire, if we must be 
sent for, ío be made a laughing-stock of. She shall 
pay for every ride she has had out of my chaise, I 
promise you. 

Sicipes. And for every drop of my beer. Fine times ! 
if two sober, hard-working citizens are to be brought 
here to be made the sport of a graceless profligate. 
But we will manage his property for him, Mr. Currie ; we 
will make him feel that trustees are not to be trifled with, 

Cur. That we will. 312 

'Sqiáre. Not so fast, gentlemen ; for the instrument 
is dated three years ago ; and the young gentleman 
must be already of age, and able to take care of him- 
self. Is it not so, Franeis? 

Frank. It is, your worship. 318 

'Squire. Then, 314 gentlemen, having attencled to the 

30a Espero que habrá renuncia- dio en mi silla, yo se lo prometo 

do sus malos hábitos en términos á Y. ! 

ele que que se le pueda confiar la 312 Eso sí. 

gran fortuna que yo por estetes- 313 Literalmente, adoración; es 

tamento le lego. término de acatamiento que en 

310 ¿Y. no "quiere decir que so- Inglaterra suele dárseles á los 
mos yíctimos de alguna chanza jueces. 

pesada ? 334 Conque, caballeros, habien- 

311 ¡Bien está, Sr. 'Squire ! Xos do asistido, según la ley previene, v 
mandan á buscar para burlarse á la formalidad de la abertura del 
de nosotros ! ¡ Pues, caro le ha sello, ya quedan Vds. libres de 
de costar (á ella) cada paseo que toda clase de molestia acerca de 

este asunto. 



234 LECTURAS IKGLERAS. 

breaking of the seal, according to law, you are released 
from any further trouble about the business. 

Anonymous. 



LXXX. 

The Hill of Science. 

1. In that season of the year, when the serenity of 
the sky, the various fruits which cover the ground, the 
discolored foliage of the trees, and all the sweet but 
fading graces of inspiring autunin, open the mind to 
benevolence, and dispose it for conteinplation, I was 
wandeiing in a beautiful and roinantic country, till 
curiosity began to give way to weariness ; and I sat me 
down on the fragment of a rock, overgrown with nioss, 
where the rustling of the falling leaves, the dashing of 
waters, and the hum of the distant city, sootlied rny 
mind into the most perfect tranquillity, and sleep insen- 
sibly stole upon me, as I was indulging the agreeable 
revenes which the objects around me naturally in- 
spired. 

2. I immediately found myself in a vast, extended 
plain, in the middle of which aróse a mountain, higher 
than I before had any conception of. It was covered 
with a multitude of people, chiefly youth; many of 
whom pressed forward with the liveliest expression of 
ardor in their countenances, though the way was in 
many places steep and difficult. I observed that those 
who had but just begun to climb the hill thought tliein- 
selves not far from the top ; but, as they proceeded, 
uew hills were continually rising to their view, and the 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 235 

suminit of tlie liigliest they could before discern seemed 
but the foot of anotlier, till the mountain at lengtli ap- 
peared to lose itself in tbe clouds. As I was gazing on 
these tbings with astonishment, iny good genius sud- 
denly appeared : — " Tbe mountain before tbee," said 
be, " is tbe Hill of Science. On the top is tbe Temple 
of Truth, wbose head is above tbe clouds, and a veil of 
puré ligbt covers ber face. Observe tbe progress of 
her votaries : be silent and attentive." 

3. I saw tbat tbe only regular approacb to tbe moun- 
tain was by a gate, called tbe Gate of Languages. It 
was kept by a woman of pensive and tbougbtful ap- 
pearance, wbose lips were continuaily moving as tbough 
sbe repeated sometbing to herself. Her ñame was 
Memory. On entering tbe first enciosure, I was stunned 
with a confused murmur of jarring voices and dissonant 
sounds ; wbicb increased upon me to sucb a degree 
tbat I was utterly confounded, and could compare tbe 
noi^e to notbing but tbe confusión of tongues at Babel. 

4. After contemplating these tbings, I turned my 
eyes toward tbe top of the mountain, where tbe air was 
always puré and exbilarating, the path shaded with 
laurels and other evergreens, and the effulgence which 
beamed from tbe face of the goddess seemed to shed a 
glory round her votaries. " Happy," said I, " are they 
who are permitted to ascend the mountain !" — But 
while I w T as pronouncing this exclamation with uncom- 
mon ardor, I saw beside me a form, of divine features, 
and a more benign radiance. " Happier," said sbe, 
" are those whom Yirtue conducts to the mansions of 
content." íc What !" said I, " does Virtue then reside 
in the vale ?-" 

5. "I am found," said sbe, "in tbe vale, and I illu- 



236 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

mínate the mountain ; I clioer the cottager at his toil, 
and inspire the sage at his meditation. I mingle in the 
orowd of cities, and bless the hermit in hiscell. I have 
a temple in every heart that owns my influenee ; and 
to him that wishes for me, I am already present. 
Science may raise you to eminence ; but I alone can 
guide you to felicity !" While the goddess was thus 
speaking, I stretched out my arm toward lier with a 
vehemence whieh broke my slumbers. The chill de>ys 
were falling around me, and the shades of evening 
stretched over the landscape. I hastened homeward, 
and resigned the night to silence and meditation. 

Aikin's Miscellanies. 



LXXXI. 

Scene rnoM the Poon Gentleman. 

SIR 316 ROBEKT lili AMBLE Ü1ld HUMriIREY D01ÍBINS. 

S!r B. 1*11 tell you what, Humphrey Dobbins, there 
is not a syllable of sense in all you have been saying. 
But I suppose you will maintain there is. 

Ilion. Yes. 

Bir B. Yes, is that the way you talk to me, you oíd 
boor? What's my ñame? 

Ilion. Bobert Bramble. 

m Sir, Señor ; es título de los ca- y entonces vale señor, ó caballe- 

balleros (miembros de los órdenes n>; como: Good-day, wV, buenos 

de caballería) en [nglaterra. Tam- dias, caballero. Cuando se habla 

bien se usa este título al dirigirse de alguno, no se dice 6-//', ^íuo 

á un hombre cualquiera que sea; gentleman. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 237 

Sir JR. An't 316 I a baronet — Sir Robert Bramble of 
Blackberry Hall, in the county of Kent? 'Tis 317 time 
you should know it, for you liave been my clumsy, two- 
fisted valet these thirty years : can you deny that? 

Hum. Hem ! 

Sir It. Hem ? what do you mean by hem ? Open 
that rusty door of your mouth, and make your ugly 
yoice walk out of it. Why don't you answer my ques- 
tion ? 

Hum. Because, if I contradi ct you, I shall tell you 

a lie ; and when I agree with you, you are sure to fall 
out. 

Sir R. Humphrey Dobbins, I liave been so long 
endeavoring to beat a few brains into your pate, 318 that 
all your hair has tumbled off before my point is car- 
ried. 319 

Hum. What then ? Our parson says my head is an 
emblem of both our honors. 

>S y ¿V E. Ay ; because honors, like your head, are 
apt 320 to be empty. 

Hum. No ; but if a servant has grown bald under 
his master's nose, it looks as if there was honesty on 
one side and regard for it on the other. 

Sir B. Why, to be sure, oíd Humphrey, you are as 

honest as a Pshaw ! 321 the parson means to palaver 

us ; but, to return to my position, I tell you, I don't 
like your fíat contradiction. 

Hum. Yes, you do. 



316 Contracción viciosa é incor- 319 Antes que yo haya podido 

recta de am not? y también de is lograrlo. 

not. ' á ' ¿0 Suelen ser. 

817 Por Uü. 321 Bah! 

3i8 p or faad^ cabeza; es voz 
trivial. 



238 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

Sir R. I tell you I don't, I only love to liear men's 
argüments. I bate their flnmmeíy. 

Ilaiit. What do you cali flurnmery ? 

Sir R. Flattery, blockheacl ! a dish too often served 
up by paltry poor men to paltry ricli ones. 

Hum. I never serve it up to you. 

Sir R. No, you give me a dish of a different descrip- 
ción. 

Hum. Hem ! what is it ? 

Sir R. Sourcrout, you oíd crab. 

Hum. I Lave lield you a stout tug at argument this 
niany a year. 

Sir R. And yet I could never teach you a syllogism. 
Now mind, when a poor man assents to what a rich 
man says, I suspect he means to flatter him. Now I am 
rich, and hate flattery. Ergo, wlien a poor man sub- 
scribes to my opinión, I líate him. 

Hum. That's wrong. 

Sir R. Very well — negatur ; now prove it. 

Hum. Put the case then, I am a poor man. 

Sir R. You an't, 322 you scoundrel. You know you 
shall never want while I have a shilling. 

Hum. "Well, then, I am a poor — I must be a poor 
man now, or I never shall get on. 

Sir R. Well, get on, 323 be a poor man. 

Hum. I am a poor man, and argüe with you, and 
convince you, you are wrong ; then you cali yourself a 
blockhead, and I am of your opinión : now, that's no 
flattery. 

Sir R. Why no ; but when a man's of the same 
opinión with me, he puts an end to the argument, and 

322 Ya se presenta anH, por are ' ¿ ' 2 ' J Bien, pues, adelante. 
not. 



LECTUBAS INGLESAS. 239 

that puts an end to the conversation, and so I líate him 
for that. But where's my nephew, Frederie? 

Hum. Been 324 out tliese two hours. 

Sir R. An undutiful cub ! only arrived from Russia 
last night, and though I told him to stay at home till I 
rose, he's 325 scampering over the fields like a Calmuc 
Tartar. 

Hum. He's a fine fellow. 

Sir R. He has a touch of our family. Don't you 
think he is a little like me, Humphrey ? 

Hum. No, not a bit ; you are as ugly an oíd man as 
ever I clapped my eyes on. 

Sir R. Now that's plaguy impudent, but there's no 
flattery in it, and it keeps up the independence of argu- 
ment, His father, my brother Job, is of as tame a 
spirit. Humphrey, you remember my brother Job ? 

Hum. Yes, you drove him to Bussia five-and-twenty 
years ago. 

Sir R. I did not drive him. 

Hum. Tes, you did. You would never let him be 
at peace in the way of argument. 

Sir R. At peaee ! Zounds, 326 he would never go to war. 

Hum. He had the merit to be calm. 

Sir R. So has a duck-pond. He received my argtt^- 
ments with his mouth open, like a poor-box gaping for 
half-pence, and, good or bad, he swallowed them all 
without any resistance. We couldn't 327 disagree, and 
so we.parted. 

Hum. And the poor, meek gentleman went to Kus- 
sia for a quiet life. 

324 Elipsis cíel pronombre he y 326 Cáspita. 

del auxiliar lias: he has been out. 327 Couldrít, por could not, 

325 Contracción de he is. 



240 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

Sir It. A quiet life ! Why be married the moment 
he got there, tacked himself to the shrew relict of a 
Russian merchant, and continued a speculation with 
her in furs, flax, potashes, tallow, linen, and leather ; 
what's the consequence? Thirteen months ago he 
broke. 

llura. Poor soul, 32<! his wife should have followed 3 " 
the business for him. 

Sir R. I fancy she did follow it, for she died just 
as he broke, and now this madcap, Frederic, is sent 

ver to me for protection. Poor Job, now he is in dis- 
tress, I must not neglect his son. 

Hum. Here comes his son ; that's Mr. Frederic. 

Fred. Oh, my dear nncle, good-morning ! Your 
park is nothing but beauty. 

Sir R. Who bid you caper over my beauty ? I told 
you to stay in-doors till I got up. 

Fred. So you did, but I entirely forgot it. 

Sir R. And pray, what made you forget it? 

Fred. The sun. 

fí*r R. The sun ! He's mad ! you mean the moon, 

1 believe. 

Fred. Oh, my dear únele, you don't know the efFect 
of a fine spring morning upon a fellow just arrived 
from Russia. The day looked bright, trees budding, 
birds singing, the park was so gay, that I took a leap 
out of your oíd balcony, made your deer fly befo re me 
like the wind, and chased them all around the park to 
get an appetite for breakfast, while you were snoring 
in bed, únele. 



3 "* Literalmente, j)obre alma ; 8 ' JÜ To follow the business, dirigir 
esto es, pobrecito. los negocios. 



LECTUKAS INGLESAS. 241 

Sir B. Oh, oh ! So the effect of English sunshine 
upon a Russian is to make him junip out a balcony and 
worry tay deer. 

Fred. I confess it had that influence upon me. 

Sir B. Tou had better be influenced by a rich oíd 
únele, unless you think the sun likely to leave you a 
fat legacy. 

Fred. I hate legacies. 

Sir. B. Sir, 330 that's mighty singular, they are pretty 
solid tokens, 331 at least. 

Fred. Very melancholy tokens, únele ; they are 
posthumous despatches affection sends to gratitude, to 
inform us we have lost a gracious friendo 

Sir B. How charmingly the dog 332 argües. 

Fred. Bufc I own my spirits run away with me this 
morning. I will obey you better in future ; for they 
tell me you are a \evy worthy, good sort of a gentle- 
man. 

Sir B. Now who had the familiar impudence to tell 
you that ? 

Fred. Oíd rusty, there. 

Sir B. Why Humphrey, you didn't ? 333 

Hiim. Yes, but I did though. 

Fred. Yes, he did, and on that score I shall be 
anxious to show you obedienee, for 'tis as meritorious 
to attempt sharing a good man's heart, as it is paltry 
to have designs upon a rich man's money. A noble 
n ature aims its attentions full breast-high, 334 únele ; a 
mean mind levéis its dirty assiduities at the pocket. 

sso Yale aquí, Señor mió. 333 Didrít, por did not. 

331 Recuerdos. 334 Full brea$t-?dgh, literalmente, 

332 No quiere decir aquí perro, k plena altura de pecho ¡ esto es, 
sino xAcaro, para el corazón. 



242 LECTUKAS INGLESAS. 

Sir II. [Shaking him by the kand.] Jump out of 
every window I liave in tbe house ; hmit my deer into 
liigh fevers, my íine fellow! Av, tliat's right. 33 ". This 
is spunk íincl plain speaking. Give me a man wlio is 
always flinging Lis dissent to my doctrines smack in 
my teeth. 

Fred. I disagree witli you there, únele. 

Hum. And so do I. 

Fred. You ! you forward puppy ! If you were not 
so oíd, I'd knock you dovvn. 

Sir R. ril knock yon clown if you do. I won't"' 
liave my servants tliumped into dumb flattery. 

Hum. Come, you're ruffled. 8 " Let us go to the 
business of the morning. 

Sir R. I hate the business of the morning. Don't 
j t ou see we are engaged in discussion. I tell you, I 
hate the business of the morning. 

Hum. No you don't. 

SirB. Don't I? Whynot? 

Hum. Because its charity. 

Sir R. Pshaw ! Well, we must not neglect the 
business, if there be any distress in the parish ; read 
the list, Humphrey. 

Hum. [TaJcing out a paper and reading.'] "Jona- 
than Huggins, of Muck Mead, is put in prison for 
debt." 

Sir R. Why, it was only last week that Gripe, the 
attorney, recovered two cottages for him by law, worth 
sixty pounds. 

Hum. Yes, and charged a hundred for his trouble ; 

3:!; ' Eso sí que está bien. sufriré que se me vuelva adula- 

188 Por will not ; ( 4 sto es : yo no dores á mis criados á puñetazos. 

337 Vamos, V., se enfada. 



LECTUKAS INGLESAS. 243 

so 338 seized the cottage for part of his bilí, and threw 
Jonathan into jail for the remainder. 

Sir R. A harpy ! I nmst relieve the poor íellow's 
distress. 

Fred. And I must kick his attorney. 

Hum. [Reading.] " The curate's horse is dead." 

Sir R. Pshaw ! There's no distress in that. 

Hum. Yes there is, 339 to a man that must go twenty 
miles every Sunday to preach, for thirty pounds a year. 

Sir R. Why won't the vicar give him another nag ? 

Hum. Because its cheaper to get another cúrate 
already mounted. 

Sir R. Well, send him the black pad which I pur- 
chased last Tuesday, and tell him to work him as long 
as he lives. What else have we upon the list ? 

Hum. Something out of the common ; there's one 
Lieutenant Worthington, a disabled officer and a 
widower, come to lodge at farmer Harrowby's, in the 
village ; he is, it seems, very poor, and more proud 
than poor, and more honest than proud. 

Sir R. And so he sends to me for assistance. 

Hum. He'd 340 see you hanged first ! No, he'd sooner 
die than ask you or any man for a shilling ! There's 
his daughter, and his wife's aunt, and an oíd corporal 
that served in the wars with him, he keeps them all 
upon his half-pay. 

Sir R. Sfcarves them all, I'm afraid, Humphrey. 

Fred. [Going.] Good-morning, únele. 

Sir R. You rogue, where are you running now? 

338 Elipsis del pronombre he ; to be, haber ; pág. 68, del " Pre- 

quiere decir : conque, se apoderó, ceptor." 

etc. 34ü Por he would. La frase en- 

839 Sí hay. Véase la conjuga- tera vale : antes quisiera verle á 

cion del verbo impersonal there V. ahorcado. 



241 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

Fred. To talk with Lieutenant "Worthington. 

Sir I?. And what may you be going to say to him ? 

Fred, I can't tell till I encounter bim ; and then, 
únele, wben I have an oíd gentleman by tbe band, who 
lias been disabled in bis country's service, and is strüg- 
gling to support bis motbeiiess cbild, a poor relation, 
and a faitbiul servan t in bonorable indigence, impulse 
will supply me with words to express my sentinients. 

Sir R. Stop, you rogue ; I niust be before you in 
tbis business. 

Fred. Tbat depends upon wbo can run the fastest ; 
so, start fair, únele, and bere goes. \_Runs oíd.'] 

Sir 11. Stop, stop ; why, Frederic — a jackanapes — 
to take my department out of my bands ! I'll disin- 
berit the dog for his assurance. 

Hum. No you won't. 

Sir 7?. Won't I ? Hang me if I— but we'll argüe 
tbat point as we go. So, come along, Humphrey. 

Colman. 



LXXXII. 

The Silent Aoademy. 

1. In Meinpbis, the capital of ancient Egypt, there 
was a celebrated aeademy, one of tbe rules of which 
was as follows : " Members will medítate much, write 
little, and talk the least possible." Tbe institution was 
known as " The Silent Aeademy ;" and there was not a 
person of any literary distinction in Egypt wbo was 
not ambitious of belongine to it. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 245 

2. Akmed, a young Egj^ptian of great eruclition and 
exquisite judgment, was the author of an admirable 
treatise, entitled " The Art of Brevity." It was a mas- 
terpiece of condensation and precisión, and he was 
laboring to compress it still more, when he learned, in 
his provincial seclusion, that there was a place vacant 
in the Silent Academy. 

3. Although he had not yét completed his twenty- 
third } r ear, and although a great number of competitors 
were intriguing for the yacant place, he went and pre- 
sented himself as a candidate at the door of the cele- 
brated academy. A crowd of gossiping loungers in 
the pórtico speedily gathered round the taciturn stran- 
ger, and plied him, all at once, with a multitude of 
questions — a species of inquisition to which new-comers 
were generally subjected. 

4. Without proffering a word in reply, Akmed pro- 
ceeded directly to the object he had in view, and, ap- 
proaching one of the ushers, placed in his hands a 
letter, addressed to the President of the august insti- 
tution, and containing these words ; " Akmed humbly 
solicits the vacant place." The usher delivered the 
letter at once ; but Akmed and his application had ar- 
rived too late. The place was already filled. 

5. By a system of intrigue and management, which 
even academies sometimes find irresistible, the favorite 
candidate of a certain rich man had been elected. The 
members of the Silent Academy were much chagrined 
when they learned what they liad lost in consequence. 
The new member was a glib and garrulous pretender, fc 
whose verbose j argón was as unprofitable as it was ( 
wealisome ; whereas Akmed, the scourge of all babblers, 



246 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

never gave utterance to a word wliicli was not senten- 
tious and suggestive. 

6. How should 341 they communicate to the author of 
" The Art of Brevity" the unpleasant intelligence of 
the failure of his application ? They were at a loss for 
the best mode of proceeding, when the President hit 
tipon this expedient : he filled a goblet with water, but 
so full that a single drop more would have caused it to 
overflow. Then he made a sign that the candidate 
should be introduced. 

7. Akmed entered the hall, where the academieians 
were all assembled. With slow and measured steps, 
and that genuine modesty of demeanor which ever ac- 
companies true merit, he advanced. At his approach, 
the President politely rose, and without uttering a word, 
pointed out to him, with a gesture of regret, the fatal 
token of his exclusión. 

8. Smiling at the emblem, the significance of which 
he at once coroprehended, the young Egyptian was not 
in the least disconcerted. Persuaded that the ad- 
mission of a supernumerary member would be produc- 
tive of no harm to the academy, and would viólate no 
essential law, he picked up a rose-leaf which he saw 
lying at his feet, and placed it on the surface of the 
water so gently that it floated without causing the 
slightest drop to overflow. 

9. At this ingenious and readily intelligible response, 
a general clapping of hands spoke the applauding ad- 
miration of the assembled members of the academy. 
By unanimous consent they suspended their rules so rq 
to make an exception in favor of Akmed's admission. 

341 ¿Cómo habían de . . . ? 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 247 

They handed him tlieir registry of ñames, and he in- 
scribed his own ñame at tbe end. 

10. It now only remained for him to pronounee, ac- 
cording to custoni, an address of thanks ; but he was 
resolved to act consistently with that principie of the 
academy which enjoined the utmost parsimony of 
words. On the margin of the column where he had 
written his ñame, he traced the number 100, represent- 
ing his brethren of the academy and the number to 
which they had been limited. Then placing a cipher 
before the figure 1 (thus, 0100), he wrote underneath, 
" Their number has been neither climinished ñor in- 
creased." 

11. Delighted at the laconic ingenuity and becoming 
modesty of Akmed, the President shook him affection- 
ately by the hand ; and then, substituting the figure 1 
for the cipher which preceded the number 100 (thus, 
1100), he appended these words : " Their number has 
been increased tenfold." Adapted from the Frexch. 



LXXXIII. 

The Prisoner and the Eats. 

1. In Paris there was once a large f ortress called the 
Bastile, which was used as a prison. The king, when 
oíFended with any one, caused him to be taken to the 
Bastile, and confined there. In this way many prison- 
ers were kept in confinement for several years, and 
sometimes till the end of their lives. They were loaded 



213 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 



with heavy cliains ; they were never allowed to go into 
the open air ; and they were not permitted to see- any 
of their relations. 

2. There was once in tlie Bastile a prisoner namecl 
La Tude. He was put in when twenty-three years of 
age, and kept there and in other prisons for thirty-five 
years, so that he was quite an oíd man when he got 
free. This poor man was confined for many years in a 
little room where he liad no company. He saw no one 
but the jailer who brought him his food. This was the 
greatest of all his afflictions, for there are íew things 
more necessary to happiness than the society of our 
fellow-creatures. 

3. In La Tude's room there was no light, except what 
carne through a horizontal slit in the wall ; and as the 
wall was thick, this slit was very deep. One day, as 
he was looking through the slit, he saw a rat come to 
the further end of it. Bats are creatures which human 
beings do not in general like to have near tliem ; but 
La Tude was so solitary that he was glad of the ap- 
proach of any living thing. He threw the rat a small 
piece of bread, taking care not to frighten it by any 
violen t mosrement. 

4. The little visitor carne forward and took the bread, 
and then seemed to wish for more. La Tude threw 
another piece to a less distance, and the animal carne 
and took that piece also. He then threw another to a 
still less distance, by which the rat was tempted to come 
still nearer to him. Thus he induced it to have somc 
confidence in him. As long as he threw bread, the crea- 
ture remained ; and when it could eat no more, it carried 
off to its hole the fragments which it liad not devoured. 

5. The next day the rat appeared again. La Tude 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 249 

threw it some bread, and also a small piece of beef, 
which it seemed to relish very mucli. On the tliird day 
it carne again, and was now so tame as to eat from the 
prisoner's hancls. On the fifth day it changed its resi- 
dence to a small hole near the iimer end of the slit, áp- 
parently wishing to be nearer to its benefactor. It carne 
very early the next morning to get its breakfast frorn 
La Tude, and appeared no more that day. 

6. On the ensuing morning it carne again, but it now 
had a companion. This was a female rat, which 
peeped cautiously from the hole, apparently very much 
afraid of the prisoner. La Tude tried to entice the 
stranger toward him, by throwing bread and meat to 
her ; but for a long time she refused to ven ture out. 
At length, seeing the other rat eat so heartily, she 
rashed forward, seized a piece, and immediately re- 
treated. 

7. In a little while she became bolder, and even dis- 
puted some pieces with the male rat. "Whenever she 
succeeded in taking a piece out of his teeth, he carne 
up to La Tude, as if to inake complaint and receive 
consolation. When La Tude gave him a piece to make 
up for what he had lost, the little creature sat down 
cióse by, and ate it in an ostentatious manner, sitting 
on his haunches, and holding the meat in his paws like 
a inonkey, as if he meant to defy his female friend to 
come and take it from him, now that he was so near 
one who could protect him. 

8. For some days the female continued to be very 
shy, though the male rat ate in peace near La Tude. 
But at length she could bear no longer to see her com- 
panion faríng so well, while she was starving. One day, 
just as La Tude had given the male rat his first piece, 



250 LECTURAS inglesas;. 

she sprang onfc and seized it in her teeth. The male 
rat held fast : she pulled violently. A severe struggle 
took place ; and tlie two creatures rolled away together 
toward their hole, into which the female pulled the 
male. La Tude was greatly diverted by this contest, 
and, for the moment, almost forgot his misfortunes. 

9. By and by the female rat becarae as familiar as the 
other, and daily ate her dinner out of La Tude's hand. 
There then appeared a third, who was much less shy, at 
first, than either of the others liad been. At the second 
visit, this third rat constituted himself one of the family 
and made himself so perfectly at lióme that he resolved 
to introduce certain companions. The next day he 
carne accompanied by two others, who, in the course of 
a week brought five more ; and thus, in less than a fort- 
night, La Tude found himself surrounded bj' ten large 
rats. 

10. He now gave them, severally, ñames, which they 
learned to distinguish. They would also come out 
whenever he called them. He allowed them for some 
time to eat out of his own píate, but, their habits being 
rather slovenly, he was afterward glad to give them a 
sepárate dish. He would also make them leap, like 
dogs, for bits of bread and meat. When they liad 
dined, he made them all dance around him. In short, 
they became to him like a family of ga mesóme little 
children, and he almost felt happy in their presence. 

11. He now scarcely wished for freedom, for in the 
world he had met with nothing but cruelty and op- 
pression, while here all was affection and peace. But 
his pleasure with his rats was not of long continuante ; 
at the end of two years he was removed to another 
room in a distant part of the prison, whither his rats, 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 251 

of course, conld not follow him. He wept bitterly at 
thus parting with the friendly creatures, and, for some 
time, felt the pains of imprisonment to be more severe 
than they ever appeared before. 

12. We thus see how painful is complete solitude, 
and how gladly a human being will associate with any 
kind of company rather than be altogether alone. The 
story also shows that, in certain circumstances, the 
creatures which we most loathe and despise may be of 
service to us. 



LXXXIV. 

PliOYEÍtBS OF ALL NATIONS. 

Part First. 

1. A good proverb is never out of season. A word 
once uttered can never be recalled. A wise man may 
appear like a fool in the company of a fool. A goose- 
quill is more dangerous than a lion's claw. A thousand 
probabilities will not make one truth. A great man 
will neither trample on a worm, ñor eringe before a 
king. A jest is no argument, and loud laughter no 
demonstration. A crown will not cure the headache, 
ñor a golden slipper the gout. Avoid a slanderer as you 
would a scorpion. 

2. A wager is a fool's argument. A stumble may 
preven t a fall. A lie begets a lie, till they come to 
generations. A fault once denied is twice committed. 
A willing mind makes a light foot. A fool's bolt is 
soon shot. Be not misled by evil examples ; never 
t.hink, " others do it, too." " Bear and forbear" is 



252 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

good philosophy. Better to live well than long. Bat- 
ter to be untaught than to be ill-taught. Books alone 
can never teacli the use of books. Brevity is tbe soul 
of wit. By the approval of evil you become guilty of 
it. By learning to obey you will know liow to com- 
mand. By the street of "By and by" one arrives at 
the house of " Never." 

3. Begin and end with God. Beauty is the flower, 
but virtue is the íruit, of life. By entertaining good 
thoughts, you will keep out evil ones. Between virtue 
and vice is no middle path. By doing nothing, we 
learn to do ill. Combat vice in its first attack, and you 
will come off conqueror. Canning and treachery often 
proceed from want of capacity. Cater frugaily for the 
body, if you would feed the mind sumptuously. Cholerío 
men sin in liaste and repent at leisure. Common íame 
is often a common liar. Confine your tongue, lest it 
confine you. 

4. Constant occupation prevents temptation. Credit 
lost is like a broken looking-glass. Charity should be- 
gin at home, but not end there. Covetous men are 
bad sleepers. Consider each day your last. Curses, 
like chickens, always come home to roost. Deern every 
day of your life a leaf in your history. Do good with 
what thou hast, or it will do thee no good. Defile not 
thy mouth with impure words. Despised one ; despair 
of none. Diet cures more than the doctor. Dissembled 
holiness is double iniquity. Drunkenness is an egg 
from which all vices may be hatched. 

5. Deliver your words, not by number, but by weight. 
Do nothing you would wish to conceal. Death has 
nothing terrible in it but what life has made so. Each 
day is a new life ; regard it, therefore, as an epitome 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 253 

of tlie wdiole. Experience keeps a clear school, but 
foois will learn in no other. Entertain no thoughts 
which you would blush at in words. Economy is itself 
a great incoine. Fortune often make a feast, and then 
takes away the appetite. 

6. Fear not death so much as an evil course of life. 
Fling him into the Nile, and he will come up with a 
fish. in his mouth. Fortune can take nothing from us 
but what she gave. Few, that liave any merit of their 
own, envy that of others. Forcé without foreeast is 
little worth. Gaming finds a man a dupe, and leaves 
him a knave. Gluttony kills more than the sword. 
Heaven helps him who helps himself. He is the best 
gentleman who is the son of his own deserts. He w^ho 
will not be ruled by the rudder must be ruled by the 
rock. His is a happy memory which forgets nothing 
so soon as his injuries. He that shows his passion tells 
his enemy where to hit him. 

7. He is a w T ise man who is willing to receive instruc- 
tions from all men. He is a mighty man who subdueth 
his evil inclinations. He is a rich man who is delighted 
with his lofc. He keeps his road well who gets rid of 
bad company. He is an ill boy that goes, like a top, 
no longer than he is whipped. He that " will consider 
of it" takes time to deny you hanclsomely. Happy he 
who happy thinks. He who has good health is young, 
and he is rich w T ho owes nothing. He that would know 
what shall be, must consider what has been-. Hungry 
men cali the cook lazy. He wdio sows brambles must 
not go barefoot. 

8. If the counsel be good, no matter who gaye it. 
Industry is Fortune's right hand, and Frugality her 
left. If you wish a thing done, go ; if not, send. If 



25± LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

you would erijoy the fruit, pluck not the blossom. It 
is easy to go afoot when one leacls one ! s horse by the 
bridle. In a country of blind people the one-eyed is 
king. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. If 
God be with us, who can be against us ? Keep good 
company, and be one of the number. Know thyself. 
Knowledge is the treasure of the mind, and discretion 
the key to it. Levity in manner leads to laxity in prin- 
cipies. 



Part Seconcl. 

1. Learning is wealth to the poor, and an ornament 
to the rich. Let pleasures be ever so innocent, the 
excess is criminal. Light griefs are loquacious. Less 
of your courtesy and more of your coin. Let not the 
tongue forerun the thought. Lying rieles on debt's 
back. Much coin, much care ; inucli meat, much 
malady. Men may be pleased with a jester, but they 
never esteem him. Many soldiers are brave at table 
who are cowards in the fíele!. None but the contempti- 
ble are apprehensive of contempt. Never speak to 
deceive, ñor listen to betray. Never despair. Never 
open the door to a little vice, lest a great one should 
enter too. 

2. Out of debt, out of danger. Peace and Honor are 
the sheaves of Virtue's harvest. Purchase the next 
world with this ; so shalt thou win both. Perspicuity 
is the garment which good thoughts should weaí. 
Praise a fair day at night. Pride will have a fall. Do 
not put your finger in the fire, and say it was your for- 
tune. Punislmioiit is lame, but it comes. Ponder 
again and again on the divine law ; for all things are 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 255 

containecl therein. Prayer slioulcl be the key of the 
day, and the lock of the night. Piule the appetite, and 
temper the tongue. Scholarship, withont good breed- 
ing, is but tiresome pedantry. Say not " When I have 
leisure I will study," lest thou shouldst not have 
leisure. Show methocl in thy study, if thou wilt ac- 
quire true wisdom. 

3. To profane one's lips with linchaste expressions is 
like bringing swine into the sanctuary. The loquacity 
of fools is a lecture to the wise. The offender never 
pardons. The shortest answer is doing the thing. The 
stiDg of a reproach is the truth of it. To err is hu- 
man ; to forgive, divine. The best throw of the dice is 
to throw them away. There are those who despise 
pride with a greater pride. The perfection of art is to 
conceal art. The crime, not the scaffold, nnakes the 
shame. The hog never looks up to him that thrashes 
down the acorns. There is no worse robber than a bad 
book. The sweetest wine makes the sharpest vinegar. 
The raven cried to the crow, "Avaunt, blackamoor!" 
The less wit a man has, the less he knows he wants it. 
The feet of retribution are shod with wool. The best 
way to see divine light is to put out thine own 
candle. 

4. Understanding without wealth is like feet without 
shoes ; wealth without understanding is like shoes 
without feet. Use soft words and hard ar^uments. 
Virtue that parleys is near a surrender. Vows made 
in storms are too often forgotten in calms. When men 
speak ill of you, live so that nobody will believe them. 
TVant of punctualit} T is a species of falsehood. What 
sculpture is to a block of marble, education is to the 
mind. "Wherever there is flattery, there is sure to be a 



25G LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

fool. Wit is folly unless a wise man has the kceping of 

it. When the wine is in the wit is out. 

5. What greater torment than the consciousness of 
having known the will of our Creator and yet disobeyed 
it ! AVine is a turncoat : first a friend, and last an 
enemy. " Welcome death," quoth the rat when the 
trap snapped. When good cheer is lacking, falso 
friends will be packing. Wisdom and virtue go hand 
in hand. Walk in the way of uprightness, and shun 
the way of darkness. When a man's coat is thread- 
bare, it is easy to pick a hole in it. Winter discovers 
what summer eonceals. Were it not for hope the lieart 
•would break. Who thinks to deceive God has already 
deceived himself. 

6. A bad workman quarrels with his tools. A creak- 
ing door hangs long on its hinges. A fault confessed 
is half redressed. An evil lesson is soon learned. Be 
slow to promise, and quick to perform. Don't measure 
other people's corn by your bushel. Catch the bear 
before you sell his skin. First deserve, and then de- 
sire. He lacks most that longs most. He liveth long 
who liveth well. He that reckons without his host 
nmst reckon again. In a calta sea every man is a pilot. 
Live not to eat, but eat to live. Many go out for wool 
and come home shorn. The best physicians are Dr. 
Diet, Dr. Quiet, and Dr. Merryman. Man proposes, 
God disposes. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 257 

LXXXV. 

The Folly of Castle-Building. 342 

1. Alnaschar, says the fable, was a very idle fellow, 
who never would set his hand to any business during 
bis father's life. His father, dying, left to him the valué 
of a hundred drachmas in Persian money. Alnaschar, 
in order to make the best of it, laid it out in glasses, 
bottles, and the finest earthenware. These he piied np 
in a large open basket, and having made choice of a 
very little shop, placed the basket at his feet, and leaned 
his back upon the wall, in expectation of eustomers. 
As he sat in this posture, with his eyes upon the bas- 
ket, he fell into a most amusing train of thought, and 
was overheard, as he talked to himself, by one of his 
neighbors. " This basket," says Alnaschar, " cost me 
at the wholesale merchant's a hundred drachmas, which 
is all I have in the world. 

2. " I shall quickly make two hundred of it, by sell- 
ing it in retail. These two hundred drachmas will in a 
little while rise to four hundred, which, of course, w T ill 
amount in time to four thousand. Four thousand 
drachmas cannot fail of inaking eight thousand. As 
soon as by this means I am master of ten thousand, 
I will lay aside my trade of a glass-man, and tura 
jeweller. I shall then deal in diamonds, pearls, and 
all sorts of rich stones. When I have got together as 
inuch wealth as I can well desire, I will make a purchase 1 
of the finest house I can find. I shall then begin to 

342 La necedad de hacer Castillos (en el diré). 



258 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

enjoy myself and mate a noise in the world. I will not, 
however, stop there, but still continué my traffic, till I 
have got together a lmndred thousand drachmas. 

3. " When I have thus made myself master of a hun- 
dred thousand drachmas, I shall naturally set myself 
on the footing of a prince, and will demand the Grand 
Vizier's daughter in marriage, after having represented 
to that minister the information which I have received 
of the beauty, wit, discretion, and other high qualities 
which his daughter possesses. I will let him know, at 
the same time, that it is my intention to make him a 
present of a thousand pieces of gold on our marriage 
night. As soon as I have married the Grand Vizier's 
daughter, I will make my father-in-law a visit with a 
grand train and equipage ; and when I am placed at 
his right hand — where I shall be, of course, if it be 
only to honor his daughter — I will give him the thou- 
sand pieces of gold which I promised him, and after- 
ward, to his great surprise, will present him another 
purse of the same valué, with some short speech, as, 
' Sir, you see, I am a man of my word ; I always give 
more than I promise.' 

4. " When I have brought the princess to my house, 
I shall take particular care to breed in her a due respect 
for me. To this end I shall confine her to her own 
apartment, make her a short visit, and talk but little to 
her. Her women will represent to me that she is in- 
consolable by reason of my unkindness, and beg me 
with tears to caress her, and let her sit down by me ; 
but I shall still remain inexorable, and will tura my 
back upoñ her. Her mother will then come and bring 
her daughter to me, as I am seated upon my sofá. The 
daughter, with tears in her eyes, will íiiiig herself at my 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 25 d 

feet, and beg of me to receiye lier into my favor. Then 
will I, to imprint iri lier a thorough veneration for my 
person, clraw np my legs and spurn her from me with 
my foot in such a manner that she sliall fall down 
several paces from the sofá." 

5. Alnascliar was entirely swallowed up in this chi- 
merical visión, and could not forbear acting with his 
foot wbat he had in his thoughts. So that, unluckily 
striking his basket of brittle ware, whieh was the 
foundation of all his grandeur, he kicked his glasses to 
a great distance from him into the street, and broke 
them into ten thousand pieces. Addison. 



LXXXVI. 

Gladiatorial Combat with a Tigek. 

1. Inside of the great amphitheatre of Alexandria, 
sixty thousand spectators were assembled, and an equal 
number surronnded the outside. The hum of voices, 
the uproar which proceeded from this immense assem- 
blage, resembled the noise of the ocean in a storm. 
Indeed, the amphitheatre itself might be compared to 
a vessel, the hold of which has been invaded by the 
waves, and filled to overflowing, while, outside, other 
waves are climbing over its sides and dashing over its 
deck. A horrible roaring, responded to by the cries of 
the multitude, announced the arrival of a tiger who 
had just been let out of his cage. 

2. At one of the extremities of the arena, a man was 
couched half-naked upon the sand, and apparently 



260 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

asleep, so little interesfc clicl he seem to take in the af- 
fair which was vehemently agitating the crowd. This 
man, while the tiger, impatient to encounter his ex- 
pectecl prey, rushecl from side to side through the 
empty arena, leaned himself unconcernedly upon his 
elbow, his eyes languid and heavy, like those of a hay- 
maker, who, fatigued with toil on a warní summer-day, 
throws himself on the grass, and is about falling asleep. 

3. Meanwhile, from the crowded benches a num- 
ber of eager spectators called upon the munerator, 
or intendant of the games, to bring forward the vic- 
tim ; for either the tiger had not discovered him, or 
had disdained to touch him, seeing him so resigned 
and passive. The officers of the arena, armed with 
long pikes, hastened to obey the will of the cruel and 
bloody-minded people, and with the sharpened ends of 
their weapons stirred up the gladiator. 

4. No sooner did he feel the puncfcure of their lances, 
than he rose with a cry so wild and terrible that the 
savage beasts shut up in the cells of the vast amphi- 
theatre responded with a howl of affright. Snatching 
at one of the lances with which his skin had been 
pricked, he wrested it, by a single effort, from the hand 
which held it, broke it into two pieces, threw one at 
the intendant's head, prostrating him by the blow, and 
then, retaining the sharpened remainder of the lance, 
went, provided with this weapon, to meet his ferocious 
foe. 

5. When the gladiator had first risen from the sand, 
and offered to the multitude the spectacle of the shadow 
cast by his colossal stature, a murmur of astonishment 
ran tlirouirli the crowd. and more than one voice. cali- 
ing him by ñame, recounted anecdotes of his prowess 



LECTUIIAS INGLESAS. 261 

in the circus and his 'exploits in moments of popular 
sedition. The multitude were well content : tiger and 
gladiator were worthy of each otlier. 

6. In the mean time, the gladiator advanced with 
measured steps to the very centre of the arena, turning 
occasionally toward the imperial box, and letting fall 
his arms with a rude show of obeisance, or scooping 
with the point of his lance the earth which he was 
about to crimson with gore. As.it was contrary to 
custom for crimináis to be armed, seyeral yoices ex- 
claimed, " No arms for the bestiary ! The bestiary 
without arms!" But he, brandishing the fragment 
which he had retained, and exhibiting it to the multi- 
tude, exclaimed between his teeth, with palé lips, and 
a hoarse voice, almost stifled with rage, " Come and 
take it !" 

7. The cries having redoubled, how^ever, he haugh- 
tily raised his head, skimmed his glance over the whole 
assembly, smiled on them disdainfully, and then, break- 
ing anew between his hands the weapon he had been 
called npon to lay down, threw the remnants at the 
head of the tiger, w T ho w r as, at the moment, sharpening 
his teeth and claws against the socle of a column. 
Here was a defiance ! The animal feeling himself 
struck, turned his head, and, seeing his adversary 
standing in the middle of the arena, rushed with a 
single bound toward him. But the gladiator avoided 
the assault by stooping nearly to a level with the 
earth ; and the tiger, with a howl of rage, fell some 
paces distant from the mark at which he had aimed in 
his spring. 

8. Bising to his feet, the gladiator, by the same ma- 
noeuvre, thrice baffled the fury of his savage enemy. 



262 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

At lengtb, the tiger approached him with slow, cautious, 
cat-like steps. The eyes of the beasi glittered like 
fíame ; bis tail was straight, bis tongue already bloody, 
and he sbowed bis teetb, and protruded bis nose as if 
to snuff his prey with the more certainty. But tbis 
time it was the gladiator who made a leap. At the 
moment the beast drew near to seize him, he cleared 
him by a bound which called down the furious ap- 
plauses of the spectators, already mastered by the emo- 
tions which tbis extraordinary struggle excited. 

9. At lengtb, after having for some time fatigued bis 
ferocious foe, the gladiator, more wearied by the ex- 
clamations of the crowd tban by the delays of a com- 
bat which had seemed so unequal at the outset, awaited 
with firm-set foot the approach of the tiger. The lat- 
ter ran panting toward him, with a howl of satisfaction. 
A cry of horror, perhaps of joy also, escaped at the 
same time from the occupants of all the benches, as 
the animal, raising himself on his hind legs, placed bis 
fore paws on the naked shoulders of the gladiator, and 
thrust forward his jaws to devour him. But the glad- 
iator bent backward to protect his head, and seizing, 
with both his stiffened arms, the animal's sílken neck, 
he squeezed it with such forcé, that the tiger, without 
letting go his hold, struggled violently to throw up his 
head, and let the air reach his lungs, the passage to 
which was closeci, as if by a vice, by the gladiator's 
hands. 

10. The gladiator, however, perceiving that with his 
loss of blood bis strength was failiiig him under the 
tenacious claws of his antagonist, now redoubled his 
efforts to basten the termination of the contest ; for, 
with its prolongation, his chances were diminishing 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 263 

every moment. Erecting himself on his feet, and bear- 
ing with all his weigbt on his enemy, whose legs bent 
under the pressure, he broke the ribs of the animal, 
and made the jammed ehest give forth a gurgling 
sound, followed by an effusion of blood and foarn from 
the tightened throat. 

11. Then, all at once, half raising himself, and disen- 
gaging his shoulders, a shred of flesh from which re- 
mained attached to one of the animal's claws, the vic- 
tor placed a knee npon the tiger's palpitating flank, 
and pressed upon him with a forcé which the prospect 
of victory redoubled. The gladiator felt the tiger 
struggle a moment vmder him ; and, tightening his 
pressure, he saw the beast's muscles stiffen, and his 
head, one moment lifted, fall upon the sand, his jaws, 
half-opened and covered with foam, his teeth locked, 
and his eyes extinct. 

12. A general acclamation from the spectators en- 
sued ; and the gladiator, whose triumph had reani- 
mated his strength, rose to his feet, and, seizing the 
monstrous carcass, threw it far from him, as a trophy, 
beneath the imperial box. From the French. 



LXXXVII. 

On Compression in Speech and Writing. 

1. Talk to the point, and stop when you have reached 
it. The faculty some possess of making one idea cover 
a quire of paper is not good for much. Be compre- 
hensive in all you say and write, To fill a volume upon 



264 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

nothing is a creclit to nobody. There are men who get 
one idea into their heads, and but one, and they make 
tíie most of it. You can see it, and almos t feel it, wben 
in their presence. On all occasions it is produced, till 
it is worn as thin as charity. 

2. Thej remind us of a blunderbuss discliarged at a 
humming-bird. You hear a tremendous noise, see a 
volume of smoke, but you look in vain for the effects. 
The bird is shattered to atoms. Just so with the idea. 
It is enveloped in a cloud, and lost amid the rumblings 
of words and flourishes. Short letters, sernions, 
speeches, and paragraphs, are favorites with us. Com- 
mend us to the young man who wrote to his father, 
**■ Dear sir, I am going to be married ;" and also to the 
oíd gentleman, who replied, " Dear son, do it." Such 
are the men for action ; they do more than they say. 

3. Eloquence, we are persuaded, will never flourish 
in any countrj' where the public taste is infantile 
enough to measure the valué of a speech by the hours 
it occupies, and to exalt copiousness and fertility to the 
absolute disregard of conciseness. The efficacy and 
valué of compression can scarcely be overrated. The 
common air we beat aside with our breath, compressed, 
has the forcé of gunpowder, and will rend the solid 
rock ; and so it is with language. 

4. A gentle stream of persuasiveness may flow 
through the mind, and leave no sediment : let it come 
at a blow, as a cataract, and it sweeps all before it. It 
is by this magnificent compression that Cicero con- 
founds Catiline, and Demosthenes overwhelms ^Eschi- 
nes; by this that Mark xintony, as Shakspeare makus 
him speak, carries the heart away with a bad cause. 
Tlie language of strong passion is always torso and 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 265 

compressed ; germine conviction uses few words ; there 
is something of artifice and dislionesty in a long 
speeeh. 

5. No argument is worth using, because none can 
make a deep impression, that does not bear to be 
stated in a single sentence. Our marshalling of 
speeches, essays, and books, according to their length, 
deeming that a great work which covers a great space, 
this "inordinate appetite for printed paper," which 
devours so much and so indiscriminately that it has no 
leisure for fairly tasting anything, — is pernicious to all 
kinds of literature, but fatal to oratory. The writer 
who aims at perfection is forced to dread popularity, 
and steer wide of it ; the orator who must court popu- 
larity is forced to renounce the pursuit of genuine and 
lasting excellence. Sargent. 



LXXXVIIL 

Climate of the Catskill Mountains. 

1. I shall never forget my first view of these moun- 
tains. It was in the course of a voyage up the Hud- 
son, in the good oíd times, before steamboats and rail- 
roads liad driven all poetry and romance out of travel. 
Such an excursión in those days was equal to a voyage 
to Europe at presen t, and cost almost as much ; but 
we enjoyed the river then. My whole voyage up the 
Hudson is full of wonder and romance. I was a lively 
boy, somewhat imaginative, of easy faith, and prone to 
relish everything which partook of the marvellous. 



266 LECTUltAS INGLESAS. 

Among the passengers on board of the sloop was a 
veteran Indian trader, on liis way to the lakes to trafile 
with the natires. He liad discovered my propensity, 
and amused himself throughout the voyage by telling 
me Indian legenda and grotesque storiea about every 
noted place on the river. 

'2. The Catskill Mountains, especially, called forth a 
host of fanciful traditions. We were all day tiding 
along in sight of tliem, so that he liad full time to 
weave liis whimsical narratives. In these mountains, 
he told me, according to Indian belief, was kept the 
great treasury of storm and sunshine for the región of 
the Hudson. An oíd squaw spirit liad charge of it, 
who dwelt on the highest peak of the mountain. Here 
she kept Day and Night shut up in her wigwam, letting 
out only one of tliem at a time. She made new moons 
every month, and hung them up in the sky, cutting up 
the oíd ones for stars. The great Manitou, or master- 
spirit, employed her to manufacture cloucls : sometimes 
she wove them out of cobwebs, gossamers, and.morn- 
ing dew, and sent them off, flake after flake, to float in 
the air and give light summer showers ; sometimes she 
would brew up black thunder-storms, and send down 
drenching rains, to swell the streams, and sweep every - 
thing away. 

3. He liad many stories, also, about niischievous 
spirits, who infested the mountains in the shape of 
animáis, and played all kinds of pranks upon Indian 
hunters, decoying them into quagmires and morasses, 
or to the brinks of torrente and precipices. All these 
were doled out to me as I lay on the deck, throughout 
a long summer's day, gazing upon these mountains, the 
ever-changing shapes and hues of which appeared to 



EECTTJEAS INGLESAS. 267 

realize the magical influences in question. Sometimes 
they seemed to approach ; at others, to recede. During 
the heat of the day they almost melted into a sultry 
liaze. As the day declined they deepened in tone ; 
their summits were brightened by the last raj'S of the 
sun, and, later in the evening, their whole putline was 
printed in deep purple against an amber sky. As I 
beheld them thus shifting eontinually before my eye, 
and listened to the marvellous legends of the trader, a 
host of fanciful notions was conjured into my brain, 
which have haunted it ever since. 

4. As to the Inclian superstitions concerning the 
treasury of storms and sunshine, and the cloud-weaving 
spirits, they maj have been suggested by the atmos- 
pherical phenomena of these mountains, the clouds 
which gather round their summits, and the thousand 
aerial efYects which indícate the changes of weather over 
a great extent of country. They are epitomes of our 
variable climate, and are stamped with all its vicissi- 
tudes. And here let me say a word in favor of those 
vicissitudes, which are too often made the subject of 
exclusive repining. If they annoy us occasionally by 
changes from hot to cold, from wet to dry, they give us 
one of the most beautiful climates in the world. 

5. They give us the brilliant sunshine of the south of 
Europe, with the fresh verdure of the north. They 
float our summer sky with clouds of gorgeous tints or 
fleecy whiteness, and send down cooling showers to re- 
fresh the panting earth and keep it green. Our sea- 
sons are all poetical ; the phenomena of our heavens 
are full of sublimity and beauty. Winter with us has 
none of its proverbial gloom. It may have its howling 
winds, and chilling frosts, and whhiing snow-storms ; 



208 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

but it has also its long Ínter vals of cloudless sunshine, 
when the snow-clad oartli gives redoubled brightness to 
the day ; when, at night, the stars beam with intensest 
lustre, or the moon floocls the whole landscape with her 
most limpid radiance. 

6. And then the joyous outbreak of our Spring, burst- 
ing at once into leaf and blossom, redundant with vege- 
taron, and vociferous with life ! And the splendors of 
our Summer ; its morning voluptuousness and evening 
glory ; its airy palaces of sun-gilt clouds piled up in a 
cleep azare sky ; and its gusta of tempest of almost 
tropical grandeur, when the forked lightning and the 
bellowing thunder volley from the battlements of 
heaven and shake the sultry atmospliere ! And the 
sublime melancholy of our Autumn ; magnificeni in its 
decay, withering down the pomp and pride of a wood- 
land country, yet reflecting back from its yellow foresta 
the golden^serenity of the sky! Surely we may say 
that, in our climate, " the heavens declare the glory 
of God, and the firmament showeth forth his handi- 
work : day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto 
night showeth knowledge." Iuving. 



LXXXIX. 

On the Stüdy of Words. 

Varí First. 
1. There are two theories in regard to the origín of 
language. One would put language on the same level 
with the vaiious arta and inventions with which man 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 269 

has gradually adorned and enriched his life. It might, 
I think, be sufficient to object to this explanation, that 
language would then be an accident of human nature ; 
and, this being the case, that we should somewhere en- 
counter tribes sunken so low as not to possess it ; even 
as there is no human art or invention, though it be as 
simple and obvious as the preparing of food by fire, 
but there are those who ha ve fallen below its exercise. 

2. But with language it is not so. There have never 
yet been found human beings — not the most degraded 
horde of South África Bushmen, or Papuan cannibals — 
who did not employ this means of intercourse with one 
another. Man starts with language as God's perfect 
gift, which he only impairs and forfeits by sloth and 
sin, according to the same law which holds good in re- 
spect to every other of the gifts of Heaven. 

3. The true answer to the inquiry how language 
aróse, is this : that God gave man language just as He 
gave him reason, and just because He gave him rea- 
son. Yet this must not be taken to affirm that man 
started at the first furnished with a full-formed vocabu- 
lary of words, and, as it were, with his dictionary and 
first grammar ready niade to his hands. He did not 
thus begin the world with ñames, but with the power 
of naming ; for man is not a mere speaking machine. 
God did not teach him words, as one of us teaches a 
parrot, from without ; but He gave him a capacity, and 
then evoked the capacity which He gave. 

4. Here, as in everything else that concerns the 
primitive constitution, the great original institutes of 
humanity, our best and truest lights are to be gottén 
from the study of the first three chapters of Génesis. 
You will observe that there it is not God who imposed 



270 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

tlie first ñames on the creatures, "but Aclani, — Adam, 
however, at thc direct suggestion of bis Creator. 

5. Man makes his own language, but he makes it as 
the bee makes its cells, as the bird its nest. How this 
latent power evolved itself first, how this spontaneous 
generation of language carne to pass, is a mystery, evea 
as every act of creation is a mystery. Yet we may 
perhaps a little help ourselves to the realizing of what 
the process was, and what it was not, if we liken it to 
the growth of a tree spriuging out of and unfolding it- 
self frora a root, and according to a necessary law ; that 
root being the divine capacity of language with which 
man was created ; that law being the law of highest 
reason with which he was endowed. 

6. Language is full of instruction, because it is the 
embodiment of the feelings and thoughts and expe- 
riences of a nation — yea, often of many nations, and of 
all which through centuries the} T have attained to and 
won. " Language is the armory of the human mind, 
and at once contains the trophies of its past and the 
weapons of its future conquests." 

7. The mighty moral instincts which have been work- 
ing in the popular mind have found therein their un- 
conscious voice ; and the single kinglier spirits, that 
have looked deeper into the heart of things, have of- 
tentimes gathered up all they have seen into some one 
word which they have launched upon the world, and 
with which they have enriched it forever — making in 
that new word a región of thought to be henceforward 
in some sort the common heritage of all. 

8. Language is the amber in which a thousand pre* 
cious and subtle thoughts have been safely embedded 
and preserved. It has arrestad ten thousand lightning 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 271 

flashes of genius, which, unless thus fixed and arrested, 
might liave been as bright, but would have also been as 
qnickly passing and perishing as the lightning. " "Words 
convey the mental treastires of one period to the gen- 
erations that follow ; and, laden with this, their precious 
freight, they sail safely across the gulfs of time in 
which empires have suffered shipwreck, and the lan- 
guages of common life have sunk into oblivion." 

9. And, for all these reasons, far more and mightier in 
every way is a language than any one of the works which 
may have been composed in it. For that work, great 
as it may be, is bnt the embodying of the mind of a 
single man ; this, of a nation. The " Iliad" is great ; 
yet not so great in strength or power or beauty as the 
Greek language. " Paradise Lost" is a noble posses- 
sion for a people to have inherited ; but the English 
tongue is a nobler heritage yet. 

10. Great, then, will be our gains, if, having these 
treasures of wisdom and knowledge lying round about 
us, we determine that we will make what portion of 
them we can our own ; that we will ask the words we 
use to give an account of themselves — to say whence 
they are, and whither they tend. Then shall we often 
rub off the dust and rust from what seemed but a com- 
mon token, which we had taken and given a thousand 
times, esteeming it no better, but which now we shall 
perceive to be a precious coin, beaiing the image and 
superscription of the great king. 

11. Then shall we discover that there is a reality 
about words ; that they are not merely arbitrary signs, 
but living powers ; not like the sands of the sea, innu- 
merable, disconnected atoms, but growing out of roots, 
clustering in families, connecting and intertwining 



272 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

themselves witli all tliat men have been doing and 
thinbing and feeling, from the beginniug of the world 
till now. We sbould tbus grow in our feeling of con- 
nection witli tbe past, and of gratitude and reverence 
toward it ; we sbould estímate more truly, and there- 
fore more bigbly, wbat it lias done for us, all tbat it 
has bequeatbed to us, all tbat it bas made ready to 
our hancls. 

12. It was sometbing for the children of Israel, when 
they carne into Canaan, to enter upon wells which they 
digged not, and vineyards which they liad not planted, 
and bouses which they had not built; but how much 
greater a boon, how much more glorious a prerogative, 
for any one generation to enter upon the inheritance of 
a language which other generations by tbeir truth and 
toil have made already a receptacle of choicest treas- 
ures, a storehouse of so much unconscious wisdom, a 
fit organ for expressing the subtlest distinctions, the 
tenderest sentiments, the largest thoughts, and the 
loftiest imaginations, which at any time the heart of 
man can conceive ! 



XO. 

On the Study of Words. 

Part Second. 

1. We are not to look for the poetry, which a people 
may possess, only in its poems, or its poetical cilstoms, 
traditions, and beliefs. Many a single word also is itself 
a concentrated poein, baving stores of poetical thought 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 273 

and imagery laid up in it. Examine it, and it will be 
found to rest on some deep analogy of tliings natural 
and tliings spirituál ; bringing those to illustrate and to 
give an abiding fórm and body to these. 

2. Let me illustrate that which I have been here 
saying somewhat more at length by the word " tribula- 
tion/' We all know, in a general way, that this word, 
which occurs not seldom in Scripture and in the Liturgy, 
means afilie tion, sorrow, anguish ; but it is quite worth 
our while to know how it means this, and to question 
the word a little closer. It is derived from the Latín, 
" tribulum," which was the threshing instrument or 
roller whereby the Román husbandman separated the 
corn from the husks ; and " tribulatio," in its primary 
significance, was the act of this separation. 

3. But some Latín writer of the Christian church ap- 
propriated the word and image for the setting forth of 
a higher truth ; and sorrow, distress, and adversity, 
being the appointed means for the separating in men 
of their chaff from their wheat — of whatever in them 
was light and trivial and poor from the solid and the 
true — therefore he called these sorrows and griefs 
" tribulations" — threshings, that is, of the inner spir- 
ituál man, without which there could be no fitting him 
for the heavenly garner. 

4. How deep an insight into the failings of the hu- 
man heart lies at the root of many words ; and, if only 
we would attend to them, what valuable warnings many 
contain against subtle temptations and sins ! Thus, all 
of us have probably, more or less, felt the temptation 
of seeking to please others by an unmanly assenting to 
their view of some matter, even when our o\xl inde- 
pendent convictions would lead us to a different The 

12* 



2 Ti LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

existence of such a temptation, and the fact that too 
many yield to it, are botli declared in a Latin word for 
a flatterer — " assentator" — that is, " an assenter ;" one 
who lias not courage to say No, when a Yes is expected 
from liim. 

5. What a mournful witness for the hard and im- 
righteous judgment we habitually form of one another 
lies in the word " prejudice !" The word of itself means 
plainly no inore than a " judgment formed beforehand," 
without affirming anything as to whether that judgment 
be favorable or unfavorable to the person aboat whom 
it is formed. Yet so predominantly do we form harsh, 
unfavorable judgment s of others before knowledge and 
experience, that a " prejudice/' or judgment before 
knowledge and not grounded on evidence, is almost 
always taken to signify an unfavorable anticipation 
aboutone; and " prejudicial" has actually acquired a 
secondary meaning of anything which is mischievous 
or injurious. 

6. Full, too, of instruction and warning is our pres- 
ent employment of the word " libertine.' , Ifc signified, 
according to its earliest use in French and English, a 
speculative free-thinker in matters of religión, and in 
the theory of moráis, or, it might be, of government. 
But, as by a sure process, ívee-th'uildnc) does and will end 
in ívee-actwg, — as he who cast off the one yoke will cast 
off the other, — so a " libertine" carne, in two or three 
generations, to signify a proflígate. 

7. There is much, too, that we may learn from look- 
ing a little closely at the word "passion." We some- 
times think of the " passionate" man as a man of strong 
will, and of real though ungoverned energy. But tliis 
word declares to us most plainly the contrary ; for it, 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 275 

as a very solenm use of it declares, nieans properly " suf- 
fering ;" and a passionate man is not a man doing some- 
thing, but one suffering something to be done on hirn. 

8. When, then, a man or child is " in a passion," 
this is no coming out in him of a strong will, of a real 
energy, but rather the proof that, for the time at least, 
he has no will, no energy ; he is suffering, not doing — 
suffering his anger, or what other evil temper it may be, 
to lord over him without control. Let no one, then, 
think of passion as a sign of strength. 



XCL 

On the Study of Words. 

Part Third. 

1. There are vast harvests of historie lore garnered 
often in single words ; there are continually great faets 
of history which they at once declare and preserve. If 
you turn to a map of Spain, yon will take note, at its 
southern point and running out into the Straits of 
Gibraltar, of a promontory, which, from its position, is 
aclmirably adapted for commanding the entrance of the 
Mediterranean Sea, and watching the exit and entrance 
of all ships. 

2. A fortress stands upon this promontory, callee!, 
now, as it was also called in the times of the Moorish 
domination in Spain, " Tarifa ;" the ñame, indeed, is of 
Moorish origin. It was the custom of the Moors to 
watch from this point all merchant-ships going into or 
coming out of the Midland Sea ; and issuing from this 



276 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

strongliold, to levy daties according to a fixed scale on 
all merehandise passing in and out of the straits ; and 
this was called, frorn the place where it was levied, 
" tarifa," or " tariff ;" and in this way we have acquired 
the word. 

3. It is a signal evidence of the conservative powers 
of language, that we may oí'tentimes trace in speech 
the records of customs and states of society which have 
now passed so entirely a way as to survive no where else 
but in these words alone. For example, a " stipula- 
tion," or agreernent, is so called, as inany are strong to 
affirm, frorn " stipula," a straw, because it once was 
usual, when one person passed over landed property to 
another, that a straw frorn the land, as a pledge or 
representative of the property transferred, should be 
handed frorn the seller to the buyer, which afterward 
was commonly preserved with or inserted in the title- 
deeds. 

4. Whenever we speak of arithmetic as the science 
of " calculation," w T e in fact allude to that rudimental 
period of the science of numbers when pebbles (calculi) 
were used, as now among savages they often are, to 
facilifcate the practice of counting. In " library" we 
preserve a record of the fact that books were once writ- 
ten on the bark (líber) of trees. 

5. No one now believes in astrology ; yet we seem to 
affirm as much in language ; for we speak of a person 
as "jovial," or "saturnine," or " mercurial :" "jovial," 
as being born under the planet Júpiter or Jove ; " sat- 
urnine," as born under the planet Satura; and "mer- 
curial" — that is, light-hearted, as those born under the 
planet Mercury were accounted to be. 

6. With how lively an interest shall we discover 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 277 

words to be of closest km which we liad never con- 
sidered till now but as entire strangers to one another ! 
What a real increase will it be in our acquaintanee 
with and mastery of English to become aware of sueh 
relationsliip ! Thus "heaven" is only the perfect of 
" to heave ;" and is so called because it is " heaved" 
or " heaven" up, being properly the sky as it is raised 
aloft. The " smith" has his ñame from the sturdy 
blows that he " smites" upon the anvil ; " wrong," the 
oíd perfect participle of " to wring," signifies that which 
one has wrung or wrested from the right. 

7. The " brunt" of the battle is the " heat" of the 
battle, wliere it "burns" the most fiercely. "Haft," as 
of a knife, is properly only the participle perfect of "to 
have," that whereby you "have" or hold it. Or, take 
two or three nouns adjective : " strong" is the participle 
past of " to string ;" a " strong" man means no more 
than one whose sinews are firmly strang. The " left" 
hand, as distinguished from the right, is the hand 
which we "leave;" inasmuch as for twenty times we 
use the right hand, we do not once employ the left ; 
and it obtains its ñame from being "left" unused so 
often. " Wild" is the participle past of " to will ;" a 
" wild" horse is a " willed" or self-willed horse, one that 
has never been tamed, or taught to submit its will to 
the will of another; and so with a man. 

8. Do not sufier words to pass you by which at once 
provoke and promise to reward inquiry. Here is "con- 
science," a solemn word, if there be such in the world. 
This word is from the Latin words " con," with, and 
" scire," to know. But what does that " con" intend ? 
" Conscience" is not merely that which I know, but 
that which I know with some one else ; for this prefix 



278 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

cannot, as I think, be esteemed superfluous, or taken 
to imply merely that which I know with or to ni}'self. 
That other knower whom tlie word impliea is God — 
Lis law making itself known and felt in the heart. 

9. What a lesson the word " diligence" oontains ! 
How profitable is it for every one oí us to be reminded 
— as we are reminded when we make ourselves aware 
of its derivation from " diligo," to love — that the only 
secret of true industry in our work is love of that 
work ! 

10. These illustrations are ampty suñi cien t to justify 
what I have asserted of the existence of a moral ele- 
ment in words. Must we not own, then, that there is a 
wondrous and mysterious world, of which we may 
hitherto have taken too little account, around us and 
about us ; and may there not be a deeper meaning than 
hitherto we have attached to it lying in that solemn 
deelaration, " By thy words thou shalt be justified, and 
by thy words thou shalt be condemned ?" 

R C. Trench. 



XCII. 

The Lion and the Spaniel. 

1. In the afternoon our company went again to the 
Tower to see the great lion and the little dog, as woll 
as to hear the recent story of their friendship. They 
found the place thronged, and all were obliged to pay 
treble prices on account of the unprecedented novelty 
of the show ; so that the keeper, in a short space, ac- 
quired a little fortune. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 279 

2. The great cage in the front was oceupied by a 
beast, who, by way of pre-eminence, was callee! the 
king's lion ; and, wbile he traversed the limits of his 
straitened dominions, he was attended by a sniall and 
very beautiful black spaniel, who frisked and ganibolled 
about him, and at times would pretend to snarl and 
bite at him ; and again the noble animal, with an air 
of fond complaisance, would hold down his head while 
the little creature licked his formidable chops. Their 
history, as the keeper related it, was as follows : 

3. It was customary for all who were unable or un- 
wiiling to pay their sixpence, to bring a dog or cat as 
an oblation to the beast in lieu of money to the keeper. 
Among others, a fellow had caught up in the streets 
this pretty black spaniel, who was accordingly thrown 
into the cage of the great lion. Immediately the little 
animal trembled, and shivered, and crouched, and 
threw itself on its back, and put forth its tongue, and 
held up its paws in supplicatory attitudes, as an ae- 
knowledgment of superior power, and praying for 
merey. 

4. In the mean time, the lordly brute, instead of de- 
vouring it, beheld it with an eye of philosophic inspec- 
tion. He turnee! it over with one paw, and then turned 
it with the other ; smelled of it, and seemed desirous 
of courting a farther acquaintance. The keeper, on 
seeing this, brought a large mess of his own family 
dinner ; but the lion kept aloof, and refused to eat, 
keeping his eye on the dog, and inviting him, as it 
were, to be his taster. At length the little animal's 
fears being somewhat abated, and his appetite quick- 
ened by the smell of the victuals, he approached slowly, 
and with trembling ventured to eat. The lion then ad- 



280 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

vanced gently and bogan to partake, and they finished 
their meal very lovingly together. 

5. From this day the stríctest friendship commenced 
between tliem — a friendship consisting of all possible 
affection and tenderness on the part of the lion, and 
of the utmost confidence and boldness on the part of 
the dog ; insomuch that he would lay himself down to 
sleep within the fangs and under the jaws of his ter- 
rible patrón. 

6. A gentleman who had lost the spaniel, and had 
advertised a reward of two guineas to the finder, at 
length heard of the adventure, and went to reclaim the 
dog. " You see, sir," said the keeper, " it would be a 
great pity to part such loving friends ; however, if you 
insist upon having your property, you must even be 
pleased to take him yourself : it is a task that I would 
not engage in for five hundred guineas." The gentle- 
man rose into great wrath, but finally chose to ac- 
quiesce rather than have a personal dispute with the 
lion. 

7. As Mr. Felton had a curiosity to see the two 
friends eat together, he sent for twenty pouncls of beef, 
which was accordingly cut in pieces, and given into the 
cage ; when imruediately the little brute, whose appe- 
tite happened to be eager at the time, was desirous of 
making a monopoly of the whole, and putting his paws 
upon the nieat, and grumbling and barking, he auda- 
ciously flew in the face of the lion. But the generous 
creature, instead of being offended with his impotent 
companion, started back, and seemed terrified at tlio 
fury of his attack, neither attempted to eat a bit till 
his favorite liad tacitly given permission. 

8. When they were both gorged the lion stretched 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 281 

and turned hiinself, and lay down in an evident posture 
for repose ; but tliis bis sportive companion would not 
admit. He frisked and gambolled about him, barked 
at him, would now scrape and tear at bis head with his 
claws, and again seize him by the ear and bite and pulí 
away ; while the noble beast appeared affected by no 
other sentiment save that of pleasure and complacence. 
But let us proceed to the tragic catastrophe of this ex- 
traordinary story — a story still known to inañy, as de- 
livered down by tradition from father to son. 

9. In about twelve months the little spaniel sickened 
and died, and left his loving patrón the most desoíate 
of creatures. For a time the lion did not appear to 
conceive otherwise than that his favorite was asleep. 
He would continué to smell of him, and then would 
stir him with his nose, and turn him over with his paw ; 
but, finding that all his efforts to awake him were vain, 
he would traverse his cage from end to end at a swift 
and uneasy pace, then stop and look down upon him 
with a fixed and drooping regard ; and again lift his 
head on high, and open his horrible throat, and prolong 
a roar, as of distant thunder, for several minutes to- 
gether. 

10. They attempted, but in vain, to convey the car- 
cass from him ; he watched it perpetually, and would 
suffer nothing to touch it. The keeper then endeavored 
to tempt him with variety of victuals, but he turned 
with loathing from all that was offered. They then put 
several living dogs into his cage, and these he instantly 
tore piecemeal, but left their members on the floor. 
His passion being thus infla med, he would dart his 
fangs into the board, and pluck away large splinters, 
and again grapple at the bars of his cage, and seem 



282 LECTURAS INGLESAR. 

euraged at his restraint from tearing tlie world to 
pieces. 

11. Again, as quite spent, lie would stretch himself 
by the remains of his beloved associate, and gather 
him in with his paws, and put him to his bosorn ; and 
then utter under-roars of such terrible melancholy as 
seemed to threaten all around, for the loss of his little 
play-fellow, the only friend, the only companion, that 
he had upon earth. Hbnrt Brooke. 



XCIII. 

HlSTOEICAL ChAEACTERS. 

Alexander Seyetius. — Gibbon. 

Alexander rose early. The first monients of the day 
were consecrated to prívate devotion. But, as he 
deemed the service of mankínd the rnost acceptable 
worship of the gods, the greater part of his morning 
hours was emploj^ed in council, where he discussed 
public affairs, and determined prívate causes, with a 
patience and discretion above his years. The dryness 
of business was relieved by the charms of literatura ; 
and a portion of time was always set apart for his fa- 
vorite studies of poetry, history, and philosophy. 

The works of Virgil and Horace, the republics of 
Plato and Cicero, formed his taste, enlarged his un- 
derstanding, and gave him the noblest ideas of man 
and of government. The exercises of the body sur- 
ceeded to those of the mind; and Alexander, who was 
tall, active, and robust, surpassed most of his equals 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 283 

in the gymnastic arts. Refreshed by the use of liis 
bath, and a slight dinner, lie resurned, with new vigor, 
tlie business of the day ; and till the hour of supper — 
the principal meal of the Eomans — he was attended by 
his secretaries, with whom he read and answered the 
multitude of letters, memorials, and petitions, that mnst 
have been addressed to the master of the greatest part 
of the world. 

His table was served with the most frugal simplicity ; 
and whenever he was at liberty to consult his own in- 
clination, the cornpany consisted of a few r select friends 
— men of learning and virtue. His dress was plain and 
modest ; his demeanor, courteous and affable. At the 
proper hours, his palace was open to all his subjects ; 
but the voice of a crier was lieard, as in the Eleusinian 
mysteries, pronouncing the same salutary admonition — 
" Let none enter these holy walls, rmless he is con- 
scious of a puré and innocent mind." 

2. Queex Elizabeth.— Hume. 

There are few great personages in history who have 
been more exposed to the calumny of enemies, and the 
adulation of friends, thaii Queen Elizabeth ; and jet 
there scarcely is any whose reputation has been more 
certainly determined by tlie unanimous consent of pos- 
terity. The unusual length of her administration, and 
the strong features of her character, were able to over- 
eóme all prejudices ; and, obliging her detractors to 
abate nruch of their invectives, and her admirers some- 
what of their panegyrics, have, at last, in spite of po- 
liticai factions, ancl, what is more, of religious animos- 
ities, produced a uniform judgment with regard to her 
conduct. 



284 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

Few soyereigns of England succeeded to the throne 
iu more difficult circumstances ; and none ever con- 
ducted the government with such uniform success and 
felicity. Though unacquainted with the practice of 
toleration, — the true secret for managing religious fac- 
tions, — she preserved her people, by her superior pru- 
dence, from those confusions in which theological con- 
troversy liad involved all the neighboring nations : and 
though her enemies were the most powerful princes of 
Europe — the most active, the most enterprising, the 
least scrupulous — she was able, by her vigor, to make 
deep impressions on their states. Her own greatness, 
meanwhile, remained unimpaired. 

The wise ministers and brave warriors who flourished 
under her reign share the praise of her success ; but, 
instead of lessening the applause due to her, they r make 
great addition to it. They owed, all of them, their ad- 
vancement to her choice ; they were supported by her 
constancy ; and, with all their abilities, they were never 
able to acquire any undue ascendant over her. In her 
family, in her court, in her kingdom, she remained 
equally mistress : the forcé of the tender passions was 
great over her, but the forcé of her mind was still su- 
perior ; and the combat which her victory visibly cost 
her serves only to display the firmness of her reso- 
lution, and the loftiness of her ambitious senti- 
ments. 

The fame of this princess, though it has surmounted 
the prejudices both of faction and bigotry, yet lies still 
exposed to another prejudice, which is more durable, 
because more natural, and which, according to the dif- 
ferent views in which we survey her, is capable either of 
exalting beyond measure, or diminishing the lustre of 



LECTUEAS INGLESAS. 285 

her character. This prejudice is founded on the con- 
sideration of her sex. 

When we contémplate her as a woman, we are apt to 
be struck with the highest admiration of her great 
qualities and extensive capacity ; but we are also apt 
to require some more softness of disposition, some 
greater lenity of temper, some of those amiable weak- 
nesses by which her sex is distinguished. But the 
true method of estimating her merit is, to lay aside all 
these considerations, and consider her merely as a 
rational being, placed in authority, and intrusted with 
the government of mankind. 

3. Howakd, the Phtlanthropist. — Burke. 

He has visited all Europe— not to survey the sump- 
tuousness of palaces, or the stateliness of temples ; 
not to make accurate measnrements of the remains of 
ancient grandeur, ñor to form a scale of the curiosities 
of modern art, ñor to collect medals, or collate manu- 
sciipts ; but to dive into the depths of dungeons, to 
plunge into the infection of hospitals, to survey the 
mansions of sorrow and pain ; to take the gauge and 
dimensions of misery, depression, and contempt ; to re- 
member the forgotten, to attend to the neglected, to 
visit the forsaken, and compare and collate the dis- 
tresses of all men in all countries. His plan is origi- 
nal ; it is as full of genius as of humanity. It was a 
yoyage of discovery ; a circumnavigation of charity. 

4. Milton. — Quarterly Beview. 

It is impossible to refuse to Milton the honor due to 
a life of the sincerest piety and the most dignified vir- 
tue. No man ever lived under a more abiding sense of 



286 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

responsibility. No man ever strove more faitlifully to 
uso time and talent " as ever in tlie great Taskmaster's 
eye." No man so richly endowed vvas ever less ready 
to trust in liis own powers, or more prompt to own 
Lis dependence on " that eternal and propitial throne, 
where nothing is readier than grace and refuge to tbe 
distresses of mortal supplicants." His morality was of 
tlie loftiest order. He possessed a self-control which, 
in one susceptible of such vebement emotions, was 
marvellous. No one ever saw bim indulging in tbose 
propensities which overeloud tbe mind and pollute tbe 
beart. 

No youtbful excesses treasured up for bim a suffering 
and remorseful oíd age. From his youth up be was 
températe in all tbings, as became one wbo liad conse- 
crated bimself to a life-struggle against vice, and error, 
and darkness, in all their forms. He bad started witb 
tbe conviction " that be wbo would not be frústrate of 
bis bope to write well^ hereafter in laudable tbings, 
ought bimself to be a true poem ; that is, a composi- 
tion and pattern of the best and bonorablest tbings ;" 
and from this be never swerved. His lile was indeed 
a true poem ; or it might be compared to an anthem 
on bis own favorite organ — bigb-toned, solemn, and 
majestic. 

5. Washington. — Webster. 

The character of Washington is among the most 
cherished contemplations of my life. It is a fixed star 
in tbe firmament of great ñames, sbining without 
twinkling or obscuration, witb olear, steady, beneficent 
light. It is associated and blended witb all our reflec- 
tions on tbose tbings which are near and dear to us, 
If we tbink of tbe independence of our country, we 



LECTüEAS INGLESAS. 287 

tliink of him whose efforts were so prominent in achiev- 
ing it ; ií we think of the constituíion which is over us, 
we tliink of him who dicl so much to establish it, and 
whose administration of its powers is aeknowledged 
to be a model for his successors. If we think of glory 
in the field, of wisdoin in the cabinet, of the purest pa- 
triotism, of the highest integrity, public and prívate, of 
moráis without a stain, of religious feelings without in- 
tolerance and without extravagance, the august figure 
of Washington presents itself as the personification of 
all these ideas. 



XCIV. 

The Complaixt of a Stomach. 

1. Being allowed for once to speak, I would fain take 
the opportunity to set forth how ill, in all respects, we 
stomachs are used. From the beginning to the end 
of life, we are either affiicted with too little or too much, 
or not the right thing, or things w T hich are horribly dis- 
agreeable to us ; or are otherwise thrown into a state 
of discomfort. I do not think it proper to take up a 
moment in bewailing the Too Little, for that is an eril 
wdiich is never the fault of our masters, but rather the 
result of their misfortunes ; and indeed we would some- 
times feel as if it were a relief from other kinds of dis- 
tress, if we were put upon short allowance for a few 
days. But we conceive ourselves to have matter for a 
true bilí against mankind in respect of the Too Much, 
which is always a voluntarily incurred evil. 



288 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

2. What a pity that in the progress of discovery we 
cannot establish some rneans of a good understanding 
between mankind and their stomachs ! for really the 
effects of their non-acquaintance are most vexatious. 
Human beings seem to be, to this day, completely in 
the dark as to what they ought to take at any time, 
and err almost as often from ignorance as froni de- 
praved appetite. Sometimes, for instance, when we of 
the inner house are rather weakly, they will send us 
down an article that we only could deal with when in 
a state of robust health. Sometimes, when w r e would 
require mild semi-farinaceous or vegetable diet, they 
will persist in all the most stimulating and irritating of 
viands. 

3. What sputtering we poor stomachs nave w T hen 
mistakes of that kind occur ! What remarks we in- 
dulge in, regarding our masters ! " What's this, now?" 
will a stomach-genius say ; " ah, detestable stuff ! 
What a ridiculous fellow that man is ! Will he never 
learn ? Just the very thing I did not want. If he 
would only send down a bow r l of fresh leek soup, or 
barley broth, there would be some sense in it :" and 
so on. If we had only been allowed to give the slight- 
est hint now and then, like faithful servants as w r e are, 
from how many miseries might we have saved both our 
masters and ourselves ! 

4. I have been a stomach for about forty years, 
during all of which time I have endeavored to do niy 
duty faithfully and punctually. My master, however, 
is so reckless, that I would defy any stomach of ordi- 
nary ability and capacity to get along pleasantlj with 
him. The fact is, like almost all other men, he, in hifl 
eating and drinking, considers his own pleasure only, 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 289 

and never once reflects on the poor wretch who has to 
be responsible for the disposal of everything down 
stairs. Scarcely on any day does he fail to exceed the 
strict rule of temperance ; nay, there is scarcely a sin- 
gle meal which is altogether what it ought to be, either 
in its constituents or its general amount. My life is, 
therefore, one of continual worry and fret ; I am never 
off the clrudge from morning till night, and have not a 
moment in the four-and-twenty hours that I can safely 
cali íny own. 

5. My greatest trial takes place in the evening, when 
my master has dined. If you only saw what a mess 
this said dinner is — soup, fish, flesh, fowl, ham, curry, 
rice, potatoes, table-beer, sherry, tart, pudding, cheese, 
bread, all mixed up together. I am accustomed to the 
thing, so don't feel much shocked ; but my master him- 
self would faint at the sight. The slave of cluty in all 
circumstances, I cali in my friend Gastric Juice, and to 
it we set, with as much good-will as if we had the most 
agreeable task in the world before us. But, unluckily, 
my master has an impression very firmly fixed upon 
him that our business is apt to be vastly promoted by 
an hour or two's drinking ; so he continúes at table 
amongst his friends, and pours me down some bottle 
and a half of wine, perhaps of various sorts, that both- 
ers Gastric Juice and me to a clegree which no one can 
have any conception of. 

6. In fact, this said wine undoes our work alraost as 
fast as we do it, besides blinding and poisoning us poor 
genii into the bargain. On many occasions I am 
obliged to give up my task for the time altogether ; 
for while this vinous shower is going on I would defy 
the most vigorous stomach in the world ta make any 

13 



290 LECTUKAS INGLESAS. 

advance in its business worth speaking of. Sometimes 
things go to a much greater lengtli than at others ; and 
my master will paralyze us in this manner for hours — 
not always, indeed, with wine, but occasionally witli 
punch, one ingredient of which — the leraon — is partic- 
ularly odious to us ministers of the interior. All this 
time I can hear him jollifying away at a great rate, 
drinking healths to his neighbors, and ruining his own. 

7. I am a lover of early hours 343 — as are my brethren 
generally. To this we are very much disposed by the 
extremely hard work which we usually undergo during 
the day. About ten o'clock, having, perhaps, at that 
time, got all our labors past, and feeling fatigued and 
exhausted, we like to sink into repose, not to be again 
disturbed till next morning at breakfast-time. Well, 
how it may be with others I can't tell ; but so it is, that 
my master never scruples to rouse me up from my first 
sleep, and give me charge of an entirely new meal, 
after I thought I was to be my own master for the 
night. This is a hardship of the most grievous kind. 

8. Only imagine an innocent stomach-genius, who 
has gathered his coal, drawn on his night-cap, and 
gone to bed, rung up and made to stand attention to 
receive a succession of things, all of them superfluous 
and in excess, which he knows he will not be able to 
get off his hands all night. Such, O mankind, are the 
woes which befall our tribe in consequence of your oc- 
casionally yielding to the temptation of " a little sup- 
per." I see turkey and tongue in grief and terror. 
Macaroni filis me with frantic alarm. I behold jelly 
and trifle follow in mute despair. Oh, that I liad the 

5,4 ■ Yo soy amigo de acostarme temprano. 



LECTÜKAS INGLESAS. 291 

power of standing besicle my master, and Lolding Lis 
unreflecting Land, as he thus prepares for my torment 
and Lis own ! 

9. Here, too, tLe oíd mistaken notion about tLe need 
of something stimulating besets Lim, and down comes 
a deluge of Lot spirits and water, tLat causes every 
villicle in my coat to writLe in agony, and almost sends 
Gastric Juice off in tLe sulks to bed. Ñor does tLe 
infatuated man rest Lere. If tLe company be agree- 
able, rummer will follow upon rummer, wbile I am kept 
standing, as it were, witL my sleeves tucked up, ready 
to begin, but unable to perform a single stroke of work. 

10. I feel tLat tLe strengtL which I ougLt to Lave 
liad at my present time of life Las passed from me. I 
am getting weak, and peevisL, and evil-disposed. A 
comparatively small trouble sits long and sore upon 
me. Bile, from being my servant, is becoming my 
master ; and a bad one be makes, as all good servants 
ever do. I see notLing before me but a premature oíd 
age of pains and groans, and gripes and grumblings, 
wLicL will, of course, not last over-long ; and tLus I 
sLall be cut sLort in my career, wLen I sliould Lave 
been enjoying life's tranquil evening, witbout a single 
vexation of any kind to trouble me. 

11. Were I of a raocorous temper, it migbt be a con- 
solation to tbink tLat my master — tLe cause of all my 
woes — must suffer and sink witL me ; but I don't see 
Low tLis can mend my own case ; and, from oíd ac- 
quaintance, I am ratLer disposed to feel sorry for Lim, 
as one wLo Las been more ignorant and impruclent 
than ill-meaning. In tLe same spirit let me Lope tLat 
tLis true and unaffected account of my case may prove 
a warning to otLer persons Low tLey use tLeir stom- 



292 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

aclis ; for they may depend upon it that whatever in- 
justice they do to us in their days of health and pride 
will be repaid to tliemselves in the long-run — our friend 
Madam Nature being an inveterately accurate account- 
ant, who makes no allowance for revokes or mistakes. 

Cuambeks. 



xcv. 

Inconvenient Ignorance. 

1. Although desirous of reaching the Lake of Con- 
stance with all possible speed, I was obliged to stop at 
Vadutz. Since our journe}' began, it had rained in 
torren ts, and now both horse and driver obstinately re- 
fused to go a step further, — the beast because he sank 
in the mud up to his knees, and the man because he 
was wet to the bone. Indeed, it would have been 
cruel to have insisted on proceeding. Nothing but 
motives of philanthropy, however, could have induced 
me to enter the wretched inn whose sign had arrested 
our equipage. 

2. Hardly had I set foot in the narro w entry that 
led to the kitchen, which was, at the same time the 
common room for travellers, than I was taken by tho 
throat by a sharp odor of sourkrout, which carne as a 
sort of pre-announcement of my bilí of fare. Now, I 
can say of sourkrout, as a certain abbé said of floun- 
ders, that if sourkrout and I wcre left alone on the 
earth, the world would very soon come to an end. 

3. I began, then, to pass in review my whole Tea 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 293 

tonic vocabulary, and to apply it to the possibilities of 
the larder of a village inn. The precaution was not un- 
timely ; for hardly was I seated at the table, where a 
couple of teamsters, the first occupants, were disposed 
to yield me an end, than a deep píate, full of the ab- 
horred food, was placed before me. Fortunately, I liad 
been prepared for this infamous pleasantry, and I put 
aside the dish, which was smoking like a small Yesu- 
vius, with a nicht gut (not good), so heartily enunciated 
that my hearers must have taken me for a full-blooded 
Saxon. 

4. A Germán always supposes that he has misunder- 
stood you when you say that you do not like sourkrout ; 
but when it is in his own language that you express 
your disgusfc for this national dish, his astonishment — 
to avail myself of an expression in vogue with his coun- 
trymen — becomes " mountainous." There succeeded, 
then, an interval of silence, of stupefaction, like that 
which would have followed some abominable blas- 
pherny, and while it lasted the hostess seemed to be 
laboriously occupied in rallying her disordered ideas. 

5. The result of her reflections was a phrase, pro- 
nounced in a voice so changed that the words were 
wholly unintelligible to me, although, from the phys- 
iognomy, I interpreted them to be, " But, sir, if you do 
not like sourkrout, what do you like?" — "Alies dieses 
ausgenornmen" I replied ; which, I will remark, for the 
benefit of those not up with 344 me in philology, meaos 
" All, except that." It appeared that disgust had pro- 
duced upon me the same effect that indignation did 
upon Juvenal, only, instead of inspiring me to ver- 

J44 Menos versados que yo. 



294 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

sify, it had enabled me to pronounce Germán ; I per- 
ceived it in the submissive air with which the hostess 
took away tlie uníortunate sourkrout. 

6. I remained, then, waiting my second serviee, amus- 
ing myself meanwliile by making pellets out of the 
bread, or tasting, with many a shrug and grimace, a 
kind of sour winé, Which, because it liad an abominable 
flavor of flint, and was contained in a long-necked bot- 
tle, was pleasantly called Hock. — " Well?" said I, look- 
ing up. — "Well?" returned the hostess. — " My sup- 
per !" — " O, yes !" And she brought me again the 
sourkrout. 

7. I made np my mind 345 that unless I took summary 
justice upon it there would be no end to her persecu- 
tions. I therefore called a dog — one of the Saint Ber- 
nard breed, who lay toasting his nose and paws before 
the fire, and who, on recognizing my good intentions, 
left the chimney, carne to me, and with three jerks of 
the tongue lapped up the proffered food. " Well done, 
beast !" said I, when he had finished ; and I returned 
the empty píate to the hostess. — " And you ?" she 
said. — " O, I will eat something else." — " But I haven't 
anything else," she replied. 

8. " How !" cried I, from the yery depths of my 
empty stomach ; " haven't you some eggs ?" — " None." 
— " Some cutlets ?"— £< None."— " Some potatoes ?"— 

" None." — " Some " A luminous idea crossed my 

mind. I remembered that I had been advised not 
to pass throngh the place without tasting the mash- 
roorns, for which, twenty leagues round, it is celebrated. 
But when I wished to avail myself of this felicitoua 

346 Dije para mi capote. 



LECTUKAS INGLESAS. 295 

recollection, an unforeseen difficulty presented itself in 
the fact that I could not, for the life of me, recall the 
Germán word, the pronunciation of which was essen- 
tial, unless I would go hungry to bed. 346 I rernained, 
then, with open mouth, pausing at tlie indefinite pro- 
noun. 

9. " Some — some — liow do you cali it in Germán ? 
Some — " — t£ Some ?" repeated the hostess, mechan- 
ically. — " Eh ? yes ; some — " At this moment my 
e} T es fell upon my álbum. " Wait," said I, " wait !" 
I then took my pencil, and, on a beautiful white leaf, 
drew, as carefully as I could, the precious vegetable 
which formed for the moment the object of my desires. 
I ñattered myself that it approached as near to a re- 
semblance as it is permitted for the work of man to re- 
produce the work of nature. 

10. All this while the hostess followed me w T ith her 
eyes, displaying an intelligent curiosity that seemed to 
augur most favorably for my prospects. " Ah ! ja, ja, 
ja (yes, yes, yes)," said she, as I gave the finishing 
touch to the drawing. She liad comprehended — the 
ele ver woman ! — so w^ell comprehended, that, five min- 
utes after, she entered the room with an umbrella all 
open. " There !" said she. I threw a glance upon my 
unfor túnate drawing — the resemblance was perfect. 

Translation from Dumas. 

846 A menos que quisiese acostarme siu haber comido. 



296 LECTUEAS INGLESAS. 

XCVL 

The Discontented Miller. 

1. Whang, tlie miller, was naturally avaricious ; no- 
body loved money better than he, or more respected 
tliose wbo had it. When people would talk of a rich 
man in company, Whang would say, "I know him very 
well ; lie and I have been long acquainted ; he and I 
are intímate." But, if ever a poor man was mentioned, 
he had not the least knowledge of the man ; he might 
be very well, for aught he knew ; but he was not fond 
of making many acquaintances, and loved to choose 
his company. 

2. Whang, however, with all his eagerness for riches, 
was poor. He had nothing but the profits of his mili 
to support him ; but, though these were small, they 
were certain ; while it stood and went, he was sure of 
eating : and his frugality was such that he every day 
laid some money by, which he would at intervals count 
and contémplate with much satisfaction. Yet still his 
acquisitions .were not equal to his desires ; he only 
found himself above want, whereas he desired to be 
possessed of affluence. 

3. One day, as he was indulgiug these wishes, he 
was informed that a neighbor of his had found a pan 
of money under ground, having dreamed of it three 
nights running before. These tidings were daggers to 
the heart of poor Whang. " Here am I," says he, 
" toiling and moiling from morning till night for a few 
paltry íarthiugs, while neighbor Thanks only goes 
quietly to bed and dreams himself into thousands 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 297 

before morning. O that I could dream like hiin! 
With wliat pleasure would I dig round the pan ! How 
slyly would I carry it honie ! not even my wife sliould 
see me ; and then, O the pleasure of thrusting one's 
hand into a heap of gold up to the elbow !" 

4. Such reflections only served to make the miller 
unhappy : he discontinued his former assiduity ; he 
vyas quite disgusted with small gains, and his customers 
began to forsake him. Every day he repeated the wish, 
and every night laid himselí down in order to dream. 
Fortune, that was for a long time unkind, at last, how- 
ever, seemed to smile on his distresses, and indulged 
him with the wished-íor visión. He dreamed that un- 
der a certain part of the foundation of his mili there 
was concealed a monstrous pan of gold and diamonds, 
buried deep in the ground, and covered with a large, 
flat stone. 

5. He concealed his good luck from every person, as 
is usual in money dreams, in order to have the visión 
repeated the two succeeding nights, by which he shoulcl 
be certain of its truth. His wishes in this, also, were 
answered ; he still dreamed of the same pan of mcney 
in the very same place. Now, therefore, it was past a 
doubt ; so, getting up early the third morning, he re- 
paired alone, with a mattock in his hand, to the mili, 
and began to undermine that part of the wall to which 
the visión directed him. 

6. The first ornen of success that he met was a bro- 
ken ring; digging still deeper, he turned up a house- 
tile, quite new and entire. At last, after much digging, 
he carne to a broad, flat stone, but then so large that it 
was beyond a man's strength to remove it. "Here!" 
cried he, in raptures, to himself ; £k here it is; under 

13* 



298 LEOTUBAS iNdl.KSAS. 

tliis stone thore is room for a very large pan of dia- 
monds indeed. I must e'en go home to my wife, and 
tell her tho whole affair, and get her to assist me in 
turning it up." 

7. Away, therefore, lie goes, and acquaints liis wife 
with every circumstance of tlieir good fortune. Her 
raptures on tliis occasion may easily be imagined. Bhe 
ílew round his neck, and embraced hini in un ecstasy 
of joy : but these transporta, however, did not allay 
their eagerness to know the exact sum ; returning, 
therefore, togetlier to the sanie place where Whang 
liad been digging, there they found — not indeed the 
expected treasure — but the mili, their only Bupport, 
underrnined and fallen. Goldsmitii. 



XCVII. 

The Sword and the Press. 

1. When Tamerlane liad finished building his pyramid 
of seventy thousand human skulls, and was seen stand- 
ing at the gate of Damascus, glittéring in his steel, 
with his battle-axe on his shoulder, till his fierce hosts 
filed out to new victories and carnage, the palé lo'oker- 
on might have fancied that Nature was in her death- 
throes; for havoc and despair liad taken possession of 
the earth, and the sun of manhood seenied setting in a 
Sea oí blood. 

'2. Yet it might be on that very gala-day of Tamer- 
lane that a little boy was playing nine-pins in tho 
Btreets of Mentz, whose bistory was more important 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 299 

than that of twenty Tamerlanes. The Khan, with his 
shaggy demons of the wilderness, " passed áway like a 
whirlwind," to be forgotten forever; and that Germán 
artisan has wrought a benefit which is yet immeasura- 
bly expanding itself, and will continué to expand itself, 
through all countries and all times. 

3. What are the conquests and the expeditions of the 
whole corporation of captains, from Walter the Penni- 
less to Napoleón Bonaparte, compared with those mova- 
ble types of Fausi ? Truly ib is a mortifying thing for 
your conqueror to reflect how perisliable is the metal 
with which he hammers with such violence ; how the 
kind earth will soon shroud up his bloody footprints ; 
and all that he achieved and skilfully piled together 
will be but like his own canvas city of a camp — this 
evening loud with life, to-morrow all struck and van- 
ished, — " a few pits and heaps of straw." 

4. Por here, as always, it continúes trae, that the 
deepest forcé is the stillest ; that, as in the fable, the 
mild shining of the sun shall silently accomplish what 
the fierce blustering of the tempest in vain essayed. 
Above all, it is ever to be kept in mind that not by ma- 
terial but by moral power are men and their actions to 
be governed. How noiseless is thought ! No rolling 
of diums, no tramp of squadrons, no tumult of innu- 
merable baggage-wagons, attend its movements. 

5. In what obscure and sequestered places may the 
head be meditating which is one day to be crowned 
with more than imperial authority ! for kings and em- 
perors will be among its ministering servants ; it will 
rule not o ver but in all heads ; and with these solitary 
combinations of ideas, and w T ith magic formulas, bend 
the world to its will. The time may come when Ñapo- 



309 LECTU1US INGLESAS. 

león himself will be better known for his laws than his 
battles, and tlie victory of Waterloo prove less nio- 
mentous than the opening of the first Mechanies' Iu- 

stitute. TnoMAS Caklyle. 

Beneath the rule of men entirely great 

The pen is mightier than the sworcl. Behold 

The arch enchanter's wand ! — itself a nothing ! 

But taking sorcery from the master hand 

To paralyze the Csesars and to strike 

The loud earth breathless ! Take away the sword — 

States can be saved without it. Lytton. 



XCVIII. 

Anecdotes and Incidents. 

1. Know, before you speak.— It is related of Sheri- 
dan, that once in the Houseof Commons he apparently 
quoted a passage from a Greek poet, when in reality he 
only uttered a gabble resembling Greek. An honorable 
gentleman who spoke after him fully assented to the 
application of the passage to the case in question. 
How ineffably ridiculous must that man have appeared 
when Sheridan disclosed the trick ! To the dishonor 
of such an exposure every one is hable, who, in any 
way, however slight or negative, aífects to appear know- 
ing where he is ignorant. 

2. Perfection no Trifle. — A friend called pn ^li- 
chael Angelo, who was ñnishing a statue. Some time 
afterward he called again ; the Sculptor was still at his 



LECTÜKAS INGLESAS. 301 

work : his fríen el looking at the figure, exclaimed, 
"You have been idle sin<?e I saw you last." — "By no 
means," replied the Sculptor ; " I have retouched tbis 
part, and polishecl that ; I have softened this íeature, 
and brought out this muscle ; I have given more ex- 
pression to this lip, and more energy to this limb." — 
" Well, well," said his friend, " but all these are trifles." 
— " It may be so," replied Angelo, " but recollect that 
trifles make perfection, and that perfection is no trine." 

3. Teüe Geneeosity. — Sir Philip Sidney, at the bat- 
tle near Zutphen, displayed the most undaunted cour- 
age. He liad two horses killecl under him ; and, whilst 
mounting a third, was wounded by a musket-shot out 
of the trenches, which broke the bone of his thigh. 
He returned about a mile and a half on horseback to 
the camp ; and, being faint with the loss of blood, and 
parehed with thirst from the heat of the weather, he 
called for drink. It was presently brought him ; but, 
as he was putting the vessel to his mouth, a poor 
wounded soldier, who happened to be carried along at 
that instant, looked up to it with wistful eyes. The 
gallant and generous Sidney took the flagon from his 
lips, just when he was going to drink, and delivered it to 
the soldier, saying, " Thy necessity is greater than mine." 

4. Moral and Physical Coueage. — At the battle of 
Waterloo, two French officers w T ere advancing to charge 
a much superior forcé. The danger was imminent, and 
one of them displayed evident signs of fear. The 
other, observing it, said to him, " Sir, I believe you are 
frightened." — " Yes," returned the other, " I am ; and 
if you were half as much frightened, you would run 
away." This anecdote exhibits in a liappy light the 
difference between moral and physical courage. 



302 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

The brave man is not lie who feels no fear, 
For that were stupid and irrational ; 

But lie whose noble soul its fear snbdues, 

And bravely dares the dauger nature shrinks from. 

5. Eeltgion the Cement of Society. — Keligion is 
the cement of all virtue, and virtue the moral cement of 
all society. A society composed of none but the irre- 
ligious could not exist. It is related that three Germán 
robbers, having acquired by various robberies what 
amounted to a very valuable booty, agreed to divide 
the spoil, and to retire from so dangerous a vocation. 
When the day which they liad appointed for this pur- 
pose arrived, one of them was dispatched to a neigh- 
boring town to purchase provisions for their last carou- 
sal. The other two secretly agreed to murder bina on 
his return, that they might come in for one-half of the 
plunder instead of a third. Thej did so. But the 
murdered man was a closer calculator even than his 
assassins, for he liad previously poisoned a part of the 
provisions, that he might appropriate unto himself the 
whole of the spoil. This precious triumvirate were 
f ound dead together, — a signal instance that nothing is 
so blind and suicidal as the selfishness of vice. 

6. Habits of Observation. — The ignorant have often 
given credit to the wise for powers that are permit- 
ted to none, merely because the wise have made a 
proper use of those powers that are permitted to all. 
The little Arabian taleof the dervis shall be the comment 
of this propositiou. A dervis was jourueying alono in 
the desert, when two merchants suddenh r met him. 
" Yon have lost a camel," said he to the merchants. — 
"Iudeed, we have," they replied. — " AVas he not blind 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 303 

in his right eye, and lame in his left leg ?" said tlie der- 
vis. — "He was," replied the inerchants. — " Had he not 
lost a front tootli ?" said the dervis. — " He had," re- 
joined the rnerchants. — "And was he not ioaded with 
honey on one side, and wheat on the other ?" 

" Most certainly he was," they replied, " and as you 
have seen him so lately, and niarked hiin so particu- 
larly, you can, in all probability, conduct us to him." — 
" My friends," said the dervis, " I have never seen 
your camel, ñor ever heard of him, but from you." — " A 
pretty story truly !" said the rnerchants ; " but where 
are the jewels whieh formed a part of his cargo ?" — " I 
have neither seen your camel ñor your jewels," repeated 
the dervis. On this they seized his person, and forth- 
with hurried him before the cadi, where, on the strict- 
est search, nothing could be found upon him, ñor could 
any evidence whatever be adduced to convict him either 
of falsehood or of theft. They were then about to pro- 
ceed against. him as a sorcerer, when the dervis, with 
great calmness, thus addressed the court : 

" I have been much amused with your surprise, and 
own that there has been some ground for your sus- 
picions ; but I have lived long and alone, and I can 
find ampie scope for observation, even in a desert. I 
knew that I had crossed the track of a camel that had 
strayed from its owner, because I saw no mark of any 
human footstep on the same route ; I knew that the 
animal was blind in one eye, because it had cropped 
the herbage only on one side of its path ; and I per- 
ceived that it was lame in one leg, from the faint im- 
pression which that particular foot had produced upon 
the sand ; I concluded that the animal had lost one 
tooth, because, wherever it had grazed, a small tuft of 



C04 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

herbage was left uninjured in the centre of its bite. 
As to that which formed the burden of the beast, the 
busy.ants informed me that it was corn on the one 
side, and the clustering flies that it was hone}^ on the 
other." 

7. Good Advice. — A certain khan of Tartary, travel- 
ling with his nobles, was met by a dervis, who cried, 
with a loud voice, " Whoever will gire me a hundred 
pieces of gold, I will give him a piece of advice." The 
khan ordered the sum to be given to him, upon which 
the dervis said, " Begin nothing of which thou hast not 
well considered the end." The courtiers, hearing this 
plain sentence, smiled, and said with a sneer, " The 
dervis is well paid for his maxim." But the khan was 
so well pleased with the answer, that he ordered it to 
be written in golden letters in several parts of his pal- 
ace, and engraved on all his píate. 

Not long after, 347 the khan's surgeon was bribed to 
kill him with a poisoned lancet, at the time he bled 
him. One day, when the khan's arm was bound, and 
the fatal lancet in the hand of the surgeon, the latter 
read on the basin, " Begin nothing of which thou hast 
not well considered the end." He immediately started, 
and let the lancet fall out of his hand. The khan, ob- 
serving his confusión, inquired the reason : the surgeon 
fell prostrate, confessed the whole affair, and was par- 
doned ; but the cor^spirators were put to death. The 
khan, turning to his courtiers, who liad heard the ad- 
vice with disdain, told thern that the counsel could not 
be too highly valued which liad saved a khan's life. 

8. Humorous Retaliation. — A nobleman, resident at 

847 Poco tiempo después. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 305 

a castle in Italy, was about to celébrate his marriage- 
feast. All the elements were propitious except the 
ocean, which had been so boisterous as to deuy the 
very necessary appendage of fish. On the very morn- 
ing of the feast, however, a poor fisherman made his 
appearance with a turbot so large that it seemed to 
have been created for the oecasion. Joy pervaded the 
castle, and the fisherman was ushered with his prize 
into the saloon, where the nobleman, in the presence of 
his visitors, requested him to put what price he thought 
proper on the fish, and it should instantly be paid him. 
" One hundred lashes," said the fisherman, " on my 
bare back, is the price of my fish, and I will not bate 
one sfcrand of whip-cord on the bargain." The noble- 
man and his guests were not a little astonished ; but our 
chapman was resolute, and remonstrance was in vain. 

At length the nobleman exclaimed, " Well, well, the 
fellow is a humorist, but the fish we must have ; so lay 
on lightly, and let the price be paid in our presence." 
After fifty lashes had been administered, " Hold, hold !" 
exclaimed the fisherman ; " I have a partner in this 
business, and it is fitting that he should receiye his 
share." " What ! are there two such madcaps in the 
world ?" cried the nobleman. " Ñame him, and he 
shall be sent for instantly." " Tou need not go very 
far for him," said the fisherman ; " yon will find him 
at your gate, in the shape of your own porter, who 
would not let me in nntil I promised that he should 
have the half of whatever I received for my turbot." 
" O ho !" said the nobleman, " bring him up instantly ; 
he shall receíve the stipulated moiety wdth the strictest 
justice." This ceremony being finished, he discharged 
the porter, and amply rewarded the fisherman. 



306 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

XCIX. 
Gil Blas and the Archbishop. 

Archbishop. "Wliat is your business wifch me, my 
friend ? 

Gil Blas. I am the young man who was recom- 
mended to you by your nephew, Don Fernando. 

Arch. O ! you are the person of whom he spoke so 
handsomely. I retain you in my service ; I regard you 
as an acquisition. Your education, it would seem, has 
not been neglected ; you know enough of Greek and 
Latín for my purpose, and your handwriting suits me. 
I am obliged to my nephew for sending me so clever 
a young fellow. So good a copyist must be also a 
grammarian. Tell me, did you find nothing in the ser- 
món you transcribed for me which shocked your taste ? 
— no little negligence of style, or impropriety of diction ? 

Gil B. O, sir ! I am not qualified to play the critic ; 
and if I were, I am persuaded that your Grace's com- 
positions would defy censure. 

Arch. Ahem ! well, I do flatter nryself that not 
many flaws could be picked in them. But, my young 
friend, tell me what passages struck you most forcibly. 

Gil B. If, where all was excellent, any passages 
more partieularly moved rne, they were those personi- 
fying hope, and describing the good man's death. 

Arch. You show an aceurate taste and delicate ap- 
preciation. I see your judgment may be relied upon. 
Give yourself no inquietude,"" Gil Blas, in regard to 

3-1 K Descuide V. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 307 

your advancement in life. I will take care of that. I 
have an affection for you, and, to prove it, I will now 
make you noy confidant. Yes, my young friend, I will 
make you the dcpositary of my most secret thoughts. 
Listen to what I have to say. I am fond of preaching, 
and my sermons are not without effect upon my liear- 
ers. The conversions of which I am the humble in- 
strument ought to content me. But — shall I confess 
my weakness ? — my reputation as a finished orator is 
what gratines me most. My productions are celebrated 
as at once vigorous and elegant. But I would, of all 
things, avoid the mistake of those authors who do not 
know when to stop — I would produce nothing beneath 
my reputation ; I would retire seasonably, ere that is 
impaired. And so, my dear Gil Blas, one thing I exact 
of your zeal, which is, that when you shall find that 
my pen begins to flag and to give signs of oíd age in 
the owner, you shall not hesitate to apprise me of the 
fact. Do not be afraid that I shall take it unkindly. 
I cannot trust my own judgment on this point ; self-love 
m ay mislead me. A clisinterested understanding is what 
I require for my guidance ; I make choice of yours, 
and mean to abide by your decisión. 

Gil B. Thank Heaven, sir, the period is likely to be 
far distant when any such hint shall be needed. Be- 
sides, a genius like yours will wear better tlian that of 
an inferior man ; or, to speak more justly, your facul- 
ties are above the encroachments of age. Instead of 
being weakened, they promise to be invigorated, by 
time. 

Arch. No flattery, 349 my friend. I am well «ware 

349 Basta de lisonjas. 



308 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

that I am liable to give way at any time, all at once. 
At my age, certain infirmities of the flesh are unavoid- 
able, ancl they must needs affect the mental powers. I 
repeat it, Gil Blas, so soon as you shall perceive the 
slightest symptom of deterioration in my writings, give 
me fair warning. Do not shrink from being perfectly 
candid and sincere ; for I shall receive such a monition 
as a token of your regard for me. 

Gil B. In good faith, sir, I shall endeavor to merit 
yonr confidence. 

Arch. Nay, 350 your interests are bound up with your 
obedience in this respect ; for if, unfortunately for you, 
I should hear in the city a whisper of a íalling-oíf in 
my discourses — an intimation that I ought to stop 
preaching — I should hold you responsible, and con- 
sider myself exempted from all care for your fortunes. 
Such will be the result of your false discretion. 

Gil B. Indeed, 351 sir, I shall be vigilant to observe 
your Avishes, and to detect any blemish in your 
writings. 

Arch. And now tell me, Gil Blas, what does the 
world say of my last discourse? Think you it gave 
general satisfaction ? 

Gil B. Since you exact it of me in so pressing a 
manner, to be frank 

Arch. Frank? O, certainly, by all means ; speak 
out, my young friend. 

Gil B. Your Grace's sermons never fail to be ad- 
mired ; but 

Arch. But — Well ? Do not be afraid to let me know 
all. 

86t Como que. 3M Se lo juro. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 309 

Gil B. If I niay venture tlie observation, it seemcd 
to me that your last discourse did not have that effect 
upon your audience which your former eflbrts have 
liad. Perhaps your Grace's recent illness 

Arch. What ! what ! Has it encountered, then, some 
Aristarchus ? 

Gil B. No, sir ; no. Such productions as yours are 
beyond criticisra. Everybody was charmed with it ; 
but — since you have demanded of me to be frank and 
sincere — I take the liberty to remark that your last dis- 
course did not seem to me altogether equal to your 
preceding. It lacked the strength 352 — the — Do you 
not agree with me, sir ? 

Arch. Mr. Gil Blas, that discourse, then, is not to 
your taste? 

Gil B. I did not say that, sir. I found it excellent 
— only a little inferior to your others. 

Arch. So ! Now I understand. I seem to you to be 
on the wane — eh ? Out with it ! You think it about 
time that I should retire ? 

Gil B. I should not have presumed, sir, to speak so 
freely, but for your express commands. I have simply 
rendered you obedience ; and I humbly trust that you 
will not be offended at my hardihood. 

Arch. Offended! O! not at all, Mr. Gil Blas. I 
utter no reproaches. I don't take it at all ill that you 
should speak your sentiments ; it is your sentiment 
only that I find ill. I have been duped by supposing 
you to be a person of any intelligence — that is all. 

Gil B. But, sir, if, in my zeal to serve you, I have 
erred in — 

S6U No tenia aquel vigor — aquel— 



310 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

Arch. Say no more — say no more ! Yon are yet too 
raw to discrimínate. Know that I have never composed 
a betler sermón than that whicb has liad the misfortune 
tolack your approbation. My faculties, thank Heaven, 
have lost nothing of their vigor. Hereafter I will make 
a better clioice of an adviser. Go, tell my treasurer to 
count youout a lmndred ducats, and may Heaven con- 
duct you with that sum. Adieu, Mr. Gil Blas ! I wish 
yon all manner of prosperity — with a little more taste. 

Dramatized from Le Sage. 



LECTUKAS INGLESAS. 311 



SELEOTIO^S IN VERSE; 
I. 

GOD IS LOYE. 

"When, courting slumber, 
The hours I number, 
And sad cares cumber 

My wearied mind ; 
Tliis thouglit sliall cheer me, 
That thou art near me, 
Whose ear to hear me 

Is still inclined. 

My soul thou keepest, 
Who never sleepest ; 
'Mid 353 gloom the deepest 864 

There's light above. 
Thine 355 eyes behold me, 
Thine arms enfold me, 
Thy word has told me 

That God is love. 



363 'Mid, abreviatura ele amid, preferencia a la segunda persona 

entre. del singular, thou, thee, etc., tú, tí, 

354 Inversión a causa de la etc. Thine suena mejor que thy 

rima : y M¿d the deepest gloom, delante de las palabras que prin- 

seria la construcción en prosa, cipian por vocal. 

365 En poesía suele darse la 



312 LECTUIIAS INGLESAS. 

II. 

The Last Leaf. 

1. I saw him once before., 

As he passéd 306 by the door, 

And agaiu 
The pavement stones resound 
As he totters o'er the ground 

With his cañe. 

2. They say that in his prime, 
Ere the pruning-knife of Time 

Cut him down, 
Not a better man was found 
By the crier on his round 

Through the town. 

3. But now he walks the streets, 
And he looks at all he meets 

So forlorn ; 
And he shakes his feeble head, 
That it seems as if he said, 

" They are gone." 

4. The mossy marbles rest 

On the lips that he has press'd 867 
In their bloom ; 

3,66 Exige la medida que Be 3b7 Se ha escrito esta palabra 

pronuncie en dos sílabas, pd-aecL con un apóstrofo en lugar de la 

En semejante caso sude ponerse e de la terminación, para que el 

un acento agudo sobre la sílaba vocablo no tenga mas que una 

que de ordinaria es muda. sílaba. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 313 

And tlie ñames he loved to hear 
Have been carved for many a year 
On the tomb. 

5. My grandmamma has said — 
Poor oíd lady ! she is dead 

Long ago — 
That he had a Koman nose, 
And his cheek was like a rose 

In the snow. 

6. And now his nose is thin, 
And it rests upon his chin 

Like a staff ; 
And a crook is in his back. 
And a melancholy crack 

In his laugh. 

7. I know it is a sin 
For me to sit and grin 

At him here, 
But the oíd three-corner'd hat, 
And the breeches — and all that, 

Are so queer ! 

8. And if I should live to be 
The last leaf upon the tree 

In the Spring — 
Let them smile as I do now 
At the oíd forsaken bough 

Where I cling. 

Oliver W. Holmes. 
14 



31á LECTUiíAS INGLESAS. 



III. 

The Chameleon. 

1. Two travellers of conceited cast, 
As o'er Arabia's wilds they passed, 
And, on their way, in friendly chat, 
Now talked of this, and then of tíiat, 
Discoursed awhile 'mongst 3&e other niatter, 
Of the ckameleon's forra and nature. 

2. " A stranger animal/ 1 críes one, 

" Sure never lived beneath the sun ; 
A lizard's body, lean and long ; 
A fish's head ; a serpent's tongue ; 
Its foot with triple claw disjoined ; 
And what a length of tail bekind ! 
How slow its pace ! and then its hue — 
Who ever saw a finer blue ?" 

3. " Hold there," the other quick replies ; 
" 'Tis green — I saw it with these eyes, 
As late 359 with open mouth it lay, 
And warmed it in the sunny ray ; 
Stretched at its ease, the beast I viewed, 
And saw it eat the air for food." 



■•■ 'Mongnt por wmonget latdy y significa poco hd i con late, 

a6B No debe confundirse esta tarde, 
palabra, que es lo mismo que 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 315 

4. " Tve 3tí0 seen it, sir, as well as you, 
And must again affirm it blue ; 

At leisure I the beast surveyed 
Extended in the cooling shade." 

5. " 'Tis green, 'tis green, sir, I assure ye*" 
" Green !" cries the other, in a fury : 

" Why, sir, d'ye 361 think I've lost my eyes ?" 
" 'Twere 362 no great loss," the friend replies ; 
" Por if they always serve you thus, 
You'll find them but of little use." 

6. So high at last the contest rose, 

From words they almost carne to blows ; 
"When luckily carne by a third — 
To him the question they referred ; 
And begged he'd tell them, if he knew, 
"Whether the thing was green, or blue ? 

7. " Sirs," cries the umpire, " cease your pother, 
The creature's neither one ñor t'other ; 

I caught the animal last night, 
And viewed it o'er by candle-light ; 
I marked it well — 'twas black as jet : 
You stare ! but, sirs, I've 360 got it yet, 
And can produce it." " Pray, sir, do ; 
Til lay my life the thing is blue." 

8. " And I'll engage that, when you' ve 363 seen 
The reptile, you'll pronounce him green." 



360 I've, contracción de I 362 'Twere, por it ícere, fuera ó 
have. seria. 

861 Jyye^ por do you. 363 You\e, forma abreviada de 

you have. 



316 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

" "Well, then, at once, to ease the dóubt," 
Eeplies the man, " I'll turn him out 364 ; 
And, when before your eyes I' ve set him, 
If you don't find him black, I'll eat him." 
He said, then full before their sight 
Produced the beast, and lo — 'twas white ! 

9. Both stared ; the man looked wondrous wise ! 
" My children," the chameleon cries, 
(Then first 365 the creature found a tongue,) 
" You all are right and all are wrong ; 
When next 366 you talk of what you view, 
Think others see as well as you ; 
Ñor wonder if you find that none 
Prefers your eyesight to his own." 

Merrick. 



IV. 

The Village Preacher. 

1. Near yonder copse, where once the garden smiled, 
And still where many a garden-flower grows wild, 
There, where a few torn shrubs the place disclose, 
The village preacher's modest mansión rose. 
A man he was to all the country dear, 
And passing 367 rich with forty pounds a year : 



364 TU turn Mm out, lo sacaré 86C Otra vez. 
fuera, lo haré salir. ít}7 Es decir, bastante rico. 

305 Esto es, for the first time^ox 
primera vez. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 317 

Remóte from towns he ran his godly race, 

Ñor e'er liad changed, ñor wished to cliange, his place ; 

Unskilful he to fawn, or seek for power 

By doctrines fashioned to the varying hour, — 

Far 368 other aims his heart had learned to prize, 

More bent to raise the wretched than to rise. 

2. His house was known 369 to all the vagrant train ; 
He chid their wanderings, but relieved their pain ; 
The long-remembered beggar was his guest, 
Whose beard descending swept his aged breast ; 
The ruined spendthrift, now no longer proud, 
Claimed kindred there, and liad his claims allowed ; 
The broken soldier, kindly bade to stay, 

Sat by his fire, and talked 370 the night away ; 
Wept o'er his wouncls, or, tales of sorrow done, 
Shouldered his crutch, and showed how fields 371 were 

won ; 
Pleased with his guests, the good man learned to glow, 
And quite forgot tlieir vices in their woe : 
Careless their merits or their faults to sean, 
His pity gave ere charity began. 

3. Thus to relieve the wretched was his pride, 
And e'en his failings leaned to virtue's side ; 
But, in his duty prompt at every cali, 

He watched and wept, he prayed and felt, for all. 

And, as a bird each fond endearmenfc tries 

To tempt its new-fledged offspring to the skies,— 

368 Far aquí se toma en sentido 370 Pasó la noche hablando, re- 
de muy : far other aims, miras firienclo sus aventuras. 

muy diferentes. 371 Fields tómase aquí por bat- 

369 Known en este lugar vale tles, batallas. 
open, abierta. 



318 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

He tricd eacli art, reproved each dull delay, 
Allured to brighter worlds, and led tlie way. 
Beside the bed where parting life was laid, 
And sorrow, guilt and pain, by turns dismayed, 
The reverend champion stood. At bis control, 
Despair and anguish fled the struggling soul ; 
Comfort carne down the trembling wretch to raise, 
And his last faltering accents whispered praise. 

4. At church, with meek and unaffected grace, 
His looks adorned the venerable place ; 
Truth from his lips prevailed with double sway, 
And fools, who carne to scoff, remained to pray. 
The service past, around the pious man, 
With ready zeal, each honest rustic ran ; 
E'en children folio wed, with endearing wile, 
And plucked his gown, to share the good man's smile ; 
His ready smile a parent's warmth expressed ; 
Their welfare pleased him, and their cares distressed ; 
To tliem his heart, his love, his griefs, were given, 
But all his serious thoughts had rest in heaven. 
As some tall cliff that lifts its awful form, 
Swells from the vale, and midway leaves the storm, 
Though round its breast the rolling clouds are spread 
Eternal sunshine settles on its head. 

Goldsmitu. 



V. 

The Stranger and his Friend. 

1. A poor wayfaring man of grief 

Hath often crossed me on my way, 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 319 

Who sued so humbly for relief 

That I could never answer nay. 372 
I had nofc power to ask his nanie, 
Whither he went or wlience he carne. 
Tet there was soinething in his eye 
That won my love, I knew not why. 

2. Once, when my scanty meal was spread, 

He entered — not a wprd he spake — 
Just perishing for want of bread. 

I gave hirn all ; he blessed it, brake, 
And ate, but gave me part again : 
Mine was an ángel' s portion trien, 
For while I fed with eager haste, 
The crust was manna to my taste. 

3. I spied him where a fountain burst 

Olear from the rock ; his strength was gone ; 
The heedless water mocked his thirst ; 

He heard it, saw it hurrying on — 
I ran, and raised the sufferer up ; 
Twice from the stream he drained my cup, 
Dipp'd, and returned it running o'er ; 
I drank, and never thirsted more. 

í. 'Twas night. The floods were ont ; it blew 
A winter liurricane aloof ; 
I heard his voice abroad, and flew 
To bid him welcome to my roof ; 



372 En otro tiempo se usaba nay I pertenece exclusivamente á los 
tan comunmente como no ; hoy | estilos bíblico y poético. 



320 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

I warmed, I clothecl, I cheered my guest, 
I laid him on my couch to rest ; 
Then made the ground my bed, and seemed 
In Eden's garden wliile I dreamed. 

5. Stripp'd, wounded, beaten nigh to death, 

I found him by the highway side ; 
I roused his pulse, brought back his breath, 

Revived his spirit, and supplied 
Wine, oil, refreshment. He was healed. 
I had myself a wound concealed, 
But from that hour forgot the smart, 
And peace bound up my broken heart. 

6. In prison I saw him next, condemned 

To meet a traitor's doom at morn ; 
The tide of lying tongues I stemmed, 

And honored him, midst shame and scorn. 
My friendship's utmost zeal to try, 
He asked if I for him would die : 
The flesh was weak, my blood ran chill, 
But the free spirit cried " I will." 

7. Then in a moment to my view 

The stranger started from disguise ; 
The tokens in his hands I knew — 

My Saviour stood before my eyes. 
He spake, and my poor ñame he named — 
" Of me thou hast not been ashamed ; 
These deeds shall thy memorial be ; 
Fear not, thou didst them unto me." 

Monto omery. 



LECTÜEAS INGLESAS. 321 

VI. 

The Iyy Green. 

1. Oh ! a dainty plant is the ivy green, 

That creepeth o'er ruins oíd ! 
Of right 373 choice food are his meáis, I ween, 

In his cell so lone and cold. 
The walls must be crumbled, the stones decayed, 

To pleasure 374 his dainty whim ; 
And the inould'ring dust that years have made 
Is a merry meal for him. 

Creeping where no life is seen, 
A rare oíd plant is the ivy green. 

2. Fast he stealeth on, though he wears no wings, 

And a staunch oíd heart has he ! 
How closely he twineth, how tight he clings 

To his friend, the huge oak tree ! 
And slyly he traileth along the ground, 

And his leave^ he gently waves, 
And he joyously twines and hugs around 
The rich mould of dead men's graves. 
Creeping where no life is seen, 
A rare oíd plant is the ivy green. 

3. "Whole ages have fled, and their works decayed, 

And nations scattered been ; 

873 Right hace aquí las veces de 374 To pleasure es una licencia 
adverbio, y con la significación poética : lo corriente es to please. 
de. xery, califica al adjetivo choice. 

14* 



322 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

But the stout oíd ivy shall never fade 

From its líale and hearty green. 
The brave oíd plant in its lonely days 

Shall fatten upon the past ; 
For the stateliest building man can raise 
Is the ivy's food at last. 

Creeping where no life is seen, 
A rare oíd plant is the ivy green. 

Charles Dickeks. 



VII. 

The Sea-weed. 

1. When deseen ds on the Atlantic 

The gigantic 
Storm-wind of the equinox, 
Landward in his wrath he scourges 

The toiling surges, 
Laden with sea-weed from the rocks ; 

2. From Bermuda's reefs ; from edges 

Of sunken ledges 
Of some far off, bright Azore ; 
From Bahama, and the dashing, 

Silver-flashing 
Surges of San Salvador ; 

3. Ever drifting, drifting, drifting, 

On the shifting 
Cúrrente of the restless main, 



.LECTURAS INGLESAS. 323 

Till in slieltered coves, and reaches 

Of sandy beaches, 
All have found repose again. 

So wlien storrns of wild emotion 

Strike the ocean 
Of the poet's soul, ere long, 
From eaeh cave and rocky fastness, 

In its vastness, 
Floats sonie fragment of a song ; 

Ever drifting, drifting, drifting, 

On the shifting 
Currents of the restless heart, 
Till at length, in books recorded, 

They, like hoarded 
Household words, no more depart. 

LONGFELLOW. 



VIII. 

Song of the Brook. 

1. I come from haunts of coot and hern ; 

I make a sudden sally, 
And sparkle out among the fern, 
To bicker down a valley. 

2. By thirty hills I hurry down, 

Or slip between the ridges ; 
By twenty thorps, a little town, 
And half a hundred bridges ; 



324 LECTUKAS INGLESAS. 

3. I cliatter over stony ways 

In little sharps and trebles, 
I bubble into eddying bays, 
I babble on the pebbles. 

4. And out again I curve and flow, 

To join the brimming river ; 
For men may come, and men may go, 

But I go on f ore ver. Tennyson. 



IX. 

OCEAN WaYES. 376 

1. Eoll on, thou deep and dark blue ocean — roll ! 

Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in vain ; 
Man marks the earth with ruin — his control 

Stops with the shore ; upon the watery plain 

The wrecks are all thy deed, ñor doth remain 
A shadow oí nian's ravage, save his own, 

"When, for a moment, like a drop of rain, 
He sinks into thy depths with bubbling groan, 
Without a grave, unknelled, uncoffined, and unknown. 

2. And I have loved thee, ocean, and my joy 

Of youthful sports was on thy breast to be 
Borne, like thy bubbles, omvard : from a boy 
I wantoned with thy breakers — they to me 
Were a delight ; and if the freshening sea 

a75 Del poema de Lord Byron titulado Childe Jlarold. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 325 

Made them a terror, 'twas a pleasing fear, 

For I was, as it were, a child of thee, 
And trusted to thy billows far and near, 
And laid my hand upon thy mane — as I do here. 

Byron. 



X. 

Elegy weitten in a Country Churchyard. 

1. The eurfew tolls the knell of parting day, 

The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea, 
The ploughman homeward plods his weary way, 
And lea ves the world to darkness and to me. 

2. Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight, 

And all the air a solemn stillness holds, 
Save where the beetle wheels his droning flight, 
And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds ; — 

3. Save that from yonder ivy-mantled tower 

The moping owl does to the moon complain 
Of such as, wandering near her secret bower, 
Molest her ancient soiitary reign. 

4. Beneath those rugged elms, that yew-tree's shade, 

Where heaves the turf in many a moulclering heap, 
Each in his narrow cell forever laid, 

The rucie forefathers of the hamlet sleep. 

5. The breezy cali of incense-breathing morn, 

The swallow twittering from the straw-buiit shed, 
The cock's shrill clarión, or the echoing horn, 
No more shall rouse them from their lowly bed. 



326 LECTURAS INGLESAS 

6. For them no more the blazing liearth sliall burn, 

Or busy liousewife ply her evening care ; 
No children run to lisp their sire's return, 
Or climb liis knees, the envied kiss to share. 

7. Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield, 

Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke ; 
How jocund did they drive their team afield ! 
How bowed the woods beneath their sturdy stroke ! 

8. Let not Ambition mock their useful toil, 

Their homely joys and destiny obseure ; 
Ñor Grandeur hear with a disdainful smile 
The short and simple annals of the poor. 

9. The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power, 

And all that beauty, all that wealth, e'er gave, 
Await alike th' inevitable hour. 

The paths of glory lead but to the grave. 

10. Ñor you, ye proud, impute to these the fault, 

If Memory o'er their tomb no trophies raise, 
Where through the long-drawn aisle and f retted vaul i 
The pealing anthem swells the note of praise. 

11. Can storied urn or animated bust 

Back to its mansión cali the fleeting breath ? 
Can Honor's voice provoke the silent dust, 

Or Flattery soothe the dull, eold ear of death ? 

12. Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid 

Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire ; 
Hands that the rod of empire might have swayed, 
Or waked to ecstasy the living lyre ; 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 327 

13. But Knowledge to their eyes her ampie page, 
Bieh witli tlie spoils of time, did ne'er unroil ; 
Chill Penury repressed their noble rage, 
And froze the genial current of the soul. 

14 Full many a gem of purest ray serene 

The dark, unfathomed caves of ocean bear ; 
Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, 
And waste its sweetness on the desert air. 

15. Some village Hampden, 376 that with dauntless breast 

The little tyrant of his fields withstood, — 
Some mute, inglorious Milton 377 — here may rest ; 
Some Cromwell, 378 guiltless of his country's blood. 

16. Th' applause of listening senates to command, 

The threats of pain and ruin to despise, 
To scatter plenty o'er a smiling land, 

And read their history in a nation's eyes, 

17. Their lot forbade ; ñor circumscribed alone 

Their growing virtues, but their crimes confined ; 
Forbade to wade through slaughter to a throne, 
And shut the gates of mercy on mankind ; — 

18. The struggiing pangs of conscious truth to hide, 

To quench the blushes of ingenuous shame, 
Or heap the shrine of luxury and pride 
"With incensé kindled at the Muse's flame. 



376 John Hampden, patriota á mi patria ! O Dios, sé miseri- 

in^lés, resistió enérgicamente las cordioso ! . . ." 

medidas opresivas del gobierno 377 Célebre poeta inglés, autor 

real. Herido mortalmente en la del Paraíso Perdido. 

guerra civil contra el rey Carlos I, 37S Llamado el Protector, fun- 

murió en 1643, siendo sus úl- dador de la república de Ingla- 

timas palabras : " \ O, Dios, salva térra, en 1653. 



328 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

19. Far from tlie madding erowd's ignoble strife, 

Thcir sober wishes never learned to stray J 
Along the cool, sequestered vale of life 

They kept the noiseless tenor of their way. 

20. Yet e'en these bones from insult to protect, 

Some frail memorial, still erected nigh, 
AVith uncouth rhymes and shapeless sculpture 
decked, 
Implores the passing tribute of a sigh. 

21. Their ñames, their years, spelt by th' unletter'd 

muse, 
The place of fame and elegy supply ; 
And many a holy text around she strews, 
That teach the rustic moralist to die. 

22. For who, to dumb forgetfulness a prey, 

This pleasing, anxious being e'er resigned, 
Left the warm precincts of the cheerful day, 
Ñor cast one longing, lingering look behind ? 

23. On some fond breast the parting soul relies, 

Some pious drops the closing e} r e requires, 
E'en from the tomb the voice of nature cries, 
E'en in our ashes live their wonted fires. 

24. For thee, who, mindful of th' unhonored dead, 

Dost in these lines their artless tale relate, 
If 'chance 379 by lonely contemplaron led, 
Some kindred spirit shall inquire thy fate, — 

87B Contracción de perchancc, por casualidad. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 329 

25. Haply some hoary-heacled swain may say, 

" Oft have we seen him at the peep of dawn 
Brushing with hasty steps the dews away, 
To meet the sun upon the upland lawn. 

26. " There, at the foot of yonder nodding beech, 

That wreathes its oíd fantastie roots so high, 
His listless length at noontide would he stretch, 
And pore upon the brook that babbles by. 

27. " Hard by yon wood, now smiling as in scorn, 

Muttering his wayward fancies would he rove, 
Now drooping, woeful, wan, like one forlorn, 
Or crazed with care, or cross'd in hopeless love. 

28. " One morn I missed him on tli' accustom'd 380 hill, 

Along the heath, and near his favorite tree : 
Another caine, — ñor yet beside the rill, 
Ñor up the lawn, ñor at the wood was he : 

29. " The next, with dirges due, in sad array, 

Slow through the churchway path we saw him 
borne. 
Approach and read (for thou canst read) the lay 
Graved on the stone beneath yon aged thorn." 

30. Here rests his head upon the lap of earth, 

A youth to fortune and to fame unknown ; 

Fair Science frowned not on his humble birth, 

And Melancholy rnarked him for her own. 

380 Apócope de accustomed, acostumbrado. 



330 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

31. Large was his bounty, and bis soul sincere ; 

Heaven did a recompense as largely send ; 
He gave to misery (all he liad) a íear, 

He gained from heaven ('twas all he wish'd) a 
friend. 

32. No further seek his merits to disclose, 

Or draw his frailties from their dread abode, 
(There they alike in trembling hope repose,) 
The bosom of his Father and his God. 



XI. 

Lochiel's Waening. 

Lochiel, 381 a Highland chieftain, while on his march to join the 
Pretender, is met by a Highland seer, who warns him to return, and 
not incnr the certain ruin which awaits that unfortunate prince and 
his íbllowers on the field of Culloden. 

Seer. Lochiel, Lochiel, beware of the day, 
When the Lowlands shall meet thee in battle array ; 
For a field of the dead rustes red on my sight, 
And the clans of Culloden are scattered in flight : 
They rally, they bleed, for their country and crown, — 
"Woe, woe to the riders that trample them down ! 
Proud Cumberland prances, insulting the slain, 
And their hoof-beaten 382 bosoms are trod to the plain. j 
But, hark ! through the fast-flashing lightning of war, 
"What steed to the desert flies frantic and far ? 



•ei Pronuncíese, lo-jí-el. 



8S!í Hoof-beaten, literalmente, 
batido por las pesuñas. 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 331 

'Tis thine, O Glenullin ! wliose bride shall await, 
Like a love-lighted watcli-fire, all niglit at the gate. 
A steed comes at morning : no rider is there ; 
Bat its bridle is red with the sign oí despair ! 
Weep, Albin ! to death and captivity led ! 
O ! weep ! but thy tears cannot nuinber the dead ! 
For a merciless sword on Calloden shall wave — 
Culloden, that reeks with the blood of the brave ! 

Lochiel. Go preach to the coward, thou death-telling 
Or, if gory Calloden so dreadful appear, [seer ! 

Draw, dotard, around thy oíd w T avering sight, 
This mantle, to cover the phantoms of fright ! 

Seer. Ha ! laugh'st thou, Lochiel, my visión to scorn ? 
Proud bird of the mountain, thy plume shall be torn ! 
Say, rushed the bold eagle exultingly forth, 
From his home in the dark-rolling clouds of the Norfch? 
Lo ! the death -shot of foemen out-speeding, he rodé 
Companionless, bearing destruction abroad : 
But down let hiui stoop from his havoc on high ! 
Ah ! home let him speed, for the spoiler is nigh. 
Why ñames the far summit ? Why shoot to the blast 
Those embers, like stars from the firmament cast ? 
'Tis the fire-shower of ruin, all dreadfully driven 
From his eyry, that beacons the darkness of Heaven. 
O, crested Lochiel ! the peerless in might, 
Whose banners arise on the battlements' height, 
Heaven's fire is around thee, to blast and to burn ; 
Keturn to thy dwelling ! all lonely return ! 
For the blackness of ashes shall mark where it stood, 
And a wild mother scream o'er her famishing brood 

Lochiel. False wizard, avaunt ! I have marshalled 
my clan, 
Their swords are a thousand, — their bosoms are one ! 



332 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

Tbey are true to the last of their blood and their breath, 
And like reapers descend to the harvest of death. 
Then welcome be Cumberland's steed to the shock ! 
Let him dash his proud foam like a wave on the rock ! 
But woe to his kindred, and woe to his cause, 
When Albin her claymore indignan tly draws ! 
When her bonneted chieftains to victory crowd, 
Clanranald the dauntless, and Moray the proud, 
All plaided and plumed in their tartán array — 
Seer. Lochiel ! Lochiel ! beware of the day ! 
For, dark and despairing, my sight I may seal, 
But man cannot cover what God would reveal. 
'Tis the sunset of life gives me mystical lore, 
And coming events cast their shadows before. 
I tell thee, Culloden's dread echoes shall ring 
With the blood-hounds that bark for thy fugitive King» 
Lo ! anointed by Heaven with the vials of wrath, 
Behold, where he flies on his desoíate path ! 
Now in darkness and billows he sweeps from my sight ; 
Bise ! rise ! ye wild tempests, and cover his flight ! — 
'Tis finished. Their thunders are hushed on the 

moors : 
Cnlloden is lost, and my country deplores. 
But where is the iron-bound prisoner ? Where ? 
For the red eye of battle is shut in despair. 
Say, mounts he the ocean-wave, banished, forlorn, 
Like a limb from his country cast bleeding and torn ? 
Ah ! no ; for a darker departure is near ; 
The war-drum is muffled, and black is the bier ; 
His death-bell is tolling ; O ! mercy, dispel 
Yon sight, that it freezes my spirit to tell ! 
Life flutters, convulsed, in his quivering limbs, 
And his blood-streaming nostril in agony swims ! 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 333 

Accursed be the fagots that blaze at his feet, 

"Where his heart shall be thrown, ere it ceases to beat, 

With the smoke of its ashes to poison the gale — 

Lochiel. Down, soothless iusulter ! I trust not the 
tale. 
For never shall Albin a destiny meet 
So black with dishonor, so foul with retreat. 
Though rny perishing ranks should be strewed in their 

gore 
Like ocean-weeds heaped on the surf-beaten shore, — 
Lochiel, untainted by flight or by chains, 
While the kindling of life in his bosom remains 
Shall victor exult, 3<?3 or in death be laid low, 
With his back to the field, and his feet to the foe ! 
And, leaving in battle no blot on his ñame, 
Look proudly to Heaven from the death-bed of fame ! 

Thomas Campbell. 



XII. 

Harmony of Expression. 

But raost by numbers judge a poet's song ; 

And smooth or rough, with them, is right or wrong : 

In the bright Mase though thousand charms conspire, 

Her voice is all these tuneful fools admire ; 

Who haunt Parnassus but to please their ear, 

Not mend their minds ; as some to church repair, 

Not for the doctrine, but the music there. 

868 Esta construcción, muy poco pañol ; en prosa, se diría : shall 
usada en inglés, es común en es- exult as a victor. 



334 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

These equal syllables alone require, 
Though oft the ear the open vowels tire ; 
While expletives tlieir feeble aid do join, 
And ten low words oft creep in one dull line ; 
While they ring round tlie same unvaried chimes, 
With sure returns of still expected rhymes ; 
Where'er you find " the cooling western breeze," 
In the next line it " whispers through the trees ;" 
If crystal streams " with pleasing murmurs creep/' 
The reader's threatened (not in vain) with " sleep ;" 
Then, at the last and only couplet, fraught 
With some unmeaning thing they cali a thought, 
A needless Alexandrine ends the song, 
That, like a wounded snake, drags its slowlength along. 
Leave such to tune their own dull rhymes, and know 
What's roundiy smooth or languishingty slow ; 
And praise the easy vigor of a line, 
Where Denham's strength and Waller's 384 sweetness 

join. 
True ease in writing comes from art, not chance ; 
As those move easiest who have learned to dance. 
'Tis not enough no harslmess gives offence, 
The sound must seem an echo to the sense : 
Soft is the strain when zephyr gently blows, 
And the smooth stream in smoother numbers flows ; 
But when loud surges lash the sounding shore, 
The hoarse, rough verse should like the torrent roar. 
When Ajax strives some rock's vast weight to throw, 
The line too labors, and the words move slow ; 
Not so when swift Camilla scours the plain, 
Flies o'er the unbending cora, and skims along the 
main ! Pope. 

■* Dos poetas Ingleses del Biglo XVII. 



LECTUBAS INGLESAS. 335 

XIII. 
The Eayen. 

1. Once upon a inidnight dreary, 
While I pondered weak and weary 

Over mány a quaint and curious 

Volume of forgotten lore — 
"While I nodded, nearly napping, 
Suddenly there carne a tapping, 
As of some one gently rapping, 
Kapping at my chamber door. 
" 'Tis some visitor," I muttered, 

" Tapping at my chamber door — 

Only this and nothing more." 

2. Ah ! distinctly I remember 

It was in the bleak December, 
And each sepárate dying ember 

Wroughtits ghost upon the floor. 
Eagerly I wished the morrow ; — 
Vainly I liad sought to borrow 
From my books surcease of sorrow — 

Sorrow for the lost Lenore — 
For the rare and radiant maiden 

"Whom the angels ñame Lenore — 

Nameless here for evermore. 

3. And the silken sad uncertain 
Eustling of each purple curtain 

Thrilled me — filled me wíth fantastic 
Terrors never felt before ; 



336 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

So that now, to still the beating 
Of my heart, I stoocl repeating, 
" 'Tis soine visitor entreating 

Eutrance at my chamber door — 
Some late visitor entreating 

Entranee at my chamber door ; 

This it is and nothing more." 

4. Presently my soul grew stronger ; 
Hesitating then no longer, 

" Sir," said I, u or madam, truly, 

Your forgiveness I implore ; 
But the fact is I was napping, 
And so gently you carne rapping, 
And so faintly you carne tapping, 
Tapping at my chamber door, 
That I scarce was sure I heard you" — 
Here I opened wide the door — 

Darkness th ere and nothing more. 

5. Deep into that darkness peering, 
Long I stood there wondering, fearing, 

Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal 
Ever dared to dream before ; 
But the silence was unbroken, 
And the stillness gave no token, 
And the only word there spoken 

Was the whispered word " Lenore l" 
This I whispered, and an echo 

Murmured back the word " Lenore !" — 
Merely this and nothing more. 

6. Back into the chamber turning, 
All my soul within me burning, 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 337 

Soon again I heard a tapping, 

Something louder than before. 
" Surely," said I, " surely that is 
Something at my window lattice ; 
Let me see, then, what thereat is, 
And this mystery explore — 
Let my heart be still a moment 

And this mystery explore — 

'Tis the wind and nothing more." 

7. Open here I flung the shutter, 
When, with many a flirt and flutter, 

In there stepped a stately rayen 

Oí the saintly days oí yore. 
Not the least obeisance made he ; 
Not a minute stopped or stayed he 
But, with mien oí lord or lady, 

Perched aboye my chamber door — 
Perched upon a bust of Pallas 

Just above my chamber door — 

Perched, and sat, and nothing more. 

8. Then this ebony bird beguiling 
My sad fancy into smiling, 

By the grave and stern decorum 

Of the countenance it wore, 
" Though thy crest be shorn and shaven, 
Thou," I said, " art sure no craven, 
Ghastly grim and ancient rayen, 

Wandering from the nightly shore — 
Tell me what thy lordly ñame is 

On the night's Plutonian shore !" 

Quoth the rayen, " Nevermore." 
lo 



338 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

9. Much I marvellecl this ungainly 
Fowl to hear discourse so plainly, 
Though its answer little nieaning — 
Little relevancy bore ; 
For we cannot help agreeing 
Tbat no living human being 
Ever yet was bless'd with seeing 

Bird above his chamber door — 
Bird or beast upon the sculptured 

Bust above his chamber door, 

With such ñame as " Nevermore." 



10. But the raven, sitting lonely 

On that placid bust, spoke only 
That one word, as if his soul in 

That one word he did outpour. 
Nothing farther then he uttered — 
Not a feather then he fluttered — 
Till I scarcely more than muttered, 

" Other friends have flown before — 
On the morrow he will leave me, 

As my hopes have flown before." 

Then the bird said " Nevermore. 



11. Startled at the stillness broken 
By reply so aptly spoken, 

" Doubtless," said I, " what it utters 
Is its only stock and store, 
Caught from some unhappy master 
Whom unmerciful disaster 
Followed fast and followed faster 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 339 

Till his solios one burden bore — 

o 

Till the dirges oí his liope that 

Melancholy burden bore 

Of ■ Never — neverinore.' " 

12. But the raven still beguiling 
All my sad soul into smiling, 

Straight I wheeled a cushioned seat in 

Front of bird, and bust, and door ; 
Then, upon the velvet sinking, 
I betook myself to linking 
Fancy unto í&ncj, thinking 

"What tliis ominous bird of yore — 
What this grim, ungainly, ghastly, 

Gaunt, and ominous bird of yore 

Meant in eroaking " Neyermore." 

13. This I sat engaged in guessing, 
Bat no syllable expressing 

To the fowl whose fiery ejes now 

Burned into mybosom's core ; 
This and more I sat divining, 
With my head at ease reclining 
On the cushion's velvet lining 

That the lamplight gloated o'er, 
But whose velvet violet lining 

With the lamplight gloating o'er 

She shall press, ah ! nevermore. 

14. Then, methought, the air grew denser, 
Perfumed from an unseen censer 

Swung by seraphim whose footfalls 
Tinkled on the tufted floor. 



340 LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

" Wretoh," I cried, " thy God hath lent thee— 
By these angels he hath sent thee 
Respite — respite and nepenthe 

From thy memories of Lenore ! 
QuafT, oh quaff this kind nepenthe 

And forget this lost Lenore !" 

Quoth the raven, M Neverrnore." 

15. " Prophet !" said I, " thing of evil !— 
Prophet still, if bird or devil ! — 

"Whether Tempter sent, or whether 

Tempest tossed thee here ashore, 
Desoíate yet all undaunted, 
On this desert land enchanted — 
On this home by horror haunted — 
Tell me truly, I implore — 
Is there — is there balm in Gilead ? — 
Tell me — tell me, I implore !" 

Quoth the raven, " Neverrnore." 

16. " Prophet !" said I, " thing of evil !— 
Prophet still, if bird or devil ! 

By that heaven that bends above us — 
By that God we both adore — 
Tell this soul with sorrow laden 
If, within the distant Aidenn, 
It shall clasp a sainted maiden 

Whom the angels ñame Lenore — 
Clasp a rare and radiant maiden 

Whom the angels ñame Lenore." 

Quoth the raven, " Nevermore. ,> 

17. " Be that word our sign of parting, 
Bird or fiend !" I Bhri^kod, upstarting — 



LECTURAS INGLESAS. 341 

" Get thee back into the tempest 

And the night's Plutonian shore ! 
Leave no black plume as a tokon 
Of that lie thy soul hath spoken ! 
Leave my loneliness unbroken ! — 
Qait the bust above my door ! 
Take thy beak from out my lieart, 

And take thy form from off my door !" 

Quoth the raven, " Nevermore." 

18. And the raven, never flitting, 
Still is sitting, still is sitting 
On the pallid bust of Pallas 

Just above my chamber door ; 
And his eyes have all the seeming 
Of a deinon's that is dreaming, 
And the lamplight o'er him streaming 
Throws his shadow on the floor ; 
And my soul from out that shadow 

That lies floating on the floor 

Shail be lifted — -nevermore ! 



XIV. 

IkPKESSION OF THE HüMAN CoUNTENANCE IN ÜEATH. 

He who hath bent him 385 o'er the dead, 
Ere the first day of death has fled, 
The first dark day of nothingness, 
The last of danger and distress 

385 jji m ^ en iug ar ¿ e Mmsélf, que es la forma reflexiva. 



t'J LECTURAS INGLESAS. 

(Before decay's effacing fingers 
Have swept the lines where beauty lingers), 
And marked the niild angelic air, 
The rapture of repose that's there, 
The fixed yet tender traite fchat streak 
The languor of the placid cheek, 
And — but for that sad, shrouded eye, 
That fires not, wins not, weeps not now, 
And but for that chíll, changeless brow, 
Where cold obstruction's apathy 
Appals the gazing mourner's heart, 
As if to him it could irnpart 
The doom he dreads, yet dwells upon — 
Yes, but for these, and these alone, 
Some moments, ay, one treacherous hour, 
He still might doubt the tyrant's power ; 
So fair, so cal'm, so softly sealed, 
The first, last look by death revealed ! 
So coldly sweet, so deadly fair, 
We start, for soul is wanting there. 
This is the loveliness in death 
That parts not quite with parting breath ; 
But beauty with that féarful bloom, 
That hue which haunts it to the tomb, 
Expression's last receding ray, 
A gilded halo hovering round decay, 
The farewell beatn of feeling pass'd away ! 
Spark of that flame, perchance of heavenly birth, 
"Which gleanis, but warms no more its ckerish'd eartb ! 

Byrom. 

FIN. 



VOCABULARIO. 



VOCABULARIO 

DE 

TODAS LAS VOCES CONTENIDAS EN ESTA OBEA, 

CON LA PRONUNCIACIÓN FIGURADA ENTRE PARÉNTESIS, 

VÉASE EL CAPÍTULO SOBRSi LA PRONUNCIACIÓN 

AL PRINCIPIO DE LA OBRA. 



A (e), tin, una. 

Abandon (abándon), abandonar. 

Abate ( abé t), disminuir, cesar, caer 
(el viento). 

Abbé (abe), abate, presbítero. 

Abhor (abjór), aborrecer. 

Abide (abáid), morar, habitar, que- 
dar. 

Ability (abíiiti), habilidad, capaci- 
dad. 

Able (ebl), capaz, hábil. I am oble 
to do that, yo puedo hacer eso. 

Abode (abód), morada. 

Abolition (abolíchen), abolición. 

Abominable (abóminabl), abomi- 
nable. 

About (jibáut), sobre, acerca de, 
alrededor de, á eso de, como. 

Above (abóv), encima, arriba. 

Abroad (abród), en el extranjero, 
fuera . 

Abruptly (abreptli), de repente. 

Absolute (áhsollut), absoluto. 

Absolutely (ábsollutli), absoluta- 
mente. 

Abstraction (abstrácghen), abstrac- 
ción. 

Absurdity (abserditi), absurdo. 

Abnndance (abéndans), abundan- 
cia. 

Abundant (abendant), abundante. 

Abuse (abiús), abusar de. 

Abyss (abís), abismo. 

Academic (académic), académico. 

Academician (acadeniíchai), aca- 
démico. 

Academy (acádemi), academia. 

Accent (ácsent), acento. 



Accept (acse'pt), acceptar, admitir. 

Acceptance(acséptans), aceptación. 

Accession (acséchen), accesión, ad- 
venimiento. 

Accident ^áesident), accidente, ca- 
sualidad. 

Aceidentally (acsidéntali), acciden- 
talmente. 

Acclamation ( aclame'chen ), acla- 
mación. 

According to (acórding tu), según, 
confoime á. 

Accompany (acómpani), acompa- 
ñar. 

Accomplishment(acóinplichment), 
consumación, prenda. 

Accomplished (acómplÍ9hd), cum- 
plido. 

Accordingly (acórdingli), en con- 
secuencia. 

Accost (acóst), llegarse á, acercarse 
á. 

Account (acóunt), cuenta, relación, 
referencia. 

Accurate (^ákiurat), correcto, cabal, 
atinado. 

Accurately (ákiuratli), exactamen- 
te, con tino. 

Accursed (akérsed), maldito. 

Accuse v akiú.s-), acusar. 

Accustom (aeóstom), acostumbrar, 
acostumbrarse. 

Achieve (achív), lograr, consumar. 

Achievement (uchívment), hazaña, 
acabamienío. 

Acid (asid), ácido. 

Acknowledge (aknóledch), recono- 
cer, confesar. 



346 



VOCABULARIO. 



Acknowledgment ( acnóledch- 
nient\ reconocimiento. 

Acmé (ácme), cumbre, pináculo. 

Acoro (ékoro), bellota. 

Acqoaiot (a< uéot). poner en cono- 
cimiento de, participar á. 

Acquaintance (acue'ntans), conoci- 
miento, conocido. 

Acquire (acuáir), adquirir. 

Acquisition (acuisíchen), adquisi- 
eion. 

Across (acrós\ á través de. 

Act (act), acto, acta. 

Act (.act), obrar, conducirse, ac- 
tuar. 

Action (acechen), acción. 

Active (áctiv), activo. 

Activity (actíviti), actividad. 

Actuality (acebuáliti, (verdadera- 
mente, en efecto. 

Acute (ackiút), agudo, penetrante, 
perspicaz. 

Adam (ádam), Adán. 

Adaman t (ádamant), diamanto. 

Adaptation (adapte'c^hen), adapta- 
ción. 

Add (ad), añadir, agregar. 

Address (adres), presencia, direc- 
ción, discurso, señas. 

Address (adres), dirigirse á, poner 
el sobrescrito, pronunciar un dis- 
curso. 

'i.dherent (adjíreot), allegado, se- 
cuaz, partidario. 

Adjoin (adcbóin), adjuntar, ser in- 
mediato. 

Adjudge (adeht'dch), ají 1 star, com- 
poner. 

Administration (administrecben), 
administración. 

Admirable (ádmirabl), admirable. 

Admirably (ádmirabli), admirable- 
mente. 

Admirer (admáirer), admirador. 

Admiring (admáiring), admirador, 
de admira' ion. 

Admission (admíehen), admisión, 
entrada. 

Admit (¡idmít), admitir. 

Adopt (adópt), adoptar. 

Auoption (adepehen), adopción. 

Aduiiition (adoréchen), adoración. 



Adore (ador), adorar. 

Adoro (adoro), adornar. 

Adulat on (adyuleeben ), adulación. 

Advaoee (adváns), avanzar, ade- 
laotar. 

Ad vanee (fidváns), adelante;, au- 
mento, incremento, propuesta. 

Advancement (advánsment), ade- 
lantamiento. 

Advantage (adváotaeo), ventaja. 

Advantageoosty (advantédchesli), 
ventajosamente. 

Adventitious (adventíebes), adven- 
ticio. 

Adventure (adven chur), aventura, 
lance. 

Advcrsary (ádversari), adversario. 

Adversity (advérsiti), adversidad. 

Advert i.adve'rt), advertir, aludir. 

Advertise ( advertáis ), advertir, 
anunciar. 

Advice (adváis), aviso, consejo. 

Advise (adváis), avisar, aconsejar. 

Aerial (aerial), aero. 

JEschines (esquines), Esquines. 

JEscbylos (éskihis), Esquilo. 

Affable (afable), afable. 

Afíair (aíe'r), negocio, asunto, par- 
ticular. 

Afí'ect (afe'ct), afectar, causar im- 
presión, conmover. 

Aflectation ( afectechen ), afecta- 
ción. 

Añecting (afécting),que conmueva. 

Añection (aféecken), afecto, afec- 
ción. 

Affectionately (afiec(;kenatli), afec- 
tuosamente. 

Aírirm (afírm), afirmar. 

Afrliction (afliceben), afiiecion. 

Afiluence ( áfiuens ), afluencia, 
abundancia, opulencia. 

Aftbrd (afórd), permitirse, tener los 
medios de. 

Affright (afráit), asombro, espanto, 
pavor. 

AftVi^Lt (afráit), horrorizar. 

Alidd (alfid/, en el campo. [Fcw 
poética ] 

Airaid (afréd), temeroso, miedoso. 

África (áfrica), África. 

Aí'rican (aí'rican), africano. 



VOCAEULAEIO. 



347 



After (áfter), después de. 

Aíternoon (afternún), tarde. 

Afterward (áfterword), después. 

Again (agnén), otra vez, de nuevo. 

Against (agnénst), contra. 

Age (edch-, edad. 

Agei.cy (édcliensi), agencia, con- 
ducto, ni t dio. 

Aggrtgate ' v ágreguet), totalidad. 

Aggressor (agrtser), agresor. 

Agítate (adehitét), agitar. 

Ago (agó), hace, há. Two months 
ago, hace dos meses. 

Agony (ágoni), agonía, angustia. 

Agree (agrí), concordar, acordarse, 
avenirse, consentir. 

Agreed (agríd), convenido, de acu- 
erdo. 

Agreeable (agríabl), agradable, afa- 
ble. 

Agreement (agríment), acuerdo, 
convenio, concordia. 

Agriculture (agricólchur), agricul- 
tura. 

Ah ! (a), ¡ ah ! 

Aid (ed), ayuda, auxilio, socorro. 

Aini (eni), blanco, mira, puntería. 

Aim (ein), poner la mira, aspirar, 
tomar puntería. 

Air (er), aire. 

Airy (éri), aéreo, ventilado , gallar- 
do, garboso. 

Aisle (áil>, nave (de una iglesia). 

Ajax (édchacs), Ajax. 

Aiacrity (alácriti), prontitud. Wiík 
alacrity, de buena gana, con ar 
dor. 

Alarm (alárm), alarma. 

Alarm ( alárm ), alarmar, alar- 
marse. 

Álbum (áibem), álbum. 

Alexander ( alecsánder ), Alejan- 
dría. 

Alexandi ine ( alecsándrain ), ale- 
jandro. 

¿Inanibra, Alhambra. 

Alight (aláit), bajar, apearse. 

Alike (eláik), igual, igualmente, 
semejante. 

Alive (aláiv), vivo, viviente. 

AH (o¿), todo, todos, enteramente. 

AUay (alé), ahviar, acallar. 



Allegiance (alídchans), fidelidad, 
pleito, homenage que los ingle- 
ses rinden á su soberano en ca- 
lidad de señor temporal. 

Allegory (áligori), alegoría. 

Alíey (áli). pasadizo, cailejon. 

AUow (aláu), permitir, dejar. 

Allowance (aláuans), parte, ración, 
indulgencia. 

AH-seeing (ólsi-ing), que lo ve 
todo. 

Allude (allúd), aludir. 

Allure (aliúr), atraer. 

Ally (alai), aliado. 

Ally (alai), hacer alianza, alicase. 

Almighty (almáiti), Todopoderoso. 

Almost (ólmost), casi, por poco. 

Aloft (alóle), arriba. To go. aloft, 
subir. 

Alone (e'lon), solo, á solas. 

Along (alóng), con, á lo largo de. 

Aloóf (aiúf), lejos. 

Aloud (aláud), en voz alta. 

Álpine (álpain), alpino. 

Aiready (olrédi), ya. 

Also (ólso), también, asimismo, 
igualmente. 

Alteration (oltei echen), alteración, 
cambio. 

Alternation (alternéchen), alterna- 
ción. 

Altnough (ol'dó), aunque. 

Altogether (oltogué'der), todo, en- 
teramente, en resumidas cuen- 
tas. 

Always (ólues), siempre. 

Am (am), soy, estoy. 

Amaze (ames), asombrar. 

Amber (ámber) ámbar, sucino. 

Ambition (ambícken), ambición. 

Ambitious ( ambícnes), ambicioso. 

America (américú;, América. 

American (américan), americano. 

Amiable (émyabl), amable. 

Amid (amíd), en medio de, entre. 

Amidst (amídst), en medio de, 
entre. 

Among (ameng), entre. 

Amongst (amóngst), entre. 

Amount (amáunt), ascender, im- 
portar. 

Amours (amúrs), amores. 



348 



VOCABULARIO. 



Amphitheatre (arnfizíatr), anfitea- 
tro. 

Ampie (ámpl), amplia 

Auiply (ámpli), ampliamente. 

Amuse (amias), divertir. 

Amusement (amiúsnient). diver- 
sión, recreo. 

Amnsing (amiúsing), divertido. 

Analogous (análogos), análogo. 

Analogy (análodchi), analogía. 

Analysis (análisis), análisis. 

An (an), un, uno. 

Ancestor (áncestor), antepasados, 
mayores. 

Anchorite (áncorit), anacoreta. 

Ancient (éu9hent), antiguo. 

And (and), y. 

Anecdote (ánecdot), ane'cdota. 

Anew (añú), de nuevo. 

Ángel (éodchel), ángel. 

Angelic (andche"lic), angélico. 

Angelina (andchelína), Angelina, 

Angle (angl), ángulo. 

Angry (áDgri), enfadado, enojado. 

Anguish (ánguÍ9h), angustia. 

Animal (animal), animal. 

Animated (ánimeted), animado. 

Animating (ánimaling), animado, 
que anima. 

Annals (ánals), anales. 

Annihilate (anáijilet), aniquilar. 

Announce (anáuns), anunciar. 

Anomaly (anómali), anomalía. 

Another (ane'der), otro. One an- 
other, uno ó otro. 

Anointed (anóinted), untido, un- 
gido. 

Answer (ánser), respuesta, contes- 
tación. 

Answer (ánser), responder, con- 
testar, convenir, cuadrar. 

Ant (ant), hormiga. 

Antagonist (antágonist), antago- 
nista, adversario. 

Anthem (ánzem), antífona. 

Anthony (ántoni), Antonio. 

Antic (ántic), bufonería. 

Anticipation (antisiplchen), anti- 
cipación. 

Antipodea (antípodas), antípodas. 

A-itiquity (antíquiti), antigüedad. 

Anloine (antuón), Antonia. 



Anvil (ánvil), yunque. 

Anxious (áncchls), ansioso, anhe- 
lante. 

Anxiously (áncchesli), ansiosamen- 
te, con ansiedad. 

Any (éui), alguno. I have not 
any, no tengo ninguno. 

Anybody (e'nibodi), alguien, algu- 
no, cualquiera. 

Auything (énizing), algo, alguna 
cosa. They have not anything, 
no tienen nada. 

And dusian (andalúsyun), andaluz. 

Apart (apárt), aparte, sin contar. 

Apartment (apártinenU, habita- 
ción. 

Apathy (ápazi), apatía. 

Appal (apól), espantar, aterrar. 

Appalling (apóling), hórrido. 

Apparatus (aparates), aparato. 

Apparent (ape'rent), aparente, en 
apariencia. 

Apparently (ape'rentli), al parecer. 

Appear (apér), parecer, aparecer. 

Appearance (apírans), apariencia, 
aspecto. 

Appetite (ápetait), apetito. 

Appius (ápius), Apiano. 

Applaud (aplód), aplaudir. 

Applause (apios), aplauso. 

Apple (api), manzana. 

Applicant (áplicant), interesado, 
pretendiente. 

Application (apliqut^hen), aplica- 

ci >11. 

Apply (aplái), aplicar, aplicarse, 
dirigirse. 

Appoint (apóint), nombrar. 

Appreciate (apríohiet), apreciar. 

Apprehension ( aprijtnchen), a- 
prension, recelo. 

Apprehensive (aprehensiva, apre- 
hensivo, receloso, temeroso. 

A.pprentice (apréntis), aprendiz. 

Approach ( aprócli ), acercarse, 
aproximarse. 

Approach (apróch), acción d i acer- 
carse, venida. 

Appropriate (aprópriet), aplicar, 
apropiarse. 

Appioval (aprúval), aprobación, be- 
neplácito. 



VOCABULARIO. 



319 



Approve (aprúv), aprobar. 

April (épril), abril. 

Apt (apt), apto, susceptible de. 

Arabia (arébia), Arabia. 

Arabian (arébian), arábigo. 

Arbaces | árbasis . Arbaces. 

Arbltrarily (árbitrariii), abitraria- 
mente. 

Arbitrary (árbitrari), arbitrario. 

Areh (arch), arco. 

Architect (arquitecto, arquitecto. 

Ardent (árdent), ardiente. 

Ardor (arder), ardor. 

Are (ar), son, están, tienen. 

Arena (arína), arena, palestra. 

Argouautio (argonóíic;, de los ar- 
gonautas. 

Argos (argos,, Argos. 

Argüe (árguiu), argüir, disputar. 

Arguinent (árguiument), argumen- 
to, disputa. 

Ar.se (aráis), levantarse. 

Aristocracy (aristóerasi), aristocra- 
cia. 

Aristophanes (aristófanis), Aristó- 
fanes. 

Aristotle (arístótl), Aristóteles. 

Arithnietic (arízinetic;, aritméti- 
ca. 

Ark (are), arca. 

Arin (arm), armar, armarse. 

Arm (arm), brazo, arma. 

Arm-chair (árincher), sillón. 

Armor (ármorj, armadura. 

Arrnory (ármori), armería. 

Army (ármi), ejército. 

Aroma (aroma), aroma. 

Arrival (aráival), llegada, arribo. 

Arrive (aráiv), llegar. 

Arrow (aro), saeta, ñecha. 

Art (art), arte. 

Art (art), eres, estás. 

Artery (árteri», arteria. 

Article (ártiel), artículo. 

Artífice (ártifis), artificio, artería, 
astucia. 

Artificer (ártifíser), artífice. 

Artificial (artiííehal), artificia 

Arrisan (artigan*, artesano. 

Artist (ártist 1 , artista, pintor. 

Aríless (árties), sencillo, natural, 
sin artiücio. 



As (as), tan como. As much as, 
tanto como. As well as, tan 
bien como. 

Ascend (asénd), ascender, subir. 

Ascertain (aserten), cerciorarse de, 
informarse de. 

Ascribe (ascráib), atribuir, acha- 
car. 

Ash (ach), ceniza. 

Ashamed (achémd), avergonzado. 
To be ashamed, tener vergüenza. 

Ashore (achór), en tierra, á tierra. 

Asia (e'sya), Asia. 

Aside (asáid), aparte, para sí. 

Ask (ask), pedir, preguntar, 

Asleep (aslíp), dormido. 

Assassin (asásin), asesino. 

Assemble (asémbl), juntar, reunir, 
juntarse. 

Assembly ( asémbli ), asamblea, 
reunión. 

Assent (ásent), asentimiento. 

Assenter ( asenter ), el que con- 
siente. 

Assentiug (ase'nting), el que con- 
siente. 

Assert (asért), afirmar. 

Assiduity (asiduíti), asiduidad. 

Assiduous (asídiuos), asiduo. 

Assign (asáin), asignar, señalar. 

Assist (asíst), asistir, ayudar, so- 
correr. 

Assistance (asístans), asistencia, 
ayuda. 

Assistant (asístant), asistente, ayu- 
dante. 

Assizes (asáises), tribunal de cau- 
sas civiles y criminales. 

Associate (asóghiet), asociar, aso- 
ciarse, acompañar. 

Associate (asóghiet), socio, com- 
pañero. 

Association (asosieguen), Fociedad. 

Assume (asiúm), tomar, tomarse, 
arrogarse. 

Assurance (achúrans), seguridad. 

Assure (aghúr), asegurar. 
I Astonish (astónich), dejar atónito, 
pasmar. 

Astonishment (astónichment), a- 
sombro, sorpresa. 

Astrology (astrólodchi), astrología. 



350 



VOCABÜLAEIO. 



Astronomy (astrónomi), astrono- 
mía. 

Asylum (asáilorn), asilo. 

At (at), á, en. At once, de una 
vez. 

Ate (t*t), comió, etc. Imp. del 
verbo. To eafc 

Athenian (azíñan), ateniense. 

Athens (ázens), Atenas. 

Atlantic (atlántic), Alántico. 

Atmospliere (átmosfir), atmósfera. 

Atmospherical (atmosférica!), at- 
mosférico. 

Atom (átom), átomo. 

Attach (atách), unir, adjuntar, 
nombrar. 

Attachment (atácliment), cariño, 
apego, adhesión. 

Attack (atác), atacar. 

Attack (atác, ataque. 

Attain (aten), conseguir, lograr, 
alcanzar. 

Attempt (ate'mpt), ensayar, aten- 
tar, probar. 

Attend (ate'nd), atender, poner 
atención, servir. 

Attendant (atendant), sirviente, 
criado. 

Attention (atenchen), atención. 

Attentive (aténtiv), atento. 

Attest (ate'st), atestiguar, certificar. 

Attitude (átitiud), atitud. 

Aítorney (aterni), apoderado. 

Attract (atráct), atraer. 

Attraction (atrácchen), atracción, 
atractivo. 

Auburn (óbern), rubio. 

Augean ( aodchían ), lo pertene- 
ciente á Angeo, rey de Elis. 

Auglit (ot), algo, alguna cosa. 

Aagment ( ogmént ), aumentar, 
aumentarse. 

Augur (óguer), agorero. 

A igur (óguer), augurar, formar 
juicio de lo que puede ó debo ser. 

August (óguest), agosto. 

August (ogu¿st), augusto. 
istus (ogóstes), Augusto. 

Auut (ant), fia. 

Austerity (aostériti), austeridad. 

Authentíc (oze'ntic),, autentico. 

Autlíor (ózor), autor. 



Autbority ( ozóriti ), autoridad, 
autorización. 

Autumn (ótem), otoño. 

Avail (avel), utilidad, provecho. 

Avail (avél), producir efecto. To 
avail oue's self of, aprovechar de. 

A varice (á varis), avaricia. 

Avaricious (avaríches), avr.ro. 

Avaunt (avónt), fuera ! Le'jos de 
aquí ! Quítateme de delante. 

Aversión (avérchen), aversión. 

Avoid (avóid), evitar. 

Await (auét\ aguardar. 

Awake (aue'k), dispertar, desper- 
tarse. 

Awaken (a-ue'quen\ dispertar. 

Award (auórdj, adjudicar, decre- 
tar. 

Aware (aue'r), al corriente de, pre- 
venido. 

Away (e-ue'), lejos. To go away, 
irse. 

A've (áo), terror. 

Awe (áo), amedrentar. 

Awlul (ói'ul), espantoso. 

Awhile (ejuáil), un poco. 

Awkward (ócuord), torpe, lerdo, 
desmañado. 

Axe (acs), hacha. 

Ay (ai), sí, vaya que sí ! 

Aye ! (ái), ay ! 

Azores (a.sór.s, Azores. 

B. 

Babble (babl\ charlar, parlotear. 

Babbler ( bábler ), charcharero, 
charlante. 

Babe (beb), niño, rapaz. (Voz 
poética. ) 

Babel (bébel\ Babel. 

Babylon (bábilon), Babilonia. 

Bacchanahan (bacán él i an), baca- 
nal. 

Bade (bad), imp. de To bid. 

Back (bac), espalda. 

Back (bac), atra^, detrás. I 

h ick mu book, vuéivema mi 
libro. To back out, retroceder. 

Backward (bacuard), hacia airas, 
tímido. 



VOCABULARIO. 



351 



Bad ihadVmalo, mal. 

Ba <H p ( baíl ) , chasquear , frustrar. 

Jj;\grp:age (bágadch), equipage. 

lyaggéd (bagd), ú/ip. y part pas. 
de 7o boa. 

3'vait (bet •, atraer ó entretener con 
promesas. 

Balance (bálans\ balanza. 

Balance (bálansa balancear ■ 

Balcony (báleoni), balcón. 

Bald (boid,) calvo. 

Ball (bol), bola, pelota. 

Band (band), banda, orquesta, 
música. 

Bandied (bándid), imp, y parí 
pas. de Tú band y. 

Bandy (bándi), zambo. 

Bandv (bándi). contender, disen- 
tir.' 

Banish (bánieh), desterrar, ex- 
peler. 

Banished (bánichd), imp. y part 
pas. de To banish. 

Banishment (bánichment), des- 
tierro. 

Bank (bañe), orilla. 

Bankrupt (báncrepta, quebrado, 
fallido. 

Banner (báner), bandera. 

Banquet (báncuet), banquete. 

Bar (bar), barra, tranca, foro. 

Barbarism (bárbarism), barbaris- 
mo, barbarie. 

Barbarously (bárbaro-Sli), bárbara- 
. mente. 

Bard (bard). bardo, poeta. 

B.iretbot (be'rfut), descalzo. 

Barefooíed (beríuted^, descalzo. 

Bargain (bárguen), contrato, con- 
venio, ganga. 

Bark (bard, ladrar. 

Barley (bárli > , cebada. 

Barrel-organ (bárel órgaii), órgano ; 
de Berbería. 

Barren í^báren), estéril. 

Barrier (bárier\ barrera, obsta- i 
culo. 

Base (bes), ba^e. 

Baseness (be'snes), bajeza. 

Basis (bésis), base. 

Basket (básquet), canasto, cesto. 

Bastille (bastíl), Bastilla. 



Bath (baz\ baño. 

Bathe (bé'd), bañar, bañarse. 

Bitíle (batel 1 , batalla. 

Battle-axe ( báti-acs ), hacha de 
armas. 

Batílement ( bátlment ), almena, 
muralla almenada. 

Bay (be), bahía. 

Be (bi), ser, estar. 

Beach (bich\ playa. 

Beaeon (be'cons hacer señas. 

Beak (bík). pico. 

Beam (bim ), viga, balancín, rayo. 

Beam (bim), emiter rayos, brillar. 

Bean (bin), haba. 

Bear (ber), oso. 

Bear (ber), llevar, aguantar, so- 
portar. 

Beard (bird), barba. 

Bearer (be'rer), portador, soporte, 
el que lleva. 

Bearing (béring), soporte, porte. 

Beast (bíst), bestia, animal. 

Beat (bit), pegar ; ganar ; golpear. 

Be ten (bítn\ part. pas. de To 
b<üL 

Baating (bitanga, zurra. 

Beautiful ( biútíful ), hermoso, 
bello, lindo. 

Beautiruliy (biútifuli). lindamente. 

B.'auty (biúti), hermosura, beldad. 

Beaver (bíver), castor. 

Beeause (bicós ;■, porque, á causa 
de. 

Becanie (bikém), part. pas. de To 
become. 

Beconie (bikém), llegar á ser, vol- 
verse. 

Beeomiug (bikéming), decoroso ; 
propio ; conveniente. 

Bed v bed v , cama. 

Beclouin (bédúin\ beduino. 

Bedehamber (bédehember), alco- 
ba, cuarto de dormir. 

Bedroom ( be'drum }, cuarto de 
dormir, dormitorio. 

Bee fbi% abeja, 

Beech-tree ^bíchtri\ haya. 

Beef (bif), carne de vaca. 

Beehive (bíjaiv), colmena. 

Been (bin), part. pas. del verbo 
to be. 



352 



VOCABULARIO. 



Beer (bir), cerveza. 

Beetle (bitl), escarabajo ; pisón. 

Before (bifór), antes, delante de. 

Befoveliand (beíórjand), de ante- 
mano. 

Beg (beg\ mendigar, suplicar. 

Began (bigán), imp. de Tobegin. 

Beget (biguét', engendrar. 

Beggar (bégar), mendigo. 

Beggar (bégar), emprobrecer ; ex- 
ceder. 

Beggary (be'gari), mendicidad. 

Beginning (biguíning), principio, 
comienzo. 

Beguile (bigáil), engañar. 

Begun (bigón), parí. pas. de To 
begin. 

Bella vior (bijévior), conducía. 

Bebeld (bije'ld), imp. y part. pas. 
de To behold, 

Behind (bijáind), detras de, atrás. 

Behold (bijóld), mirar, ver. 

Behold (bijóld), he' aquí, he' ahí. 

Being (bíing), siendo, estando. 
Part pas. del verbo To be. 

Being (bíing), se'r ; existencia. 

Belie (bilái), fingir ; desmentir. 

Belief (bilíf ), creencia. 

Believe (bdív), creer. 

Bell (bel), campana. 

Bellow (be'lo), bramar, vociferar . 
mugir. 

Belong (bilóng), pertenecer. 

Beloved (bilóved), amado ; que- 
rido. 

Below (biló\ debajo de ; abajo. 

Beneath (beníz), debajo de. 

Bench (bench), banco ; tribunal. 

Bend (bend), encorvar ; plegar ; 
tender. 

Benefactor ( benefactor ), bien- 
hechor. 

Benefactress (benefáctres), bien- 
hechora. 

Beneficent (benefisant), benéfico. 

Benefit (bénefit), beneficio, pro- 
vecho. 

Beneficial (benefíchel\ provechoso. 

Benevolence (benévolens), benevo- 
lencia. 

Benevolent ( bene'volent ), bené- 
volo. 



Bent (bent), imp. y part. pas. de 
to bend. 

Bequeathe (bicuí'd), legar ó donar 
en testamento. 

Berry (béri), baya. 

Berth (berz), lugar, puesto ; litera. 

Beset (bisét), acosar, perseguir. 

Beseech (bisích), suplicar. 

Beside (bisáid), al lado de. 

Be ides (bisáids), ademas, ademas 
de. 

Bespangle ( bispángl ), matizar. 

Best (best), el mejor. 

Bestir (bistér), removerse; ponerse 
en movimiento. 

Bestow (bistó), conferir ; regalar. 

Betake (biték), recurrir ; aplica 

Betoken (bitóken), indicar ; presa- 
giar. 

Betray (bitré), traicionar, revelar. 

Better (béter), mejor. 

Betty (béti), Celita. 

Betrothed (íntrózd), desposado. 

Between (bituín), entre. 

Bewail (biuél), lamentar, deplorar. 

Beware (biuér) cuidado con. 

Bewilder (biuílder), descaminar, 
entontecer. 

Beyond (biyónd), mas allá de. 

Bible (báibl), biblia. 

Bid (bid\ mandar ; ofrecer. 

Bicker (bíquer), reñir, disputar. 

Bidding (bíding), orden, manda- 
miento. • 

Bier (bir), andas, féretro. 

Big (big), grande, grueso. 

Bigotry (bígotri), fanatismo. 

Bile (báil),' bilis. 

Bill (bil), cuenta. 

Billet (bílet), esquela ; boleta. 

Billow (bílo) ola, aleada. 

Bind (báind), ceñir, atar, ribetear, 
precisar. 

Bird (berd), ave, pájaro. 

Birth (berz), naciniiento. 

Birthright (berzrait), j^inrogcni- 
tura. 

Bit (bit) pedazo. 

Bite (báit), morder. 

Bitterly (bítarli), amargamente. 

Bitterness (bíternee), amargura. 

Black (blao), negro. 



VOCABULARIO. 



353 



Blackamoor (blácamor), negro, 
Africano. 

Blackness (blácnes), negrura. 

Blame (blem) culpar, vituperar. 

Blasphemy (blásfemi), blasfemia. 

Bla^t (blast), marchitar. 

Blast (blast) soplo. 

Blaze (bles), echar llamas. 

Blazing (blésing), relumbrante ; 
que echa llamas. 

Bleak (blik), triste, sombrío. 

Bleed (blid), sangrar. 

Blemish (bíe'rnich), mancha, de- 
fecto. 

Blend (blend), mezclar. 

Bless (bles), bendecir. 

Blessed (blésed), bendito ; bende- 
cido. 

Blessing ( blésing ), bendición ; 
favor del cielo. 

Blew (blu), imp. de To blow. 

Blind (bláind), ciego. 

Blind (bláind) persiana. 

Blind (bláind) cegar. 

Bloated (blóted), hinchado ; en- 
greído. 

Block (bloc), zoquete ; tajo ; tro- 
zo. 

Block (bloc), bloquear. 

Blockhead (blóc-jed), tonto. 

Blood (blod), sangre. 

Blood-hound ( blódjaund ), sa- 
bueso. 

Blood-red ( blódred ), sanguíneo 
(rojo subido). 

Bloody-minded ( blódimáinded ), 
sanguinario. 

.Bloody (blódi), sangriento ; en- 
sangrentado, 

Bloom (blum), florescencia, flora- 
ción. 

Blooming (blúming), con flores ; 
floreciente. 

Blossom ( blósom ), flor de los 
árboles. 

Blot (blot), borrón ; mancha. 

Blow (blo), soplar ; brotar (las 
flores). 

Blow (blo), golpe. 

Bine (blu\ azul. 

Blue (blu), lo que es azul. 

Elunder (blend er), disparate, error. 



Blunderbuss ( blónderbus ), tra- 
buco. 

Blun dering (blendering), dispara- 
tado ; disparatero. 

Blush (blech), ruborizarse, abo- 
chornarse. 

Blustering (blestering), tempes- 
tuoso ; tumultuoso. 

Boar (bor), marrano ; jabalí. 

Board (bord), tabla, mesa, manu- 
tención, junta. 

Boarder (bórder), hue'sped ; co- 
mensal. 

Boarding-school ( bórding-scul ), 
escuela de pupilage. 

Boast ( bost ), jactancia ; vana- 
gloria. 

Boast (bost), jactarse. 

Boasted (bósted), imp. y parí pas. 
de To boast. 

Boat (bot), bote, barquichuelo. 

Bodily (bódili), corporalinente. 

Body (bódi), cuerpo. 

Boiler (boiler), caldera. 

Bold (bold), osado. 

Boldness (bóldnes), osadía. 

Bolt (bolt), tranca ; cerrojo : rayo. 

Bondage (bóndedch), cautiverio, 
esclavitud. 

Bone (bon), hueso. 

Bonnet (bónet), bonete ; gorra. 

Bonneted (bóneted), con bonete. 

Book (buk), libro. 

Book-case (búkes), armario para 
libros. 

Boor (bur), patán ; villano. 

Bore (bor), imp. de To bear. 

Born (born), nacido. 

Borne (bóorn\ part. pas. de To 
bear. 

Border (bórder), guarnecer, ribe- 
tear ; confinar. 

Bore (bor), imp. de To bear. 

Borough (boro), villa. 

Borrow (boro), emprestar. 

Bosom (bósom), seno. 

Both (boz), ambos, uno y otro. 

Bottle (bótel), botella. 

Bottom (bótom), fondo. 

Bough, (báu), rama (de árbol). 

Bought (bot), imp. y part. pas. de 
To buy. 



35 1 



VOCABULARIO. 



B and (báund), deslindar, rodear, 

cubrir. Y part. pos. del verbo 

To bind. 
Bound (báund), brinco, salto. 
Bound (báund), brincar, saltar, 

resaltar. 
Bound (báund), imp. y part pos. 

de To bind. 
Boundless (báundles), sin límite. 
Bounty (báunti), bondad. 
Bow (báu), i diñarse, agacharse, 

hacer una reverencia. 
Bow (bó), arco; v báu), reverencia, 

cortesía ; proa. 
Bower (báuer), glorieta, morada 

retirada. 
Bowl (bol), taza. 
Box (bocs), cajón ; boj. 
Boy (bói), muchacho. 
Bracelet (breMet), brazalete. 
Brain (bren), cerebro. 
Brake (bree), helech d. 
Brake (bree), imp. anticuado de 

To hreak. 
Bramóle (brambl), zarza. 
Branch (branich), rama, ramo. 
Brandish (brándich), blandir. 
Breve (brev), bravo, valeroso. 
Bravely (brévli), bravamente. 
Bread (bred), pan. 
Breadth (bredz), anchura. 
Bieaker (bréquer), oleada; cachón. 
Breakfast (brécíast), almuerzo. 
Breast(brest), acometer deírente ; 

afrentar. 
Breast (brest), seno, pecho. 
Breath (brez), aliento, resuello. 
Beathe (bri'd) respirar, resollar. 
Breathless (bre'zles), sin aliento ; 

ansioso. 
Bred (bred), part. pas. del verbo 

To breed, criar. 
Breeches (biíche.s*), calzas. 
Breed (brid), criar. 
Breed (brid 1 , cria ; raza. 
Breediüg (bríding), part. pres, de 

To breed. Crianza. 
Breeze ( bi ís) t brisa. 

y (brísi), con brisa. 
Brethren (bré'dien), hermanos. 

(E-; voz bíblica). 
Brevity (brtíviti), brevedad. 



Brjw (bra), hacer cerveza ; urdir, 
tramar. 

Brewer (bníer), cervecero. 

Bribe (bráib), corromper, sobor- 
nar. 

Brick (bric), ladrillo. 

Bride (bráid), novia, esposa. 

] ri Ige (brideh), puente. 

liridle (bráidel), freno, brida. 

Briefly (brífly), brevemente. 

Bright (bráit), brillante, splendo- 
roso. 

Brighten (bráiten), aclarar ; des- 
pejar ; poner brillante. 

Brightening ( bráitening ), part. 
pres. de, To brighten . 

Brightness (bráitness), brillantez. 

Brilliant (bríllant), brillante. 

Brilliantly (bríllantli), brillante- 
mente. 

Brimming (bríming), rebozante. 

Bring (bring), traer, llevar. To 
bring about, lograr, conseguir. 

Brink (brinc), borde, orilla. 

Brisk (brise), vivo, vivaracho. 

Britain (brítan), Bretaña. 

Brittle (brítel), rompedizo. 

Broad (brod), ancho. 

Brocade (broquéd), brocado. 

Broke (broc), imp. del verbo To 
break. 

Brood (brud), cria. 

Brook (bruk), arroyo. 

Broth (broz), caldo. 

Brother (bró'der), hermano. 

Brotherhood ( bró'der-jud ), her- 
mandad ; fraternidad. 

Brought (brot), part pas. del verbo 
lo bring. 

Brow (bráu), frente. 

Brown (bráun), moreno. 

Brunt (brunt), choque ; lo mas 
violento de alguna cosa. 

Brush (brec.li), acepillar. 

Brushwood (brechuod), maleza. 

Brute (biut 1 , bruto ; bestia. * 

Brutas (Brútes), Bruto. 

Bubole (bebí), burbujear. 

Babbling (U'bling), part pres. de 
To bubble. 

Buckle (b¿kel), hebillar ; agarrar. 

Bud (bed), pimpollo. 



VOCABULARIO. 



Bnd (bed), brotar los botones de 
los árboles. 

Budüjet (bedehet), saco talego. 

l3níMo (bótalo), bisonte. 

Build (bildi. construir. 

Building (bílding), ediñcio. 

Built (bilt), parí pas. é imp. del 
verbo To build. 

Bulk (belk), {amaño ; bulto ; volu- 
men. 

B iradle (béndel), bulto, fardo. 

Buoyaiicy (buóyansi), ñuctuacion ; 
el.i ticidad de ánimo. 

Burden (berden), carga ; fardo. 

Barden (berden), agobiar, opri. 
mir. 

Buried (be'rid), imp. jpari. pas. de 
To bury, enterrar. 

Burn (bern), quemar. 

Burnish (bérnich), bruñir. 

Burro w (boro), madriguera. 

Burst (berst), estallido. 

Burst (berst), estallar, reventar. 
To burst oíd, prorumpir. 

Buske] (búehel), fanega. 

Btishman (búchman), 

Business (bísnes), negocio ; nego- 
cios. 

Bust (best), busto. 

Bustle (béstel), bullir ; menearse 
continuamente. 

Busy (bísi), ocupado. 

But (bet), pero, sino. I have but 
one, no tengo mas que uno. 

Buy (bái), comprar. 

Buyer (báier), comprador. 

By (bái). por, cerca de. By and 
by, luego. 

c. 

Cabin (cábiri), camarote. 

Cabinet (cábmet), gabinete. 

Cadenee (quedens), cadencia. 

Caesar (sisar), Cesar. 

Calamity (calamity), calamidad. 

Calcula tion (callviule'chen^ cálculo. 

Caleulator (cállduletor), calculador. 

Calí' (caf ) pantorrilla. 

Cali (col x -, voz, llamada ; visita. 

Cali (col), llamar ; visitar. 



Calm (cam\ calma. 

Calmness (cámaes), calma. 

Calmly (cámli), con calma. 

Callous (cales), endurecido, insen- 
sible. 

Calumniator (calemnietor), calum- 
niador. 

Calumny (cálemni), calumnia. 

Carne (kem), imp. de To come. 

Camel (cámel), camello. 

Camp (camp), campo. 

Canadá (cañada), Canadá. 

Canadian (canédian), canadense. 

Cancel (cánsel), cancelar. 

Candidate (cándidet), candidato. 

Candor (candor), candor. 

Candle (candi), vela (de sebo). 

Candle-light (cándl-láit), luz de 
vela ; la tarde. 

Can (can), pres. de To be able. 

Cannibal (cánibal), antropófago. 

Cannot (cánot), neqative de Can. 

Canoe (canú), canoa. 

Canopy (cánopi), dosel. 

Canvass (cánvas), cañamazo. 

Cap (cap), cachucha ; gorro. 

Capable (que'pabl), capaz. 

Capacity (eapásiti), capacidad. 

Caper (que'per), cabriola, cabriolar. 

Capital (capital), capital. 

Copper (cóper), cobre. 

Carpetee! (cárpeted), alfombrado. 

Caprice (caprís), capricho. 

Captain (eápten), capitán. 

Captive (cáptiv), cautivo. 

Captivity (captíviti), cautiverio. 

Capture (cápehur), captura. 

Carbunele (cárbuncl), carbúnculo. 

Carcasa (carcas), cuerpo muerto ; 
cadáver. 

Care (ker •, cuidado. 

Career (car ir), carrera. 

Careering (caríring), el que corre. 

Careful (kérful), cuidadoso. 

Careless (ke'rles), descuidado. 

Card-table (cárd-tebl), mesa pe- 
queña, como para jugar á ios 
naipes. 
| Caress (care's), caricia, halago. 
| Caressing), el que acaricia ; hala- 
güeño. 
! Careth (ke'rez), 3 a pers. sing del 



356 



VOCABULARIO. 



pres. de indicativo de To care. 
(Pertenece esta forma al estilo bí- 
bli( o ; lo corriente es cares. ) 

Cargo (cargo), carga, cargamento. 

Carnage (cárnadch), carnicería. 

Caronsal (caráusal), festin, franca- 
chela ; jarana. 

Carping (cárping), capcioso, por- 
fiado. 

Cítrried (cárid), imp. y part. pas. 
de To carry. 

Carrot (cárot), zanahoria. 

Cart (cart), carro ; carreta. 

Carthage (cárzadch), cartago. 

Carthagenian (carzadchínian), car- 
taginés. 

Carve (carv), esculpir. 

Carry (cari), llevar. 

Catastrophe ( catástrofi ), catás- 
trofe ; desgracia. 

Cascade (casquéd), cascada. 

Case (kes), caja, cajón ; caso. 

Cast (cast), modelo ; casta ; fiso- 
nom ía. 

Cast (cast), lanzar, arrojar. 

Castanet (cástanet), castañeta. 

Castle (cásel), castillo. 

Casual (cásyual), casual, fortuito. 

Cat (cat), gato. 

Cataract (cátaract), catarata. 

Gatch (cach), trampa, pega; gancho. 

Catch (cach), atrapar, coger ; en- 
ganchar. 

C atholic (cázolic), católico. 

Catiline (cátilain), Catilina. 

Cat-like (cát-laik), semejante al 
gato. 

Cittle (catl), ganado. 

Caught (cot), imp. y part. pas. de 
To catch. 

Cause (eos), causa. 

Cause (eos), causar. 

Cautious (coches), cauto. 

Cautiously (cóehesli), cautamente. 

C ivalcada (cávalqued) cabalgata. 

C ivalier (cavalír), caballero. 

C ive (kev), caverna. 

Civern (cávern), caverna. 

C ivity (cáviti), cavidad. 

Cease (sis), cesar. 

Cecrops (sicrops), Ce'crope. 

Cedar-tree (sídar trí), cedro. 



Celébrate (sélibret), celebrar. 

Celebrated ( séhbreted ) , célebre. 
Imp. y part. pas. de To celébrate. 

Celestial (siléschal), celeste. 

Celestials (siléschals), astros, 

Cell (sel), celdilla, célula. 

Cement (simént), cimento, arga- 
masa. 

Cemetery (se'meteri), cimenterio. 

Censer (se'nser), incensario. 

Censure, (séncher), censura. 

Center, Véase centke. 

Central (séntral), central. 

Centre (se'nter), centrar ; cifrar ; 
fijar. 

Centre (se'nter), centro. 

Century (sénchuri), centuria; siglo. 

Circle (sérquel), círculo. 

Ceremonious (serimónius), ceremo- 
nial ; ceremonioso. 

Ceremony (se'rimoni), ceremonia. 

Certain (se'rtan), cierto. 

Certainly (sértanli), ciertamente. 

Certainty (sértanti), certibuinbre ; 
certeza. 

Certifícate (sertífiquet), certificado. 

Chagrin (chagrín), desazonar ; de- 
sazonarse. 

Chain (chen), cadena. 

Chair (cher), silla. 

Chaise (9hes), silla de posta ; silla 
volante. 

Challenge (chálendeh). dasafío. 

Challenge (chálendeh). desafiar. 

Challenger (chálendeher), desafia- 
dor. 

Chamber (chember), cámara ¡ cuar- 
to. 

Chameleon (camíhon), camaleón. 

Champion (champion), campeón. 

Chance (chans), suerte; casualidad; 
acaso. 

Chance (chans), por ventura. (Apó- 
cope de Perchance. ) 

Change (chendeh), cambio : vuelta. 

Cbauge (chendeh), cambia 

Changeless, (chéndchles), inmuta- 
ble, constante. 

Chaos (que'os), caos. 

Chapel (chápel), capilla. 

Character (carácter), carácter; suer- 
te ; reputación. 



VOCABULARIO. 



357- 



Charade (chare'd), charada. 

Charge (chardch), cargo ; coste ; 
mandato ; carga. 

Charge (chardch), cargar ; encar- 
gar ; pedir ; mandar. 

Chariot (cháriot), carro ; carro mi- 
litar ; coche. 

Charity (cháriti), caridad. 

Charles (charles), Carlos. 

Charm (charra), encanto ; hechizo ; 
gracia. 

Charm (charm), encantar ; m hechi- 
zar. 

Charmingly (chármingli), de un 
modo que encanta. 

Chase (ches), caza ; perseguimien- 
to. 

Chase (ches), cazar ; perseguir. 

Chasm (casm), abismo. 

Chaste (chest), casto ; castizo. 

Chat (chat), plática. 

Chatter (chatter), parlotear ; cotor- 
rear. 

Cheat (chit), engañar ; estafar ; ha- 
cer fullerías en el juego. 

Cheat (chit), engaño; droga; fraude. 

Cheating (chíting), fraude. Part. 
pres. de To cheat. 

Checkered (che'kerd), taraceado ; 
lleno de vicisitudes. 

Cheap (chip), barato. 

Check (chec), refrenar ; detener ; 
regañar. 

Cheek (chik), mejilla. 

Cheer (chir), buena mesa ; alegría ; 
víctor ; viva. 

Cheer (chir), alegrar ; victorear. 

Cheerful (chírful), alegre, jovial. 

Cheerfully (chírfuly), alegremente ; 
gustoso. 

Cneerfulness (chírfulnes), alegría ; 
jovialidad. 

Chemistry (que'mistri), química. 

Cherish (chéi^h), querer ; prote- 
ger. 

Cherished (che'ricjid), querido: pro- 
tegido. 

Cherry (che'ri), cereza. 

Chessboard (chésbord), tablero. 

Chest (chest), pecho ; arca. 

Chid (chid), imp. de To chide, re- 
prender, regañar. 



Chief (chif ), jefe ; principal. 

Chiefly (chífli), principalmente. 

Chief tain (chíftan\ jete. 

Child (cháild^, niño. 

Children (chíldren), niños. (Plural 
de child.) 

Chill <ch.il ), fresco ; frió. 

Chilling (chíling), part. pres. de 
To chill, enfriar, helar. 

Chime (cháim), repique de campa- 
nas ; harmonía. 

Chimerical (caime'rical), quimérico. 

Chimera (caimíra), quimera. 

Chimney (chímni), chimenea. 

Chin (chin), barba. 

Chinese (chainís), chino ; chinesco. 

Choice (chóis), elección. Escogi- 
do ;. exquisito. 

Choicest (chóisest). (Superlativo de 
choice. ) 

Choleric (cóleric), colérico. 

Choose (chus), escoger ; querer. 

Chop (chop), chuleta ; tajada. 

Chord (cord), cuerda. 

Chorus (córus), coro ; estribillo. 

Chosen (chósen), part. pas. de To 
choose. 

Christ (cráist), Cristo. 

Christian (críschan), Cristiano. 

Christian (críschan), cristiano. 

Christianity (crischiániti), cristia- 
nismo. 

Christopher (crístofer), Cristóbal. 

Ohurch (cherch), iglesia. 

Churchyard (cherehyard), cemen- 
terio. 

Cicero (sisero), Cicerón. 

Cipher (sáifer), cero. 

Circuit (sírkiut), circuito. 

Circumference (sirkemferens), cir- 
cunferencia. 

Circumnavigation (sírkemnavigué- 
9hen), circumnavigacion. 

Circumscribe (sírkemscráib), cir- 
cunscribir. 

Circumstance (sírkemstans), cir- 
cunstancia. 

Citrón (sítron\ citrón. 

City (síti), ciudad. 

Civil (sívil), civil. 

Civilization (sivilaise'9hen), civili- 
zación. 



358 



VOCABULARIO. 



Civilize (sívilais), civilizar. 

Ciad (ciad), part. ¡jas. anticuado 
de To clothe. 

Claim (clem), roclamacion, preten- 
sión. 

Claim (clem\ reclamar, pretender. 

Ciaimant (clément), pretendiente. 

Clamber (clámber), trepar, subir. 

Clamor (clamor), clamor. 

Cían (clan), tribu, casta. 

Clang (clang), rechino ; ruido. 

Clap (clap), pegar ; palmo tear. 

Clapping (clápping), palmoteo. 

Clarion (clérion), clarin. 

Clasp (clasp), abarcar, abrazar. 

Class (cías), clase. 

Olass (cías), clasificar. 

Classmate (clásmet), condiscípulo. 

Ciatter (cláter), charla ; bulla ; tra- 
pisonada. 

Ciaw (cío), garra. 

Ciay (ele'), barro. 

Claymore (clémor), sable grande. 

Cleanse (clen.s), limpiar, purificar. 

Clear (clír), pasar mas allá de ; des- 
embarazar ; dejar expedito ; cla- 
rificar, to clear up, aclararse el 
tiempo. 

Clear (clir), claro. 

Clearly (clírli), claramente. 

Cieave (ciiv), hender ; adherirse. 

Cleft (cleft), parí. pas. deTo cieave. 
Hendidura. 

Clerk (el ere), escribano cartulario ; 
dependiente. 

Ciew (cliú), quia. 

Ciiff(clif), peñasco. 

Ciimate (cláimat), clima. 

Climb (cláim), trepar. 

Clinie (cláim), clima. Es voz poé- 
tica. 

Cling (cling), pegarse, adherirse. 

Clip (clip), trasquilar. 

Cloak (clok), capa. 

Ciock (cloc), reloj. 

Ciock-work (clóc-uore), máquina 
de reloj. 

Cióse (clos), cerrado, apretado : cal- 
lado. 

Cióse (clos), fin, terminación, re- 
mate. 

Cióse (clo.s"), cerrar, remata-. 



Glose (clos\ estrechamente, con 
ahinco ; junto. 

Closely (clósli), íntimamente. 

Ciosing (clósing), final. 

Closet (cló-vet), gabinete ; armario. 

Clothe (cíó'd), vestir. 

Clothes (clo*\ ropa. 

Clothing (c]ó'ding\ ropa. Part. 
pres. de To clothe. 

Cloud (cláud), nube. 

Cloudless (cláudles), sin nubes ; 
claro. t 

Cloudy (cláudi), nublado. 

Cíown (cláun), payaso ; majadero ; 
patán. 

Clump (clpmp), bulto ; trozo. 

Clumsy (clémsi), zafio, torpe, des- 
mañado. 

Cluster (clister), racimo ; tropel ; 
grupo. 

Clutch (clech), agarrar. 

Coach (coch), coche. 

Coal (col), carbón. 

Coast (cost), cosía. 

Coat (cot), casaca, levita ; capa. 

Cobweb (cóbueb), telaraña. 

Cock (coc), gallo ; el macho dj las 
aves ; llave. 

Coin (cóin), moneda. 

Cold (cold), frió. 

Coldly (cóldli), friamente. 

Coldness (cóldnes), frialdad. 

Colic (cólic), cólico. 

Collate (colét), comparar, cotejar. 

Collect (cole'ct), cobrar ; reunir. 

Collection (colécclim), colección, 
cobro ; reunión. 

Collectively (colectivli), colectiva- 
mente. 

Collector (colector), recaudador. 

College (cóledeh), colegio. 

Collegiate (colfdchiet), colegiado. 

Collision ( colisión ) , colisión ; 
choque. 

Colloquial (colócuial), familiar : lo 
perteneciente á la conversa ion. 

Colonnade (colonéd), columnata. 

Colony (cóloni), colonia. 

Color (cóler), color. 

Color (c(hr\ colorear. 

Colossal (colosal), colosal. 
Colour (cóler). Véast color. 



VOCABULARIO. 



359 



Columbus (colémbes), Colon (Cris- 
tóbal). 

Coiumn (cólnm), columna. 

Colt (colt), potro. 

Combat (combat), combatir. 

Combat (combat), combate. 

Combatant (cómbatant), comba- 
tiente. 

Combina tion (combine'chen), com- 
binación. 

Combine (combáin), combinar. 

Come (kem), venir. To come back, 
volver. To come in, entrar. To 
come up, subir. 

Comet (cómet), cometa. 

Comfort (kémí'ort), confortar, con- 
solar. 

Comfort (kemfort), confortación, 
consuelo. 

Comfortable (kémfortabel), agrada- 
ble, dulce. 

Comforter (kemforter), consolador. 

Comfortless (kémfortles), sin con- 
suelo ; incómodo. 

Command (cománd), mandato. 

Command (cománd), mandar. 

Commander (cománder), coman- 
dante. 

Commanding (cománding), magis- 
tral. 

Commence (coméns), comenzar. 

Commencement (comensnient), co- 
mienzo, principio. 

Commend (coménd), encomendar, 
alabar. 

Commerce (coméis), comercio. 

Comminution (comiñúcnen), pul- 
verización, división. 

Commission (coinícken), comisión. 

Commit (comít), aprender ; confiar. 

Common (comen), 

Common (comen), común. 

Commons (cómens), (cámara de 
los) comunes (en Inglaterra'. 

Commodious (comódies), cómodo. 

Commonplace (cómeuples), común. 

Commonwealth (cómenuelz), re- 
pública. 

Communicate (cómiúniket), conra 
niear. 

Commune (comiún), conversar, 
conferir. 



Community (comiúniti), comuni- 
dad. 

Oompanion (compáñen), compa- 
ñero, cantarada. 

Companionless (compáñenles), so- 
litario. 

Companionsnip (compáñenckip), 
compañía. 

Com para tively (compárativli), com- 
parativamente. 

Compare (cumpe'r), comparar. 

Comparison (compárison), com- 
paración. 

Compass (kempas), compás : brú- 
jula. 

Compassion (compágken), com- 
pasión. 

Compassionate ( compáchenat ), 
compasivo. 

Compassionate ( conipackeiiét ), 
compadecer. 

Compel (compel), compeler, pre- 
cisar. 

Competent (cómpetent), compe- 
tente. 

Competition (competíghen), com- 
pete ucia. 

Competitor (compe'titor), compe- 
tidor. 

Compile (compáil), compilar. 

ComplaGence (cómplastínsj, com- 
placencia. 

Complana (comple'n), quejarse. 

Coiuplaint (complént), queja. 

Complaisance (cómplasens;, com- 
placencia. 

Complaisant (cómplasent), com- 
placiente. 

Cúmplete (complít), completo. 

Complete (complít), completar. 

Completely (complítli), completa- 
mente. 

Jomplicated (cómpliqueted), com- 
plicado. 

Compiication ( compHque'chen ), 
complicación. 

Oomplimeut ^cómpliment), cum- 
plimiento. 

Oompliment (complime'nt), dar la . 
enhorabuena. 

Compíimentary (compliméntari), 
obsequioso. 



360 



VOCABULARIO. 



Compose (compós), componer. 
Coinposed (cornoósd), compuesto ; 

sosegado. 
Composedly (compóscdU), sosega- 
damente. 

Composition (composíchen), com- 
posición. 

Compound ( cómpaund ), com- 
puesto. 

Comprehend (comprijénd), com- 
prender. 

Coniprehension (comprejé^hen), 
comprensión. 

Compress (compre's), comprimir. 

Comprensión (coropre'cheu), com- 
presión. 

Comprehensive ( compreje'nsiv ), 
comprensivo. 

Conceal (consíl), esconder, ocultar. 

Conceit (consít), imaginación ; en- 
greimiento. 

Conceited (consíted), engreido. 

Conceivable (consívabel), concebi- 
ble. 

Conceive (consív), concebir 

Concentrated (cónsentrated), con- 
centrado. 

Conception (consép9hen), con- 
cepto ; concepciou. 

Concjrn (consérn), concernir. 

Conceming ( consérning ), con- 
cerniente. 

Concert (conse'rt), concertar. 

Concert (cónsert), concierto. 

Conciseness (consáisnes), conci- 
sión. 

Conclude (concliúd), concluir. 

Conclusión (concliú.vyen), conclu- 
sión. 

Concourse (cóncors). concurso. 

Condemn (condém), condenar. 

Condensation (condense'9ken), con- 
densación. 

Condescend (condise'nd), condes- 
cender. 

Condition (condi^hen), condición. 

Cóndor (cónder). cóndor. 

Conduce ^condiús), conducir ; ten- 
der. 

Couduct (condéct), conducir. 

Conduct (cóndect), conducta. 

Conductor (cond¿eter), conductor. 



Confederacy (conféderasi), con- 
federación. 
Confer (confér\ conferir. 
Confesa (conles), coufesar. 
Oonüdence (cóntidens). confianza. 
Gonridential (confide^kel), reser- 
vado. 
Confidently (cónfidentli), con segu- 
ridad. 
Configuration (configuiure^ken), 

configuración, forma. 
Confine (cónfain), confin. 
Confinement (coufáinment), pri- 
sión. 
Confirm (confírm), confirmar. 
Confirmed (confírmd), endurecido. 
Conflagra tion (conflagre^hen), con- 
flagración. 
Conform (confórm), conformar. 
Conformed (coníbrmd), imp. y pc.rt. 

pas. de To conform. 
Cónfound (confáund), confundir. 
Coníbunded (coníáunded), imp. y 

part. pas. de To cónfound. 
Confusión (confiúsyen), confusión. 
Congratúlate (congráchulet), con- 
gratulación ; felicitación. 
Comic (cómic), cómico. 
Coujecture (condchécckur), conje- 
tura. 
Conjure (condchúr), conjurar. 
Connect (conéct), unir, juntar, en- 
lazar. 
Connection (cone'cchen), conexión^ 

unión, enlace. 
Conquer (cónker), conquistar. 
Conqueror (cónkeror), conquista- 
do'. 
Conquest (cóncuest), conquista. 
Conscience (ccn^hens), conciencia. 
Conseious (coques), sabedor. 
Consciousness (cóncnesuesj, segur- 
idad ; convicción íntima. 
Consécrate (consicret), consagrar. 
Consent (consént), consentimiento. 
Consequence (cónsicuens), conse- 
cuencia. 
Consequently (cónsicuentli), consi- 
guientemente. 
Conservative (conservativa, conser- 
vador. 
Consider (consíder), considerar. 



VOCABULARIO. 



361 



Considerable (consí derabel), consi- 
derable. 

Consideration (considere'ciien), con- 
sideración. 

Consist (consist), consistir. 

Consistency (consístenci), conse- 
cuencia. 

Consistent (consístent), conse- 
cuente. 

Consistently (oonsístentli), conse- 
cuentemente. 

Consolation (consoléchen), con- 
suelo. 

Consj)icuous (conspíkiuos), visible. 

Constance (cónstans), Constancia 
(Lago). 

Constancy (cónstansi), constancia. 

Constant (cónstant), constante. 

Constantly (cónstantli), constante- 
mente. 

Constellation (constelé9hen), cons- 
telación. 

Consternaron (consterne9hen), 
consternación. 

Constituent (constítiuent), consti- 
tutivo ; constituyente. 

Constitute (cónstitiut\ constituir. 

Constitution (constitiÚ9hen), cons- 
titución. 

Construct (constr^ct), construir. 

Cónsul (cónsul), cónsul. 

Consult (consúlt), consultar. 

Consume (consiúm), consumir. 

Consummate (consumét), consu- 
mar. 

Consummate (consemet), consu- 
mado. 

Consumption (consensúen), con- 
sumo. 

Contain (conte'n), contener. 

Contagión (conte'dchen), contagio. 

Contémplate (conte'mplet), con- 
templar. 

Contemplation (contemple'9hen) , 
contemplación. 

Contemporary (conte'mporari), con- 
temporáneo. 

Contempt (conte'mt), desprecio. 

Contemp tibie (contémtibel), des- 
preciable. 

Contemptuously (conte'mtiuosli) , 
desdeñosamente. 



¡Contend (conténd), contender. 
Oontent (contént), contento. 

Contented (conténted), conteüto. 
Contentedly (conténtedli), conten- 
tamente. ' 
Contest (cóntest), contienda ; con- 
testación. 

Contest (conte'st), contestar ; con- 
tender. 

Coutiguous (contíguiuos), conti- 
guo. 

Continent (cóntinent), continente. 

Continual (contíñual), continuo. 

Continually (continúan), de con- 
tinuo. 

Continuance (contíñuans), con- 
tinuación ; permanencia. 

Continué (contíñu), 

Contortion (contornen), contor- 
sión. 

Contra-dance (cóntradans), contra- 
danza. 

Contract (contráct), contratar. 

Contradict (contradíct), contrade- 
cir. 

Contradiction (contradi C9hen), con- 
tradicción. 

Contradictory (contradíctori), con- 
tradictorio. 

Contrast (contrast), contrastar. 

Contrast (contrast), contraste. 

Gontrary (cóntrari), contrario. 

Contribute (contríbiut), contribuir. 

Contribution (contribiú^hen), con- 
tribución. 

Contrivance (contráivans>, idea ; 
plan. 

Contrive (contráiv) imaginar. 

Control (control), freno ; poder. 

Control (control), gobernar ; re- 
primir. 

Controversy (cóntroversi), contro- 
versia. 

Convene (convín), convocar. 

Convenience (convíñans), cómodo. 

Convent (cónvent), convento. 

Conversan t (convérsant), versado. 

Conversation (converse'9ñen), con- 
versación. 

Converse (conve'rs), conversar. 

Converted (couvérted), convertir. 

Cónvey (conve'i), conducir, llegar. 



362 



VOCABULARIO. 



Conviction (convienen), convic- 
ción. 

Convince (convíns), convencer. 

Convulsed (convelsd), en convul- 
siones. 

Cook (cuk), cocinero, cocinera. 

Cool (cul), fresco. 

Cool (cul), enfriar ; refrescar. 

Cooling (cúling), refrescante. 

Coolness, (cuines), fresco; frescura. 

Coot (cut), negreta. 

Copiousuess (cópiesnes), abundan- 
cia ; profusión. 

Copse (cops), soto ; tallar. 

Copy (cópi), copia. 

Coquette (coquét), coqueta. 

Corn (corn), granos ; maíz. 

Córner (córner), esquina ; rincón ; 
ángulo. 

Cornered (córnerd), arrinconado. 
Imp. y part. pas. de To córner, 
acosarle á uno. 

Cornish (córnich), lo perteneciente 
al país de Cornualla. 

Correct (coréct), correcto. 

Correct (coréct), corregir. 

Correctly (core'ctli), correctamente. 

Correspond (corespónd), corres- 
ponder. 

Correspondence ( corespóndens ), 
correspondencia. 

Correspondent ( corespóndent ), 
corresponsal. 

Corrupt (corépt), corromper. 

Corrupt (corépt), corrompido. 

Corruption ( coiepchen ), corrup- 
ción. 

Corsé ( cors ), cadáver. Es voz 
poe'tica: en prosa se dice corpse. 

Corsica (córsica), Córcega. 

Cost (cost), coste. 

Cost (cost), costar. 

Costly (cóstli), costoso. 

Cottage (cótadch), casita ; choza. 

Cottager (cótadeher), aldeano. 

Cotton (cótn), algodón. 

Couch (cáuch), lecho. 

Couched (cáuchd), acostado ; con- 
cebido. 

Could (cud), imp. de ind y de sub- 
jun. de To be able, poder. 

Council(cáunsel), concilio ; consejo. 



Counsel (cáunsel), abogado ; con- 
sejo. 

Counsellor (cáunselor), consejero ; 
abogado. 

Courage (ke'radch), valor. 

Count (cáunt), contar. 

Countless (cáuntles), sin número. 

Countenance (cáuntinans;, permi- 
tir ; proteger. 

Countenance (cáuntinans), sem- 
blante ; protección. 

Counting-house ( cáunting-jáus ), 
escritorio. 

Country (kéntri^, país ; campo. 

Countryman (kentriman), campe- 
sino. 

County (cáunti), condado. 

Couple (képel), par. 

Couplet (keplet), copla. 

Court (cort), corte; tribunal. 

Court (cort), cortejar; solicitar. 

Courtier (córtier), corte-ano. 

Course (cors), curso. Oí course, 
por de contado. 

Courses (corsés), papahígos. 

Courteous (corches), cortés. 

Courtship (córtchip), corte; cor- 
tejo. 

Courtesy (córtesi), cortesía. 

Cousin (kesin), primo. 

Customary (késtomari), de cos- 
tumbre. 

Cove (cov), ensenada. 

Covenant (cóvinant), convención; 
testamento. 

Cover (cóver), cubrir. 

Cover (cóver), cubierta; tapa; ta- 
padera. 

Cover t (cóvert), refugio. Cubierto. 

Covetous (cóvetes), cudicioso. 

Cow (cáu), vaca. 

Coward (cáuard), cobarde. 

Cowed (cáud), acobardado. Imp. 
y part. pas. de To cow. 

Crack (crac), hendedura; rendija; 
grieta; chasquido. 

Oradle (credel), cuna. 

Crane (eren), grúa. 

Crash (oíach), estallar. 

Craving (oréving), parí. pres. de 
To crave, suplicar. 

Crawl (crol), arrastrarse. 



VOCABULARIO. 



363 



Crazed (cresd), abobado. Imp. y 
parí. p r is. de To craze. 

Créate (criét), crear. 

Oe.ition (crie'chen). creación. 

Creator (crie'fc<>r), creador. 

Creature (crícher), criatura. 

Creani-coloured (crímkélerd), coloi- 
de crema. 

Creed (crid), credo; creencia. 

Credit (crédit), cre'dito. 

Creditor (créditor), acreedor. 

Creep (crip), arrastrar. 

Crept (crept), imp, y parí. pas. de 
To creep. 

Crescent (cre'sent), creciente. 

Crest (crest), cresta. 

Crested (cre'sted), encopetado. 

Crew (cru), tripulación. 

Crier (cráier), pregonero. 

Crime (cráini), crimen. 

Criminal (criminal), criminal. 

Crimson (crímsen), teñir de car- 
mesí. 

Crimson (crinasen), carmesí. 

Cringe (crindch), adular con ba- 
jeza. 

Crisis (cráisis), crisis. 

Criterion (craitírion), criterio. 

Critic (crític), crítico. 

Criticism (crítisism>, crítica. 

Crook (cruc), gancho; garfio. 

Crooked(crúked), corvo encorvado. 

Crop (crop), buche; cosecha 

Cross ( cros ), atravesar; contra- 
riar. 

Crouch (cráuch), adular con baje- 
za; agacharse. 

Crowd (cráud), turba; gentío. 

Crowd (cráud), amontonar; api- 
ñarse. 

Crown (cráun), corona. 

Crucible (crúsibel), crisol. 

Crude (crud), crudo; imperfecto. 

Cruelty (crúelti), crueldad. 

Crush (creen), apretar; oprimir. 

Crust (crest), costra ; corteza. 

Crutch (crech), muleta. 

Cry (crái), llorar; gritar. 

Cry (crái), grito. 

Crystal (cristal), cristal. 

Crystallization ( cris taláis e'chen ), 
cristalización. 



Cub (keb\ cachorro, hijuelo. 

Cube (kiúb>, cubo. 

Cae (kiú), apunte; taco. 

Cultívate (ke'lfivat), cultivar. 

Oultivation (keltive'chen), cultivo. 

Culture (kélchur), cultura; culti- 
vo. 

Cumbsr ( kernber ), embarazar; 
obi-truir. 

CunLiag (kéning\ astuto. 

Cunning (kening), astucia. 

Cup (kep), copa. 

Cúrate (kiúrat), cura. 

Cure (kiúr), curar; sanar. 

Curious (kiúries), curioso. 

Curiosity (kuriódti). curiosidad. 

Current (kerent), corriente. 

Curry (ke'ri), cierta pimienta de la 
India. 

Curse (kers), maldición; anatema. 

Curtain (kérten), cortina. 

Curtained (kértend), provisto de 
cortinas. 

Curve (kerv), curba. 

Curve (kerv), encorvar. 

Cushion (cuchen), cojín. 

Cushioned (cúchend), encojinado. 

Custom (kestom), costumbre; sa- 
lida; derecho de aduana. 

Custom er (kestomer), marchante. 

Cut (ket), cortar. 

Cutlet (ke'tlet), costilla. 

Cycloid (sáicloid), cicloide. 

Czar (sar), zar. 

D. 

Daguerreotype (dague'rotaip), da- 
guerreotipo. 

Daily (deli), diariamente. 

Daily (déli), diario. 

Dainty (dénti), delicado; melindro- 
so. 

Dam (dam), madre (dícese de los 
animales). Dique. 

Damage (dámadeh), daño. 

Damage (dámadeh), dañar. 

Damascus (damáskes), Damasco. 

Damp (damp), húmedo. 

Damsel (dámsel), doncella. 

Danaüs (dánaes), Danao. 



364 



VOCABULARIO. 



Dmce (dans\ bailar. 

D.mger (de'ndcher), peligro. 

Dangerous (de'ndcheres), peligro- 
so. 

Diniel (dáñel\ Daniel. 

D.irdanelles (dardanel.s-), Dardane- 
los. 

Daré (der), osar, atreverse ; desa- 
fiar. 

D iring (de'ring), osadía. 

Daring (déring), osado. 

Darías (daráies), Darío. 

Dark (dark), oscuridad. 

Dark (dark), oscuro. 

Darkened (dárkend), oscurecido. 

Darkness (dárknes), oscuridad. 

Dash (dach), choque ; arrojo ; em- 
bate 

Dash (dach), arrojar ; bazucar ; 
estrellar ; echar con furia. 

Dashing (daching), arrojo ; em- 
bate. 

Date (det), fechar. 

Daughter (dóter), hija. 

Dauntless (dóntíes), indómito. 

Dawn (don), alba. 

Day (de), dia. 

Daytime (détaim), de dia ; dia. 

Dazzle (dásel), deslumbrar. 

Jazzling (dásling), deslumbrador. 

Dazzlingly (dá.9lingli), 

Dart (dart), dardo. 

Dart (dart), lanzar ; volar (á ma- 
nera de saeta). 

Dcad (ded), muerto ; muertos ; di- 
funto. 

Dead (ded\ muerto. 

Deadly ( de'dii ), mortal ; mortí- 
fero. 

Deafening (défning), que asorda. 

Deal (dil), cantidad. A great deal, 
mucho. 

Deal (dil), distribuir ; traficar ; tra- 
tar ; dar (á los naipes). 

Dealing (díling), tráfico ; trato. 

Dear (dir), caro, querido. Dear 
me. Dios mió. 

Dearly (dírli), caramente ; tierna- 
mente. 

Deith (dez), muerte. 

Death-like (dézlaik), cadavérico. 

Debate (dibe't), debatir. 



Debt (det), deuda. 

D3cay (dique'), decaemiento. 

D¿cay (dique), decae 1 '. 

Djceased (desísl), difunto. 

Djceive (disív), engañar. 

Deceitful (disítful), engañoso. 

December (disémber), diciembre. 

Decemvir (disémvér), decemviro. 

Decency (dísensi), decencia. 

Decent (dísent), decente. 

Deception (dise'pchen^, engaño. 

Decide (disáid), decidir. 

Decidedly (dibáidedli), decidida- 
mente. 

Decipher (disáifer), descifrar. 

Decisión (disísyon), decisión. 

Dacisive (disísiv), decisivo. 

Deck (dec), cubierta. 

Deck (dec), ataviar. 

Declaration (deelar echen), declara- 
ción. 

Declare (diclér), declarar. 

Declaim (diclem), declamar. 

Decline (dicláin), decadencia. 

Decline (decláin ), menguar ; de- 
clinar ; rehusar. 

Decorated (decore'ted\ adornado. 

Decoration (decore'chen), decora- 
ción ; ornato. 

Decorum (decórem), decoro. 

Decoy (dicói), atraer ; embaucar. 

Decrepitude (dicrépitud), decrepi- 
tud. 

Deed (did), acción ; título. 

Deem (dim), j izgar ; suponer. 

Deep (dip), profundo. 

Deep (dip), oce'ano. 

Deeply ( dípli ), profundamente ; 
hondamente. 

Deer (dir), cierva 

Defaulíer (diiólter), el que falta ; 
delincuente. 

Defeat (difít), derrota. 

Defect (diféct), defecro. 

Defence (difens), defensa. 

Defend (difénd), defender. 

Djference (déferens), deferencia. 

Defiance (detáians"), desalío ; reto. 

Defieieney ( defísiensi ), deúeieu- 
cia ; falta. 

Déficit (defisit), déficit 

Detíle (difáil), desfiladero. 



VOCABULARIO. 



365 



D afile (difáil), violar ; viciar ; cor- 
romper. 

Define (difáin), definir. 

Deforinity ( difórmiti ), deformi- 
dad. 

Deí'raud (difród), defraudar. 

Defy (difái), desafiar ; retar. 

Degrade (digre'd), degradar. 

Degraded (dio;re'ded), degradado. 

Degree (digrí), grado. 

Deity (díiti), deidad. 

Delibérate (dilíberat), circunspec- 
to ; cauto. 

reliberately (dilíberatli), con cir- 
cunspección. 

Delibera tion (deliber e'chen), deli- 
beración. 

Delicacy (de'licasi), delicadeza. 

Delicate (de'licat), delicado. 

Delicately (délicatli), delicada- 
mente. 

Djücíous (delíches), -delicioso. 

Deiiciously (delíchesli), deliciosa- 
mente. 

Delight (diláit), deleitar. 

Delighted (diláited), contento ; sa- 
tisfecho. 

Delightful (diláitful), delicioso. 

Delinquent ( dílíncuent ), delin- 
cuente. 

Deliver (dilíver), pronunciar. 

Dcliverance (dilívrans), libramien- 
to. 

Delude (dillúd), engañar ; embau- 
car. 

Daluge (délludch), diluvio. 

Delusion (dellú.vyon), ilusión. 

Damagogue (démagog), demagogo. 

Damand (dimánd), ruego ; peti- 
ción. 

Demeanor ( dimíner ), conducta ; 
porte. 

Damoii (dímon), demonio. 

Demónstrate ( déaionstret ), de- 
monstrar. 

Demonstraron ( demonstrechen ), 
demostración. 

Demosthenes ( demószenís ), De- 
móstenes. 

Den (den), guarida. 

Denial (dináial), denegación ; ne- 
gativa. 



Denouncer (dináunser), denuncia- 
dor. 

Dense (dens), denso. 

Deny (denái), negar. 

Depart (dipárt\ partir. 

Department (dipártment), depar- 
tamiento. 

Departure (dipárcliur), partida. 

Dc-pend (dipe'nd), depender. 

Dependence (dipe'ndeus), depen- 
dencia. 

Dependent ( dipe'ndent ), depen- 
diente. 

Depict (dipíct), pintar ; retratar. 

Deplore (diplór), deplorar. 

Deportment (dipórtnient), porte ; 
conducta. 

Depose (dipós), deponer. 

Depraved (dipre'vd), depravado. 

Dapression ( dipr e'chen ), depre- 
sión. 

Deprive (dipráiv), privar. 

Depth (depz), profundidad. 

Dapury (dépiuti), diputado. 

Deranged (dirénchd), loco, ena- 
genado . 

Darivation ( derivéchen ), deriva- 
ción. 

Derive (diráiv), derivar ; obtener. 

Darision (dirísyon), irrisión. 

Dervis (dérvis), dervís. 

Descend (disénd), descender ; ba- 
jar. 

Descendant ( dise'ndant ), descen- 
diente. 

Descent (dise'nt), descenso. * 

Describe (discráib), describir. 

Description (discrípchen), descrip- 
ción. 

Desert (desert), desierto. 

Desert (dise'rt), merecimiento. 

Desert (dise'rt), desertar. 

Deserve (dise'rv), merecer. 

Design (disáin), designio ; mira ; 
intención. 

Desire (disáir), desear. 

Dasíre (disáir), deseo. 

Desirous (disáires), deseoso. 

Desoíate (désolet), desolado. 

Desolation ( desoie'chen ), desola- 
ción. 

Despair (despér), desesperación. 



366 



VOCABULARIO. 



Despair (despé")> desesperar. 
Despairing (despéringj, desespe- 
ra lo. 
Daspatch (despách), despacho. 

Despatch (despách), despachar. 
Desp iraté (désperet), desesperado ; 

furioso. 

Desperation (desperéghen). deses- 
p ¿ración ; furia. 

Despise (despái.9), despreciar. 

Despondeacy (despóadensi), desa- 
liento ; desmayo. 

Despotic (despótic), despótico. 

Despotisin (de'spotism), desr^otis- 
mo. 

Despot (de'spot), déspota. 

Destination (destine^hen), destina- 
ción ; destino. 

Distine (desfain), destinar. 

Destiny (de'stini), destino ; sino. 

Destitute (de'stichut), falto, despro- 
visto ; desamparado. 

Destroy (destrói), destruir. 

Destruction (distr¿c9hen), destruc- 
ción. 

Destructive (distrectiv), destruc- 
tivo. 

Detail (dítel), detalle ; pormenor. 

Detail (ditél), detallar. 

Detain (diíe'n), detener. 

Deteet (dite'ct), descubrir. 

Detection (ditéc9hen), descubri- 
miento. 

Deter (dite'r), impedir. 

Determine (ditémiin), determinar. 

Detestable (ditéstabel), detestable. 

Detract (ditráct), detractar; menos- 
cabar. 

Detractor (ditractor), detractor. 

Devastation (divastéchen), devasta- 
ción. 

Development (divélopment), desar- 
rollo. 

Device (diváis), ardid ; invención ; 
expediente. 

Devil (devil), diablo. 

Devoid (divo id), falto ; vacío. 

Devote (divót), dedicar, consa- 
grar. 

Devotion (divóchen), devoción. 

Devour (diváur), devorar. 

Dew (diú), rocío. 



Dewy (diúi), rociado ; semejante á 
rocío. 

rity (decstériti), destrefca. 
D «terOus (dé isteres), di< - 

Dexterously (décsteresli), di< 
mente. 

Diadem (dáiadém), diadema. 

Diagram (dáiagram), diagrama. 

Dial-plate (dáiai-piet), maestra de 
reloj. 

Dialect (dáialect), dialecto. 

Diamond (dáimond), diamante. 

Dice (dais), dados. (El juego de 
este nombre). Plural de die. 

Díctate (díctet), sugestión ; dicta- 
do ; consejo. 

Díctate (dictét), dictar. 

Diction (dicchen), dicción. 

Dictionary (díc9henary), diccio- 
nario. 

Did (did), imp. de To do, hacer. 
( Véase el Preceptor Ingles, página 
55.) 

Die (dái), morir. 

Diet (dáiat dieta ; comida. 

Dieth (dáiez), pres. de ind. de To 
die. Lo corriente es dies. 

Diíference (díferens), diferencia. 

Difíerent (díferent), diferente. 

Difficulty (dítikelti), dificultad 

Diñ'use (difiáv), difundir. 

Diffusion (dinúsyon), difusión. 

Dig (dig), cavar, azadonar. 

Digging (díguing), trabajo con 
azadón. 

Digest (daidehést), digerir. 

Dignify (dígnifai). dignificar. 

Dignitary (dígnitari), dignidad. 

Dihgence (díUdchens), diligencia. 

Diligent (dílidchent), diligente. 

Diligently (dílidehenth), diligente- 
mente. 

Dimensión (daiménchen), dimen- 
sión. 

Dimly (dímli), oscuramente. 

Diminish (dimínich), disminuir. 

Diñe (dain), comer. 

Dinner (díner), comida. 

Dining-room (dáining-rum), come- 
dor. 

Dip (dip\ zampuzar. 

Diré (dáir), horrendo. 



VOCABÜLAKIO. 



367 



Direct (dairéct), directo. 

Direct (dairéct), dirigir. 

Diréctíon (dairécchen), dirección. 

Directly (daire'ctü), directamente ; 
en seguida. 

Dirge (derdch), endecha. 

Díri (dert), porquería ; basura. 

Dirty (dérti), sucio. 

Disable (disébel), inhabilitar. 

Disadvantage (disadvántadch), des- 
ventaja. 

Disagree (disagrí), desconvenir ; 
desavenirse. 

Disagreeable (disagríabel), desagra- 
dable. 

Disappear (disapír), desaparecer. 

Disappearance (disapírans), desa- 
parición. 

Disappoint (disapóint), chasquear ; 
frustrar. 

Disaster (disáster), desastre. 

Discern (disern), discernir, distin- 
guir. 

Discharge (dischárdch), descarga ; 
descargo. 

Discharge (dischárdch), descargar. 

Discipline (dísiplin), disciplina. 

Disclose (disclós), descubrir, reve- 
lar. 

Discolor (diskeler), descolorar. 

Discomfort (diskemfort), desaso- 
siego ; desconsuelo. 

Disco Qcerted (disconse'rted), des- 
concertado. 

Disconnect (disconéct), desunir. 

Disconsolate (discónsolat), incon- 
solable. 

Discontent (disconte'nt), descon- 
tento, sinsabor. 

Discontented (disconte'nted), des- 
contento. 

Discontinué (discontíñu), descon- 
tinuar. 

Discourage (diskéradch), desalen- 
tar. 

Dlscourse (discórs), discurso. 

Discover (diskévpr), descubrir. 

Diácoverer (diskéverer), descubri- 
dor. 

Discovery (diske'veri), descubri- 
miento. 

Discretion (discre'chen), discreción. 



Discussion (diskechen), discusión. 

Discuss (diskés), disentir. 

Disdain (disde'ü), desdeñar. 

Disdainful (disde'nful), desdeñoso. 

Disdainfully (disdénfuü), desdeño- 
samente. 

Disease (disís), enfermedad. 

Disengage (disenguédch), desocu- 
par. 

Disgrace (disgre's), deshonra. 

Disgraceful (disgrésful), vergoñoso 
deshonroso. 

Disguise (disgáis), disfraz. 

Disgust (disguest,) disgusto. 

Disgust (disguést), disgustar ; dar 
asco. 

Dish (dich), fuente ; manjar. 

Dishonest (disónest), deshonesto ; 
falto de probidad. 

Dishonesty (disónesti), deshonesti- 
dad ; falta de probidad. 

Dishonor (dísóner), deshonra. 

Disinherit (disinje'rit), desheredar. 

Disjoin (disdchóin), desunir. 

Dismay (disme'), desmayo ; es- 
panto. 

Dismount (dismáunt), desmontar; 
apearse. 

Disobedience (disobídiens), deso- 
bediencia. 

Disobey (disobé), desobedecer. 

Dispel (dispel), disipar. 

Dispensation (dispense'chen), dis- 
pensación. 

Disperse (dispe'rs), dispersar. 

Display (disple'), desplegar ; mani- 
festar. 

Display ( disple' ), ostentación ; 
manifestación. 

Disposal (dispósaD, disposición. 

Dispose (dispós), disponer. 

Disposed (dispósd), dispuesto. 

Disposition (despusíchen), dispo- 
sición ; genio. 

Dispute (dispiút), disputa. 

Dispute (dispiúfc), disputar. 

Disquietude ( discuáietiud ), in- 
quietud. 

Dissembled (dise'mbled), imp y 
parí. pas. de To dissemble, 
disimular. 

Dissent (dise'nt), disensión. 



368 



VOCABULARIO. 



Dissimulation ( disimiule'chen ), 
disimulación. 

Dissipate (dísipet), disipar. 

Dissipated ( dísipeted ), disipado ; 
relajado. 

D¡sso«ition (disollúchen), disolu- 
ción. 

Disregard (disregárd), desatención. 

Distan* (díst.if), rueca. 

Distance (dístans), distancia. 

Distance (dístans), dejar atrás. 

Distant (dístant), distante. 

Distemper (diste'mper), enferme- 
dad, mal. 

Distil (distíl), destilar. 

Distinct (distínct), distinto. 

Distinction ( distíncí^hen ), dis- 
tinción. 

Distinctly ( distínctli ), distinta- 
mente. 

Distinguish ( dístingüich ), dis- 
tinguir. 

Distinguishable (distíngiiÍ9habel), 
notable. 

Distinguished (distíngüichd), dis- 
tinguido. Imp. y part. pns. de 
To distinguish. 

Distracted (distrácted), enloque- 
cido. 

Distress (distre's), congoja, apuro ; 
última miseria. 

Distressing (distrésing), congojo- 
so ; apurado. 

Distribute (distríbiut), distribuir ; 
repartir. 

Distrust (distrest), desconafinza ; 
recelo. 

Disturb (disterb), inquietar ; per- 
turbar. 

Disturbance ( distérbans ), dis- 
turbio ; alboroto. 

Dive (dáiv), zabullirse, bucear ; 
profundizar. 

Divert (daivért), divertir ; desviar. 

Diversity (daiversiñ), diversificar. 

Diversity (daiv¿rs¡ti), diversidad 

Divide (diváid), dividir ; partir. 

Divine (d'váin), adivinar. 

Divine (diváin), divino. 

División (diví.vyon), división. 

Divorce (divórs), divorcio. 

Docile (dósail), dócil. 



Doctrine (dóctrin), doctrina. 

Doctor (dócter), doctor, médico. 

Dodecagon (dodécagon), dodecá- 
gono. 

Dog (dog), perro. * 

Dole (dol) repartir mezquina- 
mente. 

Dollar (dólar), peso. 

Domestic (domestic), doméstico. 

Domestic (dome'stic), criado, bir- 
viente. 

Domination (domine'chen), domi- 
nación, imperio. 

Dominion (dominen), dominio. 

Done (den), part. pus. de To do, 
hacer. 

Do (du), hacer. ( Véase el Preceptor 
Inglés, página 55 ) 

Doom (dúm), sentencia; suerte. 

Doom (dam), condenar. 

Door (dor), puerta. 

Dotard (dótard), chocho, caduco. 

Doubtful (dáutful). udoso. 

Double (d¿*bel), doble. 

Doubt (dáut), duda. ' 

Doubtless ( dáutles ), indudable ; 
sin duda. 

Dovetail (dé"vtel\ cola de pato. 

Dove-tail (dévtel), ensamblar. 

Oown (dáun), abajo. 

Drachma (dracma), dracma: cierta 
moneda de pinta eutre los griegos. 

Drag (drag), arrastrar. 

Drain (dren), desaguar, agotar. 

Drama (drama), drama. 

Dramatist (drámatist), autor dra- 
mático. 

Drank (dranc), imp. de To drink, 
beber. 

Draught (draft), trago. 

Draw up (dró ¿p), extender ; 
ordenar ; tirar hacia arriba. 

Drawer (dróer), girante. 

Drawing (drólng), part. pres. de 
To draw, tirar, girar. 

Drawing-ro >m (droing-rxim), 6ala. 
Dread (dred^ horror" -o. 

Dread (dred), temer. 
Dreadvul (dréded), temido. 
Dreadfill (drédful), horroroso. 
Dreadl'ully ( drédfóli ), horrorosa' 
mente. 



VOCABULARIO. 



369 



Dream (drim), sueño ; ensueño. 

Dream (driiu), soñ.ir. 

Dreamily (drímíli), absorto. 

Dieacb (drench), empapar. 

Dreary (dríri), triste. 

Drew (dru), imp. de To draw, 
tirar. 

Dried (dráid), imp. de To dry, 
sacar. 

Dríft (drift), objeto (de un dis- 
curso). 

Drift (drift), deribar. 

Drink (drink), bebida. 

Diink (drink), beber. 

Drinking (drínking), beber. 

Drive (dráiv), impeler, empujar ; 
gobernar ; ir en cocae. 

Driver (dráiver), arriero ; cochero ; 
carretero. 

Dromedary (drómedari), drome- 
dario. 

Droning (dróning), haraganería. 

Drooping (drúping), lánguida, 
abatido. 

Drop (drop), dejar caer ; gotear. 

Drop (drop), gota. 

Drought (dráut), seca. 

Drown (dráua), anegar, anegarse. 

Drowsily ( dráusili ), soñolienta- 
mente. 

Drowsy (dráusi), soñohento, ador- 
mecido. 

Drudgery (dredcheri), faena ; tra- 
bajo vil. 

Drug (dreg), droga. 

Druin (drem), tambor. 

Drunk (dreuk), borracho ; ebrio. 

Drunkenness (drénkennes), em- 
briaguez. 

Dry drái), seco. 

Dry (drái), secar. 

Dryness (dráines), sequedad. 

Dubious (diúbies), dudoso, incierto. 

Dack (dek), pato. 

Dack-pond (dék-pond), estanque. 

Dae (diú), debido. 

Dae (diú), debido. 

Dae (diú), lo que !e toca á 
alguno. 

Duel (diúel), duelo. 

Duke (diúk), duque. 

Dull (del), torpe, lerdo. 



Dumb (deni), mudo. 

Dangeon (dej.l2h.ea), calabozo. 

Dupa (diúp), bobo. 

Durable (diúrabel), duradero. 

Durabílity (diurabíliti), dnrabili- 

da 1 ; duración. 
Daration (diure'chen), daracion. 
Daring (diúring), durante. 
D.ist (dest). polvo 
Daty (diúty), deber; derechos 

(de aduana). 
D.vell (daéi), morar. 
Dwelüng (daéiing), morada. 
Dye (dái), teñir. 
Dying (daiing), part. pres. de To 

die, morir. 
*Dynasty (dáinasti), dinastía. 

E. 

Each (ieh), cada. Each other, 
uno á otro. 

Eager (íguer), ansioso ; ávido. 

fíagerly (íguerli), ávidamente ; con 
ahinco. 

E igerness ( íguernes ), avidez ; 
ahinco. 

Eir (ir), oreja ; oido. 

Eirly (e'rü), temprano. 

Eirn (ern), ganar 

Earnest (e'rnest). In earnest, d9 
veras. 

Earnestly (e'rnestli), eficazmente ; 
encarecidamente. 

Eirfch (erz), tierra. 

Earthly (e'rzli), terrenal. 

Eirthanware (e'rzenuer), alfarería. 

Ease (is), facilidad ; anchuras. 

Eisy (ísi), fácil ; cómodo. 

Easily (ísili), fácilmente ; cómoda- 
mente. 

Eist (ist), este ; oriente. 

Eastern (ístern), oriental. 

Ext (it), comer. 

E iten (íten), part pas. de To eat, 
comer. 

Ebbing (ébing), mengua ; fin. 

Ebony (e'bom), ébano. 

Eaclesiastic (iclesiástic), eclesiás- 
tico. 

Echo (eco), eco. 



370 



VOCABULARIO. 



Echoing (ecoing), reverberante. 

Economical ( econóinical ), eco- 
nómico. 

E3onomy (ieónomi\ economía. 

E !St*cy (écstasi), éxtasis. 

E Idying (édiing), de remolino. 

Ebn (Idea), EJen. 

Edge ( edcn ), cortante ; borde ; 
orilla. 

E lince (e'difis), edificio. 

E lifying (edifáiing), edificante. 

E lucate (édiuket), educar; instruir. 

Education (ediuke'yhen), educa- 
ción ; instrucción. 

E.Ticiag (ifésing), que borra. 
Participio de To efface, borrar. 

EYect (iíect), efecto. 

E3*3ct (iíect), efectuar ; lograr. 

Efiectuai (iíeechual), eficaz. 

Ef^minafce (iféminat), efeminad:). 

F;fi?acy (e'ncasi), eficacia. 

Eibrt (e'fort), esfuerzo. 

Eifalg3ac3 (iíeidchens), esplendor. 

Efusión (ifiúsyon), efusión. 

E^rsss (ígres), salida. 

Egypt (ídehipt), Egipto. 

Either (í'der), uno ú otro. 

Eight (et), ocho. 

Eighty (éti), ochenta. 

E las tic (ilástic), elástico. 

Elasticity (ilastísiti), elasticidad. 

Elated (ile'ted), ensoberbecido. 

Elbow (e'lbo), codo. 

Eibow-chair (e'lbo cher), silla de 
brazos. 

Eider (eider), sanco. 

Eider (e'ldf-r), mayor. 

Eldest (e'idest), mayor ; el de mas 
edad. 

Elect (ile'ct), elegir. 

Election (ile'cchen), elección. 

Elector (iléctor), elector. 

Elegaut (e'iigant), elegante. 

Elegy (élidchi), elegía. 

Elevation (elive'9hen), elevación. 

Elevan (iléven), once. 

Elicit (ilísit), provocar. 

Elm (elm), olmo. 

Element (éliment), amonto. 

Elamentary (cimientan), elemental. 

Elephaiit (éliíant), elefante. 

Elévate (élivet), elevar. 



Elocution (elokiÚ9hen), elocución. 

Elaquence (eioeuens), elocuencia. 

Else (els), otro. Or else, si no. 

Elsewhere (elsjuér), ea (ó á), otra 
]>irte. 

Elucidaron (iliusidé9hen) , eluci- 
dación. 

Eai meipate (imánsipet), emanci- 
par. 

Eaibark (embárc), embarcar em- 
barcarse. 

Eaibassy (émbasi), embajada. 

Embed (embe'di, encajonar. 

Euibers (e'mber.s), brasas ; rsscoldo. 

E nblem (émblem), emblema. 

E.nb3Üment (emoódiment), incor- 
|> oración. 

Ejibody (embódi), incorporar. 

Emjrace (embrés), abrazar. 

Emerge (imérdch), salir ds. 

^mergeney (ímérdchensi), aprieto. 

E ja 3 tic (ime'tic), eme'tico. 

Emigrate (emigrét), emigrar. 

Eminsnce (e'minens), eminencia. 

Eminent (éminent), eminente. 

3aama (e'ma), Manuela. 

3motion (imÓ9hen), emoción. 

Emperor (e'mperor), emperador. 

E.npire (e'mpair), imperio. 

Emphatically (emfáticali), enfáti- 
camente. 

Employ (emplói), emplear. 

Employef (emplóier), jefe ; el que 
emplea. 

Empty (e'mti), vacío. 

Empyreal (empítial), empíreo. 

Euamelled (enámeld), esmaltado. 

Eaible (inébel), poner en aptitud 
de. 

Eaclose (enclós), encerrar. 

Eaclosure ( encló.s'yer ) , cercado ; 
corral ; inclusa. 

Eachanter (enchánter), encantador. 

^achauted (encuánted), encantado. 

Each.iutment (euchántment), ca- 
ca uto. 

Eachanting (enchánting), encanta- 
(1 >r. 

Eacircle (ens¿rkel), cercar ; rol 

tvicounter (eucáunter), encoutr.ir. 

lvacumber (enkember), embarazar. 

Encourage (enkeradcli), animar. 



VOCABULAEIO. 



371 



End (end), terminar. 

End (end), fin ; término. 

Eüdearment (endírment), encareci- 
miento ; afecto. 

Eniearing (endíring), afectuoso. 

Eadeavor (endévor). esforzarse. 

Eadeavor (endévor), esfuerzo. 

Endow (endáu), dotar. 

Endura q ce (endiúrans), paciencia ; 
sufrimiento. 

Eneas (inías), Eneas. 

Ea3my (éniini), enemigo. 

Eaergy (énerdchi), energía. 

E íergetic (enerdchétic), ene'rgico. 

Enfold (enfóld), plegar ; estrechar. 

Engage (enguédch), empeñar; fijar. 

Engine (éndchin), máquina. 

Engineer (éndchinir), ingeniero ; 
maquinista. 

England (ingland), Inglaterra. 

English (ínglich), inglés. 

Englishinan (ínglichman), ingles. 

Engross (engrós), monopolizar ; 
' absorber. 

Enjoia (endehóin), ordenar. 

Enjoy endchói), gozar. 

Enjoyment (endchóiment), gozo. 

Enlarge (enlarden), ensanchar. 

Enlighten (enláiten), ilustrar ; ilu- 
minar. 

Enough (inéf), bastante. 

Enormous (enormes), enorme. 

Enrage (enre'dch), enfurecer. 

Ensuing (ensiúing), siguiente. 

Eatail (entel), imponer. 

Enter (énter), éntentrar. 

Enterprise (énterprais), empresa. 

Enterprising (énterpraising), em- 
prendedor. 

Entertain (enterte'n), entretener ; 
mantener. 

Entertaining (enter téning), entre- 
tenido. 

Enthusiasm ( enzúsiasm ), entu- 
siasmo. 

Entice (entáis), atraer con halagos ; 
sonsacar. 

Entirely (entáirli), enteramente. 

Eatitle (entáitel), dar derecho 

Entrance (e'ntrans), entrada 

Entreat (entrít), suplicar. 

Entreaty (entríti), súplica. 



Entry (éntri), entrada. 

Enrich (enrích), enriquecer. 

Envelop (envélop), envolver. 

Envy (énvi), envidia. 

Epic (e'pic), épico. 

Episode (épisod), episodio. 

Epitome (epítomi), epítome. 

Epoch (ípoc), época. 

Epistle (ipístel), epístola. 

Epistolary (ipístolari), epistolar. 

Equal (ícual), iguaL 

Equal (ícual), igualar. 

Equality (ícuáhti), igualdad. 

Equally (ícuali), igualmente. 

Equation (icuéshen), ecuación. 

Equinox (ícuinocs), equinoccio. 

Equipage (écuipedch), equipage ; 
servidumbre ; coche. 

Equivalent ( icuívalent ), equiva- 
lente. 

Era (ira), era. 

Ere (er), antes de. 

Erect (iréct), erigir. 

Ergo (érgo), luego. 

Err (er), errar. 

Error (éror), error. 

Erudition (eryudíchen), erudición. 

Escape (eskép), escapar. 

Especially (espé9haíl), con espe- 
cialidad. 

Espouse (espáus), desposar ; casar 
con. 

Essay (ése), ensayo. 

Essential (isénchal), esencial. 

Essentially (isén9hali), esencial- 
mente. 

Establish (istáblich), establecer. 

Establishment (istáblichnient), es- 
tablecimiento. 

Estáte (estét), estado ; finca." 

Esteem (estím), estima ; estima- 
ción. 

Esteem (estím), estimar. 

Estímate (éstimet), cálculo ; pr<3r 
supuesto. 

Estimation (estimé9hen), estima- 
cíon. 

Eternal (itérnal), eterno. 

Eternity (itérniti), eternidad. 

Ethereal (izírial), etéreo. 

Etruscan (itrescan), etrusco. 

Euclid (yúelid), Euclides. 



372 



VOCABULARIO. 



Eulogy (yúlodchi), elocrio. 

Eurípides (yurípidi.s , Eurípides. 

Europe (yúrop), Europa. 

Europea u (yúropian), europeo. 

Eucandescent (encandescent), in- 
ca a deseen te. 

Even (íven), igual ; liso. 

Even (íven), aun. 

Evening (ívning), tarde ; noche. 

Event ( ivént ) , acontecimiento ; 
c.iso. 

Ever (e'ver), jamas ; alguna vez. 

Evergreen (évergrin), siempreviva. 

Evergreen ( évergrin ) , siempre 
verde. 

Every (éveri), cada ; todo. 

Everybody (éveribodi), todo el 
mundo. 

Every one (e'veri uén), cada uno ; 
todos. 

Every thing (e'verizing), cada cosa ; 
todo. 

Everywhere (e'verijuer), en todas 
partes. 

Evident (e'vident), evidente. 

Evidence (évidens), evidencia. 

Evil (ívil), malo. 

Evince (ivíns), probar, manifestar. 

Evoke(ivók), evocar. 

Evolve (ivóiv), desprender. 

Exact (egsáct), exacto. 

Exactly (eg.9áctli), exactamente. 

Exactness (eg.s'áctnes), exactitud. 

Exaction ( egsíicqlieiL ) , exacción, 
extorsión. 

Exaggerate (egsádcheret), exagerar. 

Exalt (e.L(SÓlt), exaltar. 

Exaltation (egsolté9hen), exalta- 
ción. 

Examination (egsamin eslíen), exa- 
men. 

Examine (egsámin), examinar. 

Example (egsámpel), ejemplo. 

Exaspérate ^eg.sásperet), exasperar. 

Exceed (ecsíd), exceder. 

Exceedingly (eesídingli), excesiva- 
mente. 

Excellonce (ec^elens), excelencia. 

Except (eesept), exceptuar. 

Except (eesept), excepto. 

Exceptiou (eesépehen), excepción. 

Excess (eeses), exceso. 



Exchange (ecsche'ndch), cambiar, 
trocar. 

Excise (eesáis), sisa. 

Exciseman (eesáisman), sisero. 

Excited (eesáited), excitado. 

Excitement (eesáitment), excita- 
ción. 

Exclamation (ecsclaméyben), excla- 
mación. 

Exclaim (ecscle'm), exclamar. 

Exciude (eeselúd), excluir. 

Exclusión (ecsclús-yon), exclusión. 

Exclusive (ecsclú.sáv), exclusivo. 

Excrescence (ecscrésens), excrecen- 
cia. 

Excursión (ecsk¿rchen), excursión. 

Execute (ecsikiút), ejecutar. 

Execution (ecsikiÚ9hen), ejecución. 

Exempt (eg.se'mpt), exento. 

Exercise (éesersais), ejercicio. 

Exercise (éesersais), ejercitar. 

Exert (egrért), esforzar. 

Exertion (egsérchen), esfuerzo. 

Exhaust (egsóst), agotar, aparar. 

Exhibit (ecsíbit), exhibir ; mani- 
festar. 

Exhilarating (eesjílereting), qua 
alegra. 

Exhort (^egsórt), exhortar. 

Exit (e'g.9it), salida. 

Exist (egsíst), existir. 

Existe uce (egsístens), existencia. 

Exordium (egsórdiem), exordio. 

Expand (eespánd), ensanchar, di- 
latar. 

Expect (ecspe'ct), esperar. 

Expectant (eespéctant), esperador. 

Expectation (eespecte^hen), espe- 
ranza. 

Expedient (expídient), expediente. 

Expedition (eespedi^'hen), expedi- 
ción. 

Expeditious (expedíghes), pronto. 

Expense (eespéus), gasto; coste. 

Experience (eespirieñs), experien- 
cia. 

Experiment (eespériment), experi- 
mento. 

Experimental (ecsperiméntal), ex- 
}> rimentaL 

Expire (eespáir), espirar. 

Explain (ecsplcn), explicar. 



VOCABULARIO. 



373 



Explanation (eesplanéchen), expli- 
cación. 

Expíe ti ve (écspletiv), expletivo. 

Explore (ecsplór)., explorar. 

Explosión (ecsplósyen), explosión. 

Expose (ecspó.v)» exponer. 

Expositor (ecspósitor), exponedor. 

Express (ecsprés), expresar ; ex- 
primir. 

Expression (ecspr e^hen), expre- 
sión ; locución. 

Expressive of (ecspr e'siv ov), que 
indica. 

Expulsión (ecspelchen), expulsión. 

Exquisito (e'cscuisit), exquisito. 

Extend (ecsténd), extender. 

Extensión (ecsténchen), extensión. 

Extensive (ecstensiv), extenso; 
grande. 

Extinction(ecstíngchen), extinción. 

Extinguish (ecstíngüi9h, apagar. 

Extol (ecstól), alabar. 

Extract (e'cstract), extracto. 

Extraordinary (ecstraórdinari), ex- 
traordinario. 

Extravagance (ecstrávagans), ex- 
travagancia. 

Extreme (ecstrím), extremo. 

Extremely (ecstrímli), extremada- 
mente. 

Extremity (ecstrémiti), extremo ; 
cabo. 

Exíricate (écstriket), sacar ; librar. 

Exuberance (ecsyuberans), exube- 
rancia. 

Exult (egsélt), alegrarse hasta lo 
sumo. 

Exultation (egselte'chen), rapto de 
alegría. 

Eye (ái), ojo. 

Eye-sight (áisait), vista ; visión. 

Fable (febel), fábula. 
Fabulous (fábiules), fabuloso. 
Face (fes), faz ; cara. 
Facilítate (fasíiitet), facilitar. 
Faciiity (fasíiiti), facilidad. 
Fact (íact), hecho. 
Faction (fácQhen), facción. 



Faculty (fákelti), facultad. 

Fade (fed), marchitar. 

Fading (féding), decadencia ; que 
se marchita. 

Fagot (fagot), haz (de leña). 

Fail (fel), fallar ; dejar de ; que- 
brar. 

Failing (fe'ling\ flaco. 

Failure (félier), quiebra ; chasco ; 
mal e'xito. 

Fain (fen), gustoso. 

Faint (feut), desmayado ; débil. 

Faint (faint), desmayarse. 

Faintly (featli), ligeramente ; des- 
mayadamente. 

Fair (fer), rubio ; blanco ; claro. 

Fair (fer), las bellas ; hermosura. 

Fair (fer), bien ; limpio. 

Fairly (férli), medianamente; bien, 

Faith (fez), fé. 

Faithñü (fézfül), fiel. 

Faithfully (fézfuli), fielmente. 

Fall (fol), caida. 

Fall (fol), caer. 

F jlling (foling), caida. 

Faltering (íoiteting), incierto. 

Falss (fols), falso. 

Falsehood (fólsjud), mentira ; em- 
buste. 

Fame (fem), fama. 

Familiar (famíiler), familiar. 

Familiarize (familiar ais), familia- 
rizar. 

Family (fámili), familia. 

Famine (fámin), hambre; carestía. 

Famish (fámich), hambrear ; mo- 
rir (de hambre). 

Fanciful (fánsiful), caprichoso. 

Fancy (fánsi), imaginarse ; apa- 
sionare de. 

Fancy (fánsi), fantasía ; inclinar- 
cion ; capricho. 

Fang (fang), colmillo. 

Fantastic (fantásdc), fantástico. 

Par (far), lejos. 

Fare (fer), el dinero que se paga 
por un viaje ; comid i. 

Fare (fer), pasarlo ; tratarse. 

Fareweil (feruéi), adiós. 

Farinaceous (farineches), harinoso, 
farináceo. 

Farm (farra), finca. 



374 



VOCABULARIO. 



Farmer (fármer), cultivador. 
Farther (fár'der), man lejos. 

Farthing (far'ding), cierta moneda 
inglesa, maravedí. 

Fascination (íasinéchen), fascina- 
ción. 

Fashion (fáchen), moda. 

Fast (fast), rápido, veloz. 

Fast (fast), velozmente. 

Fasten (tasen), sujetar; afianzar; 
amarrar. 

Fastness (fástnes), velocidad ; for- 
taleza. 

Fat (fat), gordo. 

Fatal (fetal), fatal ; funesto. 

Fate (fet), suerte ; sino ; hado. 

Father (í'á'der), padre. 

Father-in-law (fá'derinlo), suegro. 

Fathom (fá'deni), braza. 

Fatigue (fatíg), fatigar, cansar. 

Fatigue (fatíg), fatiga, cansancio. 

Fatten (fáten), engordar. 

Fault (folt), falta. 

Favor (fe'vor), favor. 

Favor (lévor), favorecer. 

Favorable (févorabel), favorable. 

Favorabiy (fevorabli), favorable- 
mente. 

Favored (févord), favorecido. 

Favorito (íevorit), favorito ; valido. 

Fear (fir), temer. 

Fear (fir), temor, miedo. 

Fearful (fírf'ul), miedoso ; terrible. 

Feast (fist), festejar ; comer opípa- 
ramente. 

Feast (fest), festín. 

Feather (fé'der), pluma. 

Fea ture (lichur), facción ; circuns- 
tancia. 

Fed (fed), imp. y parí, pas. do To 
leed, dar de comer. 

Feeble (fíbel), débil ; endeble. 

Feed (fid), dar de comer. 

Feel (ñl), sentir. 

Feeüng (íiiing), sensible ; tierno. 

Feeliug (ííling), sensibilidad; tacto. 

Feet (fit), plural dj foot, pié. 

Felicitously (ñiísit^sli), felizmente. 

FeÜcity (niísiti), felicidad. 

Fvll (fel), derribar ; cartttr, 

Fóll (i'el , imp. do To l'all, caer. 

Follov/ (íélo), muchacho ; mozo. 



Fellow-creature (felocríchur), se- 
mejante. 

Fellowship (félo9hip), trato, socie- 
dad, harmonía. 

Felt (felt), imp. y par[. pas. de To 
feel, sentir. 

Female (l'íinel), de mujeres ; hem- 
bra. 

Female (fímel), hembra, mujer. 

Ferocious (ferÓ9hes), feroz. 

Ferry-boat (féri-bot), barquichuelo, 
(6 á veces vaporcito), en eme se 
pasa un rio. 

Fertile (fértail), fértil. 

Fervid (férvid), férvido. 

Fetch (fech), buscar ; traer. 

Fever (líver), fiebre. 

Few (fú), pocos. 

Fiat (fáiat), mandato. 

Fibre (f'áiber), fibra. 

Fiction (fícehen), ficción; embuste. 

Fictitious (ficti^hes), ficticio; men- 
tido. 

Fidelity (faidéliti), fidelidad. 

Field (fild), campo. 

Fiend (find), demonio ; furia. 

Fierce (firs), feroz. 

Fiercely (fírsli), ferozmente. 

Fiery (fáiri), fogoso ; ígneo. 

Fifth (fiftz), quinto. 

Fifty (fífti), cincuenta. 

Fight (fáit), pelear. 

Figure (fíguier), figura ; cifra. 

Filament (¡ílament), filamento, he- 
bra. 

File (fáil), desfilar ; hmar. 

Filial (filial), fihal. 

Fill (til), llenar. 

Fin (fin), aleta. 

Final (fáinal), final. 

Finally (fáinali), finalmente. 

Finance (faináns), haciendas. 

Find (i'áiud), hallar, encontrar. 

Finder (fáiuder), hallador. 

Fine (fáin), bello ; fino. 

Finely (íáinli), finamente ; linda- 
mente. 

Finger (fínguer), dedo. 

Finish (fíniefe), acabar, concluir, 

Fire (fáir), fuego. 

Fi resille (fáirsaid), hogar. 

Firm (ürm), razón social ; casa. 



VOCABULARIO. 



Firm (firm), firme. 

Finnanient (iírnianient), firma- 
mento. 

Firiniy (fírmli), firmemente. 

Firinness (íirmnes), firmeza. 

First (tirst), primero. At first, en 
primer lugar ; en un principio. 

Fish (ficb), pez ; pescado. 

Fit (fit), acceso ; paroxismo. 

Fit (fit), conveniente. 

Fitness (fítnes), conveniencia. 

Fitting (fíting), conveniente. 

Five (íáiv), cinco. 

Fix (fies), fijar. 

Fixed (ficsd), fijo. 

Flag (flag), losa ; bandera. 

Fiagon (tiágon), fraseo. 

Flaü (fiel), mayal. 

Flake (flec), copo. 

Fíame (flem), llama. 

Fíame (flem), levantar llama; 
arder. 

Flaming (fléming), flamante. 

Flauk (ílanc), flanco ; ijada. 

Flank (flanc), flanquear. 

Flash (flach), presentarse como el 
rayo ; brillar cuino un relám- 
pago. 

Flash (flach), relámpago ; dicho ó 
hecho vivo. 

Flashing (fláching), brillante. 

Fiat (flat), piano, llano ; perento- 
rio. 

Flatter (fláter), lisonjear. 

Flattery (fláteri), lisonja. 

Flavor (flévor), sabor. 

Flax (fiacs), lino. 

Fled (fled), imp. ypart. pas. de To 
flee, huir. 

Flee (fli), huir. 

Fieece (flis), tuzon. 

Fleecy (flísi), lanudo ; como la 
nieve. 

Fleet (flit), flota. 

Fleeting (flíiing), pasajero. 

Flesh (flech), carne. 

Flexible (flécsibel), flexible. 

Flew (fiú , imp. de To fly, volar. 

Flight (fláit), vuelo. 

Fling (fling), echar, lanzar. 

Flint (flint), pedernal. 

Flirt (flirt), coquetear. 



Flitting (flíting), pasajero, fugitivo. 

Fioat (flot), flotar. 

Fiock ( floc ) , rebaño, manada 
bandada. 

Floek (floc), atroparse. 

Flood (flod), diluvio ; onda. 

Flood (flod), inundar. 

Fiounder (fláunder), patear ; titu- 
bear. 

Flounder (fláunder), acedía. 

Fiourish (flerich), floreo ; rasgo de 
adorno. 

Fiourish (flerich), florecer. 

Fiow (fl ¡ >), fluir ; manar. 

Flów (fio), flujo. 

Fiower (fláuer), flor. 

Flower (fláuer), florecer. 

Fiown (flon), part. pas. de To fly, 
volar. 

Fluid (fluid), fluido. 

Flummery (flemeri), chachara, pa- 
tarata. 

Flung (fleng), imp. y part. pas. de 
to fling. 

Flutter (úYter), revolotear ; estar 
en agitación. 

Fly (flái), volar. 

Fly (flái), mosca. 

Foam (fom), espuma. 

Foam (fom), espumar. 

Foe (fo), enemigo. 

Fold (fold), plegar. 

Fold (íbld\ redil ; rebaño. 

Foliage (íoliadch), foliage. 

Folk (foc), gente. 

Folio w (fólo), seguir. 

Follower (í'óloer), seguidor; secuaz; 
partidario. 

Following (fóloing), siguiente. 

Folly (fóli), tontería. 

Fond (fond), enamorado; gusta de, 

Food (fud), alimento. 

Fool (ful), tonto, bobo. 

Fooiish (fúlich), tonto. 

Foot (fiít), pie'. 

Footfall (íúcíol), pisotada. 

Footing (fütii g>; pie. 

Footprint (iútprint), huella. 

For (for), por, para. 

For (for\ puesto, porque. 

Forbade (forbád), imp. de To for- 
bid, prohibir. 



376 



VOCABULARIO. 



Forbear (forber), aguantar, sufrir. 

Forbid (forbíd), prohibir. 

Forcé (fors), forzar, obligar. 

Forcé (fors), fuerza. 

Forcibly (íbrsibli), forzosamente. 

Fore (for), delantero. 

Forebqding (forbóding), presagio. 

Forecast (fórcast), previsión. 

Forefather (fórfa'der), anteiDasado. 

Fore-feet (fórñt), pie's delanteros, 
manos. 

Forehead (fóred), frente. 

Foreign (fóren), extraño. 

Foremost (fórmost), primero, de- 
lantero. 

Forerun (fór-ren), preceder. 

Forest (iórest), monte, bosque, 
selva. 

Forever (fore'ver), por siempre. 

Forfeit (íórfit), perder. 

Forget (forgue't), olvidar. 

Forgetfulness (forgue'tiulnes), ol. 
vido. 

Forgiveness (forgívnes), perdón. 

Fork (fork), tenedor. 

Forked (íórkt), horcado. 

Forlorn (forlórn), desamparado. 

Form (form), formar. 

Form (form), forma; banco. 

Formal (formal), formal. 

Formation (fornie'chen), formación. 

Foriner (fórmer), antiguo, que fue', 
anterior. 

Formerly (fórmerli), en otro tiem- 
po. 

Formidable (fórmidabel), formida- 
ble. 

Formula (fórmiula), fórmula. 

Forsake (íorsék), abandonar. 

Forth (forz), en adelante ; fuera. 

Fortify (fórtifai), lortiticar. 

Forti tude (fórtichud), fortaleza. 

Fortnight (fórtnait), quince dias. 

Fortress (fórtres), fortaleza. 

Fortúnate (fórchunat), afortunado, 
venturoso. 

Foríunately (fórchunatli), afortu- 
nadamente. 

Fortune (iórchun), fortuna. 

Fortune-teUer (fórchun-téler), de- 
cidor de la buenaventura. 

Forty (fórti), cuarenta. 



Forward (fóruard), adelante. 

Fossil (fósil), fósil. 

Foster (fuste l - ), criar, nutrir, abri- 
gar. 

Fought (fot), imp. y part. pas. do 
To fight, pelear. 

Found (faundi, fundir; fundar. 

Found (fáund), imp. y part. pas. 
de To find, hallar. 

Foundation (faund echen), cimiento. 

Founder (fáunder), irse á pique. 

Fountain (fáunten) , fuente. 

Four (for), cuatro. 

Fourteenth(fortínz), décimo cuarto. 

Fourth (forz), cuarto; cuaria parte. 

Fowl (fául), ave. 

Fragment (fragment), fragmento. 

Frail (freí), frágil ; débil. 

Frailty (frelti), fragilidad ; debili- 
dad. 

Frame (frem), marco, armazón. 

Francis (fránsis), Francisco. 

Frank (franc), Paco. 

Frankly (fránkli), francamente. 

F.-ankness (fránknes), franqueza. 

Frantic (frántic), frene'tico. 

Fraternal (fraternal), fraternal. 

Fraud (frod), fraude. 

Fray (fre), refriega. 

Free (fri), libre. 

Free (fri), libertar ; librar. 

Freedom (frídom), libertad. 

Freely (fríli), libremente. 

Freeman (fríman), hombre Ubre. 

Free-thinker (frí-zinker), libre pen- 
sador. 

Freeze (fris), helar. 

Freight (fret), flete ; carga. 

Frequent (irícuent), frecuente. 

Frequently (frícuentli), frecuente- 
mente. 

Fresh (fre9h), fresco. 

Freshening (fréchning), renovador. 

Fret (fret), afligirse ; enojarse. 

Fret (fret), aflicción ; enojo. 

Fretful (írétful), enojadizo. 

Friction (frieren), frotamiento. 

Friend (frend), amigo. 

Friendly (fréndli), amistoso. 

Friendship (frénchip), amistad. 

Frighten (fráiten), espantar. 

Frightful (fráitful), espantoso. 



VOCABULAKIO. 



377 



Frightfully (fráitfuli), espantosa- 
mente. 

Fringed (frindchd), franjeado. 

Frisk (frise), cabriolar, brincar. 

Frivolous (frívoles), frivolo. 

From (írorn), de. 

Front (front), frente ; enfrente ; al 
frente. 

Frost (frost), hielo. 

Frown (fráun), ceño, enojo. 

Frown (fráun), mirar con ceño. 

Froze (iros), imp. de To freeze, 
helar. 

Fro.zen (frósen), part pas. de To 
freeze, helar. 

Frugal (frugal), frugal. 

Frugality (frugáliti), frugalidad. 

Fruit (frut), fruto ; fruta. 

Fruitful (frútíul), fructuoso. 

Fruitless (frútles), infructuoso. 

Frústrate (frestre't), frustrado. 

Fugitivo (fiúdehitiv), prófugo, fu- 
gitivo. 

Full (ful), lleno. 

Full blooled(fúToloded), sanguíneo. 

Fully (íüii), plenamente ; de lleno. 

Fulness (fúln^s), plenitud 

Fur (fer), piel. 

Furious (ñúries), furioso. 

Furiously (ñúriesli), furiosamente. 

Furnace (fórnas), horr»o, hornalla. 

Furaish (fernich), surtir ; amue- 
blar ; suministrar. 

Furniture ( í'érnichur ) , muebles, 
ajuar. 

Furrow (íévo), surco. 

Further (í&r'der), mas lejos ; ade- 
mas. 

Fury (fiúri), furia, - 

Future (ñúchur), futuro, porvenir. 

Future (ñúchur), futuro, venidero. 

G. 

Gabble (gábel\ algarabía. 

Gain (guen), ganancia. 

Gam (guén), ganar. 

Gamer ((guéner), el que gana. 

Gala (gala), gala. 

Gale (guéi), borrasca. 

Gallant (gálant), valeroso, animoso. 



Gallantly (gálantli), animosamente. 

Gallantry (gálantri), bizarría. 

Galley (gáli), galera. 

G^ilioping (gáloping), part pres. 
de To galiop, galopar. 

Gallo ws (galos >, horca. 

Gambler (gámbler), jugador. 

Gamblin¡4 (gámbling), juego. 

Gambol (yámbol), brincar. 

Game (guém), juego; caza. 

Gamesoaie (gue'msem), juguetón. 

Ganges (gáiidehes), Gauge. 

Gaping (guéping), bostezo ; admi- 
ración necia. 

Garden (gárden) jardín. 

Garland (gárland), guirnalda. 

Garment (gárment), ropaje. 

Garner (gárner), entrojar. 

Garner (gárner), granero. 

Garrulous (gáriules), gárrulo. 

Gas (gas), gas. 

Gastric (gástric), gástrico. 

Gate (gue't), puerta. 

Gather (gá'der), recoger. 

Gauge (guédch), medida, marca. 

Gauge (gue'dch), medir ; arquear. 

Gaunt (gont), flaco. 

Gave (gue'v), imp. de To give, dar. 

Gay (gue'), alegre. 

Gaze (gue's), mirar fijamente. 

Gaze (gue'.v), mirada fija. 

Gazer (gue'ser), mirón, el que mira 
con fijeza. 

Gem (dchem), joya. 

General (dche'neral), general. 

Generally ( dchénerali ) , general- 
mente. 

Genérate (dche'niret), engendrar. 

Generation (dchenire'chen), gene- 
ración. 

Generosity (dchenirósiti), generosi- 
dad. 

Generous (dche'nires), generoso. 

Génesis (dchénisis), Génesis. 

Genial (dciie'üal;, natural, genial, 
festivo. 

Genius (dchmes\ genio, ingenio. 

Gentile (dchéntail), gentil. 

Gentle (dchéntel), suave, dócil, 
manso. 

Gentleman (dche'ntelman), caba- 
llero. 



378 



VOCABULARIO. 



Gently (dchéntli), suavemente. 

Genuine (dche'ñuin), genuino, ver- 
dadero. 

Genus (dchínes), gé*noro. 

Geography (dchiógrañ), geografía. 

Geométrica! (dckioinétrical), géo- 
1 né trico. 

Geom try (dchiórnetri), geometría. 

George (dchorgch), Jorge. 

Gestare (dché.-cliur), gesto. 

Get (guet), conseguir ; ponerse ; 
tener. 

Get along (guet alóng), progresar; 
aprender. 

Ghastly (gástli), pálido, cadavérico. 

Giant (dcháiant), gigante. 

Gibraltar (dchibróltar), Gibraltar. 

Gift (guift), donación, dádiva. 

Gigantic (dcbagántic), gigantesco. 

Gilded (guílded), dorado. 

Gilt-edged (guílt-edchd),con cantos 
dorados. 

Girdlo (guírdel), cinturon. 

Girtb (gnérz), cincha. 

Give (guiv), dar ; ceder ; romperse. 

Glad (glad), contento. 

Gladiator (gládietor), gladiator. 

Gladiatorial (gladietórial), de gla- 
diador. 

Gladly (gládli), gustoso; con alegría 

Glance (glans), echar una mirada. 

Glauco (glans), mirada. 

Glare (gier), relumbrar ; mirar 
ferozmente. 

Glass (gias), vidrio, vaso. 

Glass-man (glásman), vidriero. 

Gleam (glim), relucir. 

Glen (glen), valle ; cañada. 

Glib (glib), liso; suelto; voluble. 

Glide (^gláid), deslizarse. 

Güín ai ¿ring (glímering), resplan- 
dor débil. 

Glitter (ghter), relucir. 

Glittering (glítring), reluciente. 

G.oií, (glot;, mirar coa amor, con 
djseo. » 

GL»be (glob), globo. 

Gl'iom ^gium), oscuridad; tristeza. 

Gioomy ^ iúmi), oscuro ; triste. 

Glorious (glories), gloiioso. 

Gloriously (glórieoii), g'.criosa- 
moiiíe. 



Glory (glóri), gloria. 

Glory (glóri), gloriarse. 

Glow (glo), ardor. 

Glow (glo), arder ; tomar un color 
vivo. 

Glowingly (glóingli), con resrnan- 
dor. 

Gluttony (gletoni), glotonería. 

Go (go), ir ; marchar, funcionar. 

Goat (got), cabra. 

Goad (god), aguijón. 

Goblet (góblet), copa. 

God (god), Dios. 

Goddess (gódes), diosa. 

Godly (gódli), piadoso. 

Gold (gold), oro. 

Golden (gólden), de oro. 

Good (gud \ bueno. 

Goods (guds), bienes, mercancías. 

Good-breeding (gud-bríding), bue- 
na c danza. 

Goodly (gúali), hermoso , sendo. 

Goodness (gúdnes), bondad. 

Goodwill (guduíl), beneplácito ; 
benevolencia. 

Goose-quid (gúscuil), pluma de ave. 

Gore (gór), sang 

Gorgeous (górdches), primoroso, 
grandioso. 

Gossamer (gósamer), vello; pelusa. 

Gossip (gósip), habladurías, ha- 
blador ; compadre. 

Gossipping (gósiping), habladurías. 

Got (got), imp. y parí. pus. de lo 
get. 

Gout (gáut), gota. 

Goveru (góvern), gobernar. 

Governess (guá vernos), aya, ¡^re- 
ceptora . 

Government (gueverment), go- 
bierno. 

Grace (gres), gracia, excelencia. 

Grave (gres), bendición : 

Grace (gres), adornar. 

Graceful (gréslul\ gracioso. 

Gracefully ( grésfuli ), graci 
mente. 

Graceless (grésles), inelegante. 

Gracious (gréches), bueno, bené- 
volo. 

Gradually ( grádiuali ), gradual- 
mente. 



VOCABULARIO. 



379 



Gradúate (gradiuét), graduarse. 

Graduaied (gradiuáted), graduado. 

Gramercy ( grámersi ), inucíias 
gracias. 

Grammar (graznar), gramática. 

Granary (gránary), granero. 

Graud v graad), grande, espléndido. 

Grandcur (grándier), grandeza, es- 
plendor. 

Granicus (gránikes), Gránico. 

Grant (grant), conceder. 

Grape (grep), uva. 

Grapple (grápel), luchar ; agarrar. 

Grasp (grasp), asir ; empuñar. 

Grasp (grasp), agarro ; posesión. 

Grass (gras), yerba. 

Grateful (gre'tiúl), agradable. 

Gratify (grátiíai), agradar, com- 
placer. 

Gratitude (grátichud), gratitud. 

Grave (grev), grave, serio, melan- 
cólico. 

Grave (grev), tumba. 

Graved (grevj), grabado. 

Gra vítate (grávitet), gravitar. 

Gravily (gráviti), gravedad. 

Gray (gre), gris, pardo. 

Gray-heacíed (gré-jeded), encane- 
cido. 

Graze (gres,, pacer (la yerba.) 

Great (gret), grande. 

Great Bear (grefc-bér), Osa mayor 
(constelación). 

Greaíly (gre'tii), grandemente, no- 
tablemente. 

Greatness (gre'tness), grandeza. 

Grecian (grÍ9han), griego. 

Greece (gris), Grecia. 

Greedy (grídi), voraz, ávido, codi- 
cioso. 

Greek (gricj, griego. 

Green (gria), llanura verde. 

Gren.ida (grenáda), Granada. 

Grew (gru), imp. de To grow, 
crecer. 

Grief (grif), dolor, pesar. 

Grie vanee (grívans), agravio. 

Grievous (gríves), penoso, lasti- 
moso. 

Grim (^rim), mal carado, horrendo . 

Grin (grin), mueca. 

Grind (#ráind), moler, 



Gripe (gráip), agarro, toma. 
Groan (gron), quejido. 
Groan (gron), quejarse. 
Groaning (gróning), part pres. de 

To groan. 
Groove (gruv), estría, muesca. 
Grope (grop), andar á tientas. 
Gross (gros\ gruesa. 
Gross (gios), grosero. 
Grotesque (grotesc), grotesco. 
Ground (gráund), suelo, tierra. 
Ground (gráund), imp. y part. pas. 

de To grind, moler. 
Group (grup), grupo. 
Grouping (grúping), 
Grove (grov), floresta. 
Grow (gro,) crecer. 
Growling (gráuling), part pres. de 

To growl, gruñir. 
Growliug (gráuling), gruñido. 
Grown (gron), part pas. de To 

grow, crecer. 
Growth (groz), crecimiento. 
Gru m ble (grembel), refunfuñar. 
Guard (gard), guardar. 
Guess (gue's), adivinar, conjeturar. 
Guest (guest), hue'sped. 
Guidance ( gáidans ), dirección, 

gobierno. 
Guide (gáid), guiar. 
Guide (gáid), guia. 
Guilt, (guílt), culpa, dehto. 
Guiltless (guíltless), inocente. 
Guilry (guíiti), culpable. 
Guinea (guíni), guinea. 
Guiíar (guitár), guitarra. 
Gulf (guéif), golfo. 
Gully (gueii), canal, foso. 
Gun (guen), fusil. 
Gurgling ( guérgling ), salir (el 

agua ó la sangre) á borbotones. 
Gush (guech), chorrear. 
Gust (guest), soplo. 

H. 

Habit (jábit), hábito. 

Ilabitation (jabite'chen), habitación. 

Habitually (jabícímali), repetidas 1 

veces. 
Ha el (jad), imp. y part pas. de To 

liave, haber, tener. 



380 



VOCABULARIO. 



Haft (jaft) mango. 

Haggard (jágard), macilento. 

Iíail y el), granizar ; venir á voz ; 
saludar ; llamar. 

Iíail (jel), ¡ salva ! ¡ Dios te guarde ! 

Hair (jer), p3lo, cabello. 

líale (je!), sano. 

Halí (jaf), á medias. 

Half (jaf), medio. 

Hall (jol), vestíbulo, pasadizo. 

Ilalloo (jalo), hola. 

Halo (jalo), halo; auréola. 

Hamlet (jánüet), villorrio. 

Hammer (jámer), martillar. 

Hand (jand), mano. 

Hand (jand), entregar; pasar. 

Handiwork (jándiuerk), hechura ; 
obra. 

Handkerchief (j ánker chif) , pañuelo. 

Ilandle (j andel), manosear. 

Handsomely (jánsomli), lindamen- 
te. 

Hang (jang), colgar; ahorcar. 

Happen (jápen), acontecer. 

Happiness (j apiñes;, felicidad. 

Happy (jápi), feliz. 

Hapsburg (jápsberg), Hapsburgo. 

Harass (jaras), cansar; fatigar. 

Harbinger (járbindcher), precur- 
sor. 

Harbor (járber), abrigar ; albergar. 

Hard (jard), difícil. 

Hard (jard), duro. 

Hardeu y arden), endurecer. 

Hardly (járdii), apenas. 

Hardship (járdchip), pena, afán. 

Hardy (járdi), bravo; robusto. 

Hark (j irc), oye. 

Harm (jarrn), dañar. 

Harm (jarm), daño; mal. 

Harmless (jármles), inocuo, inocen- 
te. 

Ilarmony (jármóny), armonía. 

Harpoon (jarpún), arpón. 

Harpoon (jarpún), clavar el arpón; 
pescar coa arpón. 

Harpooner (jarpúner), arponero. 

Harpy (járpi), arpía. 

Harsh (jaroh), áspero; austero. 

Harshness (járchnes), aspereza, 
austeridad. 

Harvest (járvest), otoño; cosecha. 



Has (jas), ha, tiene. 

Has te (jest), despacho, apuro, pre- 
mura. 

Hasten (je'sen), dar prisa. 

Qasty (jésti), pronto. 

Hat (jat), sombrero. 

Hatch (jach), empollar. 

Hate (jet), odiar. 

Hath (jaz), 2 a - persona delsing. del 
presente de ind. de To ha ve, ha- 
ber, tener. 

Haughtily (jótili), altivamente. 

Haul (jol), halar. 

Haunt (jont), perseguir. 

Haunt (jont), lugar de reunión. 

Hive (jav). haber, tener. 

Havoc (jávoc), estrago. 

Hawk (jok), falcon. 

Haymaker (je'meker), heneador. 

Hazard (jásard), azar; acaso; ries- 
go. 

Haze )je*\ neblina. 

He (ji;, él. 

Head (jed), fuente. 

Hea Jache )jJdek), jaqueca, dolor 
de cabeza. 

Hjadiong yédlong), de cabeza. 

Heal (jil), sanar, curar. 

Health (jelz\ salud. 

Hjalthful (je'lzful), sano. 

Heap (jip), montón. 

Heap (jip), amontonar, hacinar. 

Hear (jir), oir. 

Heard (jerd), imp. y part. pas. de 
To hear, oir. 

Hearer (jírer), oyente. 

Heart (jart), corazón. 

Heartedness (jártednes), sinceridad. 

Hearth (jerz), hogar. 

Heartily (jártili), cordialmcnte; de 
buena gana. 

Heart-piercing (jártpirsing), dolo- 
roso. 

Hearty (járti\ cordial; copioso. 

Heat (j ; t >, calor. 

Heat yit), c;úenj 

Heathen (jí'den), pagano. 

II ave (jiv>, aiTOJar. 

íleave:i jéven), ciclo. 

Heavily (jévili), pesadamente. 

íleavy (jovi\ pesado. 

Hebrides (hébridis), Hébridas. 



VOCABULARIO. 



381 



Heedless (jídles), descuidada 

Ueei (jüV, calcaña; tacón. 

Height (jáit), altura. 

Heir er\ heradero. 

Eeil (jeld), imp. y parí, pas. de 
To iioid, tener, etc. 

Heien (jélen\ Helena. 

Heltespont (jélespont). Dar dáñelos. 

Hdlmec (jelmet), yelmo, casco. 

Help (jelp), ayudar; evitar; impe- 
dir. ^ 

Help (jelp), ayuda, auxilio. 

Helpless (jélples), desamparado; 
débil. 

Helplessly (jélplesli), desamparada- 
mente ; irremediablemente. 

Helplessness Jélplesnes), desampa- 
ro. 

Hem (jem), ¡hem! 

Hemisphere (jémisñr), hemisferio. 

Hemp (jemp), cáñamo. 

Henee (jens), de aquí. 

Henceforward (jensíóruard) , en 
adelante. 

Her (jer), adj. y pro., su (de ella) ; 
la ; le (á ella). 

Herald (jérald), heraldo. 

Heraidry (jéraídri), heráldica. 

Herb (erb), yerba. 

Herbage (erbadeh), herbaje. 

Hercules (jérkitdis), Hércules. 

Herd (jerd), hato ; ganado. 

Here (jir), aquí, acá. 

Hereafter (jiráfSer), en lo venidero; 
en el otro mundo. 

Fereditary (jeréditari), hereditario. 

Heritage (jéritadch), herencia. 

Harmit (jérmit), ermitaño. 

Herodotus (jerodótes), Herodoto. 

Hesitate (jésitet), hesitar. 

Hexagon ye'csagon), hexágono. 

Hid (jid), imp. de To hide, ocultar. 

Hide (jáid), ocultarse ; esconderse. 

Hide (jáid), cuero (en pelo). 

Hideous (jídies), espantoso, horren- 
do. 

High (jai), alto. 

Highland (jáiland), altura ; mon- 
taña. 

Highly (jáih), altamente. 

Highway (jáiue), camino real. 

HiH (jil), monte ; cerro, 



Him (jim), le. 

Himself gimsélf), e'l mismo. 

Hind (jáind), cierva. 

Hinder (jínder), impedir, estorbar. 

HLaderance (jíndrans), estorbo. 

Hinge gindeh-, gozne, bisagra. 

Hmt (jint), insinuar. 

Hint (jint), insinuación, indirecta. 

His (jis), su (de él). 

Hissing jísing), silbido ; silbo. 

Historian (jistórian), historiador. 

H^storical (jistórical), ki-túrico. 

History (jístori), historia. 

Hit (jiO, golpear ; acerrar. 

Hitherto (jí'dertu), hasta ahora. 

Hoard íjord), atesorar. 

Hoar-irost (jor írost), escarcha. 

Hoarse (jors), ronco. 

Hoary (jóri), blanco ; encanecido. 

Hoary-hea ded ( j óri - j e'dedd) , en- 
cauecido. 

Hoek (joc), corvejón ; cierto vino 
del rio. 

Hog (jog), cochino. 

Hoist góist), alzar, izar. 

Hold (jold), presa, toma. 

Hold (jold), tener. 

Hole (joi), agujero. 

Holiday (jólide), día de fiesta. 

Holiness (j orines), santidad. 

Holiow (jólo), hueco. 

iioly (jóii). ÍSanto. 

Horuage (jómadeh), homenaje. 

Home (join), hogar doméstico ; 
casa propia. 

Hoinely (jómh), feo ; casero. 

Hornevrard (jómuard), con direc- 
ción al punto de donde se partió. 

Houesty (óuesti), honradez. 

Honey (jóni), miel. 

Honor (ónor), honrar. 

Honor (ónor), honor, honra. 

Hoof (juf ), pezuña. 

Hook (juk), enganchar ; encorvar. 

Hope (jop), esperar. 

Hope (jop), esperauza. 

Hoj^eless (jóples), desesperado. 

Horaee (joras), Horacio. 

Horizon (joráison), horizonte. 

Horizontal (jorisóntal), horizontaL 

Hom (jorn), cuerno. 

Horrible (jóribel;, horrible. 



382 



VOCABULARIO. 



Horribly (jóribli), horriblemente. 

Horrid (jórid), hórrido. 

HoiTor góror;, horror. 

Horse J >rs;, caballo. 

Horseback (jór>foae), á caballo. 

Horsemanship (jórsmanchip), equi- 
tación. 

Hospital (jóspital), hospital 

Hospitality (jospitáliti), hcspitali- 
dad. 

Host jost\ hueste ; ostia. 

Hostess yós i es), huéspeda. 

Hot (jot), caliente. 

Hound (jáund), perro ; sabueso. 

Hour (áur), hora. 

Hourly (áurli), de hora en hora. 

Fouse (Jáus), casa. 

Household (jáusjold), casa ; mane- 
jo doméstico. 

Housewiíe (jé.s'if), madre de familia. 

llover (jóver), flotar. 

How (jáu), como. 

However (jaue'ver), sin embargo. 

Howl (jáui), aullido. 

Howling (jáuling), que aulla; aulli- 
do. 

Huddle (jédel), arrebujar ; venir 
en tropel. 

Hue (juí), tinte ; color ; matiz. 

Hug (jeg), abrazo apretado. 

Hugo (jiüdeh), gigantesco. 

Hum (jem), zumbido. 

llaman (jiúman), humano. 

llainanily (jiumániti), humanidad. 

Humble (frmbeL), humillar. 

Humbly (embli), humildemente. 

Humbug (jembeg), engañar. 

Humiliation (juimilie'chen), humi- 
llación. 

Humility (jiumíliti), humildad. 

Humming-bird(j¿miug-berd), guai- 
nambí. 

Humor (iúmor), satisfacer, com- 
placer. 

Humor (iúmor), humor. 

Hump (jemp), joroba, corcova. 

Hundred (jlndred), ciento. 

Hung (jeng), imp. y parí, pas. de 
To hang, colgar, ahorcar. 

Hunger (ténguer), hambre. 

ITungry (jengri), hambriento. 

Hunt (jent), caza. 



Hunter (jénter), cazador. 

Hunting (jénting), de cazador. 

Huntsman (jlntsman), cazador. 

Hurí (jerl), arrojar ; echar á rodar 

Hurricane (jérican), huracán. 

Hurry (jéri), apuro, premura. 

Hurry (jeri), apresurarse. 

Hurry-skurry (jéri-skéri), confu- 
sión, barabúnda. 

Hurt (jert), dañar. 

llushand (jé.vband), marido. 

Hu bnidrnan (jesbandman), cul- 
tivador. 

Httsh (jc^b), acallar. 

Husk (jesc), cascara ; vaina. 

Hut (jet), cabana. 

Hydra (jáidra), hidra. 

Ilypocrisy (jaipóerisi), hipocresía. 



I (ái), 3-0. 

Ice (ais), hielo. 

Icicle (áisiquel), cerrión. 

Idea (aidía), idea. 

Idle (áidel), perezoso ; sin hacer 
nada. 

LUeness (áidelnes), pereza. 

Idler (áidler), haragán ; perezoso. 

Idolatry (aidólatri), idolatría. 

If (if ), M. 

ígnito (ignáil), encender ; encen- 
derse. 

Ignoblc (ígnobel), iimoble. 

Ignorancc (ígnorans), ignorancia. 

Ignorant (í ^norant), ignorante. 

Iliad (íliad), iliada. 

111 (il), mal. 

111 (il), malo ; mal. 

inimitable (ilímitabel), ilimitablo. 

Hiiteratc (ilíterat), indocto, igno- 
rante. 

Ill-temper (il-temper), mal genio ; 
mal humor. 

Illuminatc (illúxninet), iluminar. 

Illusion fillú.vyen), ilusión. 

Illusory (illiLs ori), ilusorio. 

Illustrate (ílestret), ilustrar. 

Illustration (ilestiVehen), ilustra- 
ción. 

Image (ímadch), imagen. 



VOCABULARIO. 



383 



Imagery (ímadcheri), representa- 
cioa por medio de imágenes. 

Imaginable (imá de hiña bel), ima- 
ginable. 

Imaginative (imádehinativ), anto- 
jadizo. 

Imagine (imádehin), imaginar. 

Imbue (imbiú), imbuir. 

Imítate (ímitet). imitar. 

Imitation (imite'chen), imitación. 

Immediate (imídiat), inmediato. 

Inimediateiy (imídiatli), immedia- 
tamente. 

Immense (ime'ns), inmenso. 

Imminenee (íminens), lo inminente. 

Imminent (íminent), inminente. 

Immoderate (imóderet), excesivo, 

Immortal (imórtal), inmortal. 

Immortality (imortáliti), inmorta- 
lidad. 

Immortalize (imórtalais), inmorta- 
lizar. 

Immutable (imiútabel), inmutable. 

Impair (impe'r), menoscabar ; dañar. 

Impassable (impásabel), intransi- 
table. 

Impatience (impe'chens), impacien- 
cia. 

Impatient (imp eslíen t), impaciente. 

Impeach (impích\ acusar. 

Impede (impíd), impedir. 

Impending ( ímpe'iiding ) , inmi- 
nente. 

Impenetrable (irnpe'netrabel), im- 
penetrable. 

Impenitent (impe'nitent), impeni- 
tente. 

Imperceptible (impercéptibel), im- 
perceptible. 

Imperfection (iinperfe'cchen), im- 
perfección. 

Imperfectly (impérfectli), imper- 
fectamente. 

Imperial (imperial), imperial. 

Imperiously (impériesli), imperio- 
samente. 

Impetuous (impéchues), impetuoso. 

ímpetus (ímpetes), ímpe'u. 

Implant (implan t), inspirar ; plan- 
tar. 

Implement (ímplement), instru- 
mento, herramienta. 



Implore (implór), implorar. 

Imply (implái), implicar. 

Important (impórtant ; , importante. 

Impose (impó.s). imponer; engañar. 

Impossibiiity (imposibíliti), impo- 
sibilidad. 

Impossible (impósibel),impossible. 

Impostor (impostor), impostor. 

Impotent (ímpotent), impotente. 

Impoverish (impóveri9h), empo- 
brecer. 

Impoverishment ( impóverick- 
ment), empobrecimiento. 

Impracticable (imprácticabel), im- 
practicable. 

Impression (impr echen), impre- 
sión. 

Impress (imprés), hacer sentir ; 
hacer una impresión. 

Imprimis (impráimis), primera- 
mente. 

Imprint (ímprint), imprimir, gra- 
bar. 

Imprison (impríson), encarcelar. 

Imprisonment (ünprísonment), en- 
carcelación. 

Improbable (impróbabel), impro- 
bable. 

Improve (imprúv), mejorar, per- 
feccionar. 

Improvement (imprúvment), me- 
joría ; mejora. 

Imprudent (imprúdent), impru- 
dente. 

Impudence (ímpiudens), descaro. 

Impudant (imprudente, descarado. 

Impulse (ímpuls), impulso. 

Impure (impiúr), impuro. 

Impute (impiut), imputar. 

In (in), en. 

Inaccessible (inaesésibel), inaccesi- 
ble. 

Inactive (ináctiv), inactivo. 

Inactivity (inactíviti), inactividad. 

Inadequate (inádicuat), inadecua- 
do. 

Inattention (inaténchen), inaten- 
ción. 

Incalculable (incálkiulabel), incal- 
culable . 

Incensé (ínsens), incienso. 

Incessant (insésant), sin cesar. 



331 



VOCABULARIO. 



Iach (111911), pulgada. 
Incidence (ínsidens), incidencia. 
Incident (ínsident), incidente. 
Iacipient (insípient), incipiente. 

Inclination (inclinéchen), inclina- 
ción. 

Include (inclúd), incluir. 

Incoine (ínkem), renta. 

Incompatible (inkeinijátibel), in- 
compatible. 

Incoinplete (inkemplí t), incompleto. 

Incomprehensible (incomprijénsi- 
bel), incomprensible. 

Inconceivably (inconsívabli), in- 
concebiblemente. 

Incousiderate (inconsíderat), in- 
considerado. 

Incontrovertible (incontrove'rtíbli), 
indisputablemente. 

Incorpórate (incorpore't), incor- 
porar. 

Increase (íncris), incremento. 

Increase (mcrís), acrecentar, cre- 
cer. 

Incredible (incre'dibil), increible. 

Incrusted (incrested), incrustar. 

Incúlcate (inkelket), inculcar. 

Incur (inkér), incurrir. 

Lidebted (indéted), endeudado ; 
reconocido. 

Indebtedness (inde'tednes), obliga- 
ción. 

Indeed (indíd), de veras; en efecto. 

Indefiuite (indéñnit), indefinido 

Independence (independens), inde- 
pendencia. 

Independent (indipe'ndent), inde- 
pendiente. 

Indescribabla (indescráibabil), in- 
describible. 

India (india), India. 

Lidian (índian), indio. 

Indícate (indike't), indicar. 

Indication (indik echen), indica- 
ción ; indicio. 

Indigence (índidehens), indigencia. 

Indignant (indígnant), indignado. 

Indignantly (indígnantli), con in- 
dignación . 

índigo (índigo), añil. 

Indiscretion (indiscréchen), indis- 
creción. 



Indiscriminately (indiscrírnlnetli), 
sin distuicion. 

Indisputably (indíspiutabli), indis- 
putablemente. 

Indite (indáit), componer ; redac- 
tar. 

Individual (indivídiual), individuo. 

Individual (indivídiual), indivi- 
dual. 

Indolence (índolens), indolencia. 

Indoíent (índolent), indolente. 

Indorse (indórs), endosar ; apro- 
bar. 

Induce (indiús), inducir. 

Inducement (induísment), ali- 
ciente. 

Indulge (indéldch), favorecer. 

Indulgence (indéldch), indulgencia. 

Indus (índes), 

Industrious (industries), industri- 
oso. 

Industry (índestri), industria. 

Inefiably (ine'fabli), inefablemente. 

Inevitable (inévitabel), inevitable. 

Inexhaustibie (mecsóstibil), inago- 
table. 

Inexorable (ine'csorabel), inexora- 
ble. 

Inexperience (ineespíriens), inex- 
periencia. 

Infamous (infames), infame. 

ínfaney (ínfanci), infancia. 

Infant (ínfant), niño. 

Infantüe (ínfantail), infantil. 

Infatúa ted (infáchii e t ed ) , infatuado/ 

Infection (iníechen), infección. 

Inference (ínferens), inferencia. 

Inferior (infírior), inferior. 

Intidel (infidel), infiel, pagano. 

Infinite (ínfinait), infinito. 

lnfinitely (ínfinitli), infinitamente. 

Iníinity (infínili), infinidad. 

Infírm (ini'érm), enfermizo. 

Inflame (infle'm), inflamar. 

Inflexible (infléesibel), inflexible. 

Infiict (inflict), infligir. 

Infliction (inflícehen), inflicción. 

Influence (ínfluens), influencia. 

Influeiitial (influénchal ), influente* 

Inform (infórm), informar. 

Information (iuforméchen), infor- 
mación. 



VOCABULARIO. 



385 



Ingenieras (indehíñes), ingenioso. 

Ingeniously (indchíñesli), ingenio- 
samente. 

Inglorious (inglóries), inglorioso. 

Ingratitucle (ingrátichud), ingrati- 
tud. 

Inhabit (injábit), habitar. 

Inhabitant (injábitant), habitante. 

Inhale (injel), aspirar. 

Inherit (injérit), heredar. 

Inheritance (injéritaus), herencia. 

Iniquitous (inícuites), inicuo. 

Iniquity (inícuiti), iniquidad. 

Initial (iníehal), inicial. 

Iujudicious (indchndíghes), indis- 
creto ; imprudente. 

Injunction (indehá^hen), man- 
dato, precepto. 

Injure (índeher), dañar. 

Injury (ínélcheri), daño. 

Injustice (indehéstis), injusticia. 

Ink-bottle (íncbotel), tintero. 

Inlaid (ínlecl), ataráceado ; embu- 
tido. 

Inlet (ínlet), abra ; entrada. 

Inmate (ínmet), inquilino ; habi- 
tante. 

Inmost (ínmost), interior ; lo mas 
interior. 

Inn (in), posada. 

Inner (íner), interior ; lo de dentro. 

Innumerable (iniúmerabel), innu- 
merable. 

Inordinate (inórdinat), desorde- 
nado. 

Inquire (incuáir), preguntar; exa- 
minar. 

Inquisición (incuisíchen), inquisi- 
ción. 

Inquisitive (incuísitiv), preguntón. 

Insatiable (mse'chiabel), insaciable. 

Inscription (inscrípehen), inscrip- 
ción. 

Insect (ínsect), insecto. 

Insensible (inse'nsibel), insensible. 

Insensibly (insénsibh), insensible- 
mente. 

Inseparable (inse'parabel), insepa- 
rable. 

Insert (insért), insertar. 

Insigniücant (insignificante insig- 
nificante. 



Insight (ínsait), conocimiento pro- 
fundo. 

Insinúate (insíñuet), insinuar. 

Insinuation (insiñué9hen), insinúa^ 
cion. 

Insist (insíst), insistir. 

Insolent (ínsolent), insolente. 

Inspect (inspe'ct), inspeccionar. 

Inspection (inspéc9hen), inspec- 
cion. 

Inspiration (inspire'chen), inspira- 
ción. 

Inspire (inspáir), inspirar. 

Instance (ínstans), ejemplo. 

Instant (ínstant), instante. 

Instant (ínstant), instantáneo. 

Instantaneously (instant éniesli), in- 
stantáneamente. 

Instan tly (ínstantli), instantánea- 
mente. 

Instead of (inste'd of ), en vez de, 
en lugar ele. 

Instinct (ínstinct), instinto. 

Instinctive (mstínctiv), instintivo. 

Institute (ínstichut), instituto. 

Institution (instichú^hen), institu- 
ción. 

Instruct (instréct), instruir. 

Instructecl (instrécted), instruielo. 

Instruction (instrécehen), instruc- 
ción. 

Instructor (instructor), instructor. 

Instrument (ínstrument), instru- 
mento. 

Ins trumentahty ( í nstrum en t áliti) , 
medio. 

Insuit (ínselt), insulto. 

Insupportably (insepórtabli), in- 
suportablemente. 

Insure (in9húr), asegurar. 

Insurrection (inseréechen), insur- 
rección. 

Integrity (intégriti), integridad, 

Intellect (íntelect), intelecto. 

Intellectual (intelécchual), intelec- 
tual. 

Intelligence (intélidehens), inteli- 
gencia. 

Inteiligencer ( intelidchenser ) , 
comunicante de noticias. 

Intelligent (mtéiidchent), inteli- 
gente. 



386 



VOCABULARIO. 



Intemperance (intémperans), in- 
temperancia. 

Intend (inténd), intentar ; pensar. 

Intendant (mténdant), intendante. 

Intense (inténs), intenso. 

Intention (inténchen), intención. 

Intercourse (íntercors), comunica- 
ción. 

Interest (interest), interesar. 

Interest (interest), interés. 

Interesting (interésting), intere- 
sante. 

Interference (interfírens), interven- 
ción ; mediación. 

Interlace (ínterles), entrelazar. 

Interminable (inte'rminabel), inter- 
minable. 

ínter mi t (intermít), intermitir. 

Internal (intérnal), interno. 

Interpret (intérpret), interpretar. 

Interrupt (Ínter ept), interrumpir. 

Intertwine (intertwáin), entrelazar. 

Interval (ínterval), intervalo. 

Intervene (interviú), intervenir. 

Intimate (íntimet), íntimo. 

luto (ínto), en ; dentro. 

Intolerance (intólerans), intoleran- 
cia. 

Intrench (intre'n9h), usurpar; atrin- 
cherar. 

Intrepidity (intrepíditi), intrepi- 
dez. 

Intrigue (intríg), intriga. 

Intrigue (intríg), intrigar. 

Introduce (introdiús), introducir. 

Intrust (intrést), confiar. 

Invade (invéd), invadir. 

Invalid (ínvalid), inválido ; en- 
fermo . 

Invaluable (inválluabel), inestima- 
ble. 

Invariably (inve'riabli), invariable- 
mente. 

Invasión (inve'.syen), invasión. 

Invective (invéctiv), invectivo. 

Invent (inve'nt), inventar. 

Invention (inve'nchen), invención ; 
invento. 

Investígate (invéstiguet), investi- 
gar. 

Investigation ( investigue ehen), in- 
vestigación. 



Inveterately (invéteratli), obstina- 
damente. 

Invidious (invi\b>s), envidioso. 

Invigorated (invígorated), fortifi- 
cado. 

Invincible (mvínsibel), invencible. 

Invisibility (invisibíliti), invisibili- 
dad. 

Invisible (inví.sibel), invisible. 

Invitiug (inváiting), halagüeño ; 

. agradable. 

Involve (invólv), envolver ; traer 
consigo. 

Inwardly (ínuordli), interiormente. 

Irksome (¿rcsem), fastidioso ; en. 

Iron (áirn), hierro. 

Irony (áironi), ironía. 

Irradiate (irédiet), irradiar. 

Irrational (irá9henal), irracional. 

Irregular (ire'guiular), irregular. 

Irregularity (ireguiuiáriti), irregu- 
laridad. 

Irreligious (irelídches), irreligioso. 

Irresistible (ire.sístibel), irresistible. 

Irrevocable (irévocabel), irrovuca- 
ble. 

Irritable (íritabel), irritable. 

Irritating (íritating), que irrita. 

Is (is), es, está. 

ísaiah (isáiah), Isaías. 

Island (áiland), isla. 

Issue (Í9I1U), sahr. 

It (it), lo, la, le, ello. 

Its (its), su. 

Itself (itsélf ), mismo. 



Jackanapcs (dchácaneps), pisa- 
verde. 

Jack-o'-lantern ( dchácolántern ) , 
fuego fatuo. 

Jacobin (dchécobin), Jacobino. 

Jail (dchel), cárcel. 

Jailer (dehéler), carcelero. 

James (dchems), Diego. 

Jammed (dchamd), imp. y part. 
pas. de To jam, aprenser. 

January (dchafiuari), enera 

Jar (denar), tarro. 

Jargon (dchárgon), jerga. 



VOCABULARIO. 



387 



Jarring (dcháring), parí. pres. cíe 
To jar, chocar ; discordar ; reñir. 

Jaw, (dcho), quijada. 

Jealous (debeles), celoso. 

Jelly (dchéli), jalea. 

Jerk (dcherc), sacudida. 

Jest (dchest), burla ; chanza. 

Jester (dchéster), burlón ; bufón. 

Jesuit (dchésiuit), Jesuita. 

Jewell (dchúel), joya. 

Jeweller (dchúeler), joyero. 

Job (dchob), obra ; trabajo ; tarea. 

Jocund (dehequend), jocoso, jo- 
cundo. 

Join (dchóin), unir. 

Joint (dchóint), juntura. 

Joke (dchok), burla. 

Jollify (dchóüfai), alegrar ; ale- 
grarse. 

Journey (dchérni), jornada ; viaje. 

Journey (dchérni), viajar. 

Jove (dchov), Jove, Júpiter. 

Jovial (dchóvial), jovial. 

Joy (dchói), alegría. 

Joyous (dchóyes), alegre, festivo. 

Joyously (dchóyesli), alegremente, 
festivamente. 

Judge (dehedeh), juzgar. 

Judgment (dchedchnient), juicio. 

Juice (dchus), jugo. 

Juicy (dchusi), zumoso ; suculento. 

Jump (dchemp), brincar. 

Junction (dehengehen), unión. 

Júpiter (dchúpiter;, Júpiter. 

Jury (dchúri), jurado. 

Juryman (dchúriman), jurado. 

Just (dchest), just. 

Just (dchest), precisamente ; mis- 
mo. 

Justice (dchéstis), justicia. 

Justice (dchéstis), juez. 

Justly (dchestli), justamente. 

Jut (dchet), sobresalir ; combarse. 

K 

Keen (kin), agudo ; afilado ; pene- 
trante . 

Keep (kip), sostener. 

Keeping (kíping), part. pres. de To 
keep, conservar, etc. 



Kept (kept), imp. y part. pas. de 
To keep, conservar. 

Key (ki), clave ; llave. 

Khan (kián), kan (señor persiano). 

Kick (kic), cocear, dar coces. 

Kidskin (kídskin), piel de cabre- 
tilla. 

Kill (kil), matar. 

Killer (kíler), matador. 

Kin (kin), parentela. 

Kind (káind), bondadoso. 

Kind (káind), suerte, género. 

Kindle (kíndel), encender. 

Kindling (kindling), acto de encen- 
der. 

Kindly (káindli), bondadosamente. 

Kindness (káindnes), bondad. 

Kindred (kind red), semejante. 

King (king), rey. 

King-craft ( kíngeraft ) , arte de 
reinar. 

Kingdom (kíngdem), reino. 

Kingly (kíngli), regio. 

Kiss (kis), beso. 

Kitchen (kíchen), cocina. 

Kitten (kíten), gatito. 

Knave (nev), picaro, bribón. 

Knee (ni), rodilla. 

Kneel (nil), arrodillarse. 

Knell (nel), clamoreo ; repique 
fúnebre. 

Knelt (nelt), imp. y part pas de 
To kneel, arrodillarse. 

Knew (ñu), imp. de To know, sa- 
ber, etc. 

Knife (náif), cuchillo. 

Knight (náit), caballero. 

Knighthood (náiijud), caballería. 

Knit (nit), tejer ; hacer medias. 

Knock (noc), golpe. 

Knock (noc), golpear. 

Knot (not), nudo. 

Knotty (nóti), nudoso ; dificultoso» 

Know (no), conocer ; saber. 

Knowledge ( nóledch ) , conoci- 
miento. 



Labor (lébor), trabajo. 
Labor (le'bor), trabajar. 



388 



YOCABULAUIO. 



Laborer (léborer), trabajador. 
Laboring (léboring), parí. pres. de 

To labor, trabajar. 
Laborious (lebóries), laborioso. 
Laborionsly (lebóriesli), laboriosa- 
mente. 
Lacedemon (lasidímon), lacede- 

monio. 
Lack (lac), carecer de ; faltar. 
Lackey (láqui), lacayo. 
Laconic (lacónic), lacónico. 
Laden (léden) , cargado. 
Lady (lédi), señora, dama. 
Lag (lag), quedarse atrás. 
Laid (led), imp. y parí pas. de To 

lay, poner. 
Lain (len), parí pas. de To lie, 

acostarse. 
Lake (lee), lago. 
Lamb (lam), cordero. 
Lame (lem), cojo, estropeado. 
Lament (larnént), lamentarse. 
Lamentable (lánientabel), lamenta- 
ble. 
Lamentation(lamentécben), lamen- 
tación. 
Lamp-black (lámpblac), bumo de 

pez. 
Lamp-light (lámplait), luz de lám- 
para. 
Lance (lans), lanceta. 
Land (laúd), tierra ; terreno. 
Land(land), saltar en tierra ; apor- 
tar. 
Landscape (lándsquep), paisage. 
Language (lángüedeb), lenguage. 
Languid (lángüid), lánguido. 
Languisli (lángüich), languidecer, 

desfallecer. 
Languishingly (lángüicningii), lán- 
guidamente. 
Landward (lánduord), hacia la 

tierra. 
Lap (lap), regazo. 
Lap (lap), lamer ; beber como un 

perro. 
Lapse (laps), espacio. 
Larder (larder), despensa. 
Large (larden), grande. 
Largely (lárdchli), grandemente. 
Lark (larc), alondra. 
Lascivious (lasívies), lascivo. 



Lash (la(;h), azotar ; ligar. 
Lash (la<;h), punta de látigo ; lati- 
gazo. 
Last (last), durar. 
Last (last), último. 
at Last ^at last), en fin, por último. 
Lasting (lásting), duradero. 
Lasíly (lástli), últ imamento. 
Latcíi (lach), aldaba. 
Late (let), tarde ; que fue'. 
Lat^nt (látent), latente. 
Latin (látin), latín. 
Latter (láter), último ; este. 
Lattice (látis), celosía. 
Laudable (láudabel), laudable. 
Lauded (lóded). imp. y parí pas. 

de To laúd, ámbar. 
Laugb (laf), reír. 
Laugh (laf), risotada, carcajada. 
Laughing-stock (láfing-stoc), haz- 

mereir. 
Laugliter (láfter), risa. 
Laurel (lórel), laurel. 
Lave (lev), lavar. 
Lavish (lávick), pródigo. 
Law (lo), ley. 

Lawgiver (lóguiver), legislador. 
| Lawless (lóles), desordenado. 
Lawn (Ion), prado : linón. 
Lawyer (lóyer), abobado. 
Lax (laes), relajado ; indetermi- 
nado. 
Laxiíy (lácsiti), relajación. 
Lay (le), poner, colocar. 
Lay (le), canto. 
Layman (loman), lego. 
Lazy (lo.vi), perezoso. 
Lea (le), prado, campo. 
Lead (led), plomo. 
Lead (lid), conducir. 
Leaf (lif), hoja. 

Lean (lin), apoyar ; apoj-arse ; in- 
clinar. 
Leap (lip), salto. 
Leap (lip), saltar, brincar. 
Learn (lero), aprender. 
Learning (leming), saber. 
Learnt (lernt), imp. y parí pas. ir- 
regular de To learn, aprender. 
at Least (at iist), al mém 
Leather (lé'drr), cauro. 
Leave (liv), permiso. 



VOCABULARIO. 



389 



Lea ve (II v), dejar. 

Lecture (le'cchur). lectura ; curso. 

Led (led), imp. y part. pas. de To 
lead, conducir. 

Ledge (ledch), borde. 

Leech (lien), sanguijuela ; me'dico. 

Leek (lie), puerro. 

Left (left), imp. y part. pas. de To 
lea ve, dejar. 

Left (left), izquierdo. 

Leg (leg), pierna. 

Legacy (légasi), legado. 

Legénd (lídehend), leyenda. 

Legendary (IMchendari), fabuloso. 

Legislation (ledchisiéchen), legis- 
lación. 

Leisure (le'syer>, ocio ; desocupa- 
ción. 

Lemon (le'mon), limón. 

Lend (lend), prestar. 

Length (lengz), largura. 

at Length (at lengz), al fin ; con el 
tiempo. 

Lengthy (le'ngzi), largo. 

Lenity (léniti), lenidad. 

Leus (leus), lente. 

Less (les), m e-nos. 

Lesson (léson), lección. 

Lest (lest), no sea que ; por temor 
de que. 

Let (let), dejar. Signo del impe- 
rativo. 

Letter (le'ter), carta ; letra. 

Letters (le'ters\ letras. 

Levee (Jeví), dia de corte. 

Level (le'vel), nivelar. 

Level (le'vel), nivel. 

Lever (líver), palanca. 

Leviathan (leváiazan), leviatan. 

Levity (le'viti), levedad ; frivolidad. 

Liable (láiabel), sujeto. 

Libel (láibel), libelo. 

Libeller (láibeler), libelista. 

Libérate (lib u-ét), libertar. 

Linertine (líbertain), libertino. 

Liberty ^ líber ti), libertad. 

Library (láibrari), biblioteca. 

License (láisens), licencia. 

Lick (lie), lamer. 

Lie (lái), mentira. 

Lie (lái), acostarse. 

Lie (lái), mentir. 



Lief (lif ), de buena gana. 

Lieu (liú), lugar. 

Lieutenant (liule'nant), teniente. 

Life (láif ), vida. 

Lift (lift), levantar. 

Light (láit), ligero, liviano. 

Light (láit), encender, alumbrar. 

Light (lá i\ luz. 

Lighten (laiten), relampaguear ; 
aligerar. 

Lightiy (láitli), ligeramente. , 

Lightness (láiíness), ligereza, li-j 
viandad. 

Lightning (láitning), relámpago. 

Like (láik), gustarle á uno ; gustar 
de. 

Like (láik), semejante á. 

Likely (láikli), verosímilmente. 

Liken (láiken), asemejar. 

Likewise (láikuais), también, asi- 
mismo. 

Limb (lim), miembro. 

Limit (límit), límite. 

Limpid (límpid), límpido. 

Line (láin), línea ; raya. 

Line (láin), forrar ; rayar. 

Linen (línen), tela de hilo. 

Linger (línguér), tardar. 

Lingering (línguering), tardanza. 

Lining (láining), forro. 

Link (line), enlazar, encadenar. 

Lion (láion). león. 

Lip (lip), labio. 

Lisp (lisp), balbucear ; cecear. 

List (list), lista. 

Listen (lísen), escuchar. 

Listless (lístles), indiferente. 

Literaily (líterali), literalmente. 

Literary (líteraii), literario. 

Literature (líterachur), literatura. 

Little (lítel), poco. 

Little Bear (lítel ber), osa menor. 

Little (lítel). pequeño, chico. 

Liturgy (líturdchi), liturgia. 

Live (liv), vivir. 

Live (láiv), vivo. 

Livelihood (láivlijud), vida. 

Lively (lálvli), vivo, vivaracho. 

Living (líving), vida ; part. presl 
de To live, vivir. 

Livy (lívi), Livio. 

Lizard (lísard), lagarto. 



390 



VOCABULARIO. 



Load (lod), carga. 

Loathe (lo'd), aborrecer. 

Loathing (lo'ding), disgusto. 

Lock (loe), cerradura. 

Locomotivo (lócoinotiv), locomo- 
tiva. 

Lodge (lodch), alojar ; residir. 

Lodgiug (lódching), habitación. 

Loftiness (lóítines), altura ; altivez. 

Lofty (lófti), alto ; altivo. 

Loiter (lóiter), haraganear. 

London (leuden), Londres. 

Lone (Ion), solo, solitario. 

Loneliness (lónlines), soledad. 

Lcnely (lónli), solitario. 

Long (long), anehelar. 

Long (long), largo. 

Long ago (long agó), hace mucho 
tiempo. 

no Longer (no lónguer), no mas ; 
ya—no. 

Long-tailed (lóng-teld), que tiene 
la cola larga. 

Look well (luk ue'l), tener buen 
semblante. 

Looker-on (lúker-on), espectador. 

Looking-glass ( lúking-gias ), es- 
pejo. 

Loóse (lus), desatar. 

Loóse (lus), suelto ; flojo. 

Loosely (lúsli), sueltamente ; floja- 
mente. 

Loquacious ( locue'clies ), locuaz, 
charlador. 

Loquacity (locuásiti), locuacidad. 

Lord (lord), señorear ; dominar. 

Lord (lord), señor ; lord. 

Lordly (lórdli), señoril. 

Lore (lor), enseñanza. 

Lose (lus), perder. 

Loss (los), péidida. 

Lost (lost), imp. y parí. pas. de To 
lose, perder. 

Lot (lot), suerte ; lote. 

Load (laúd), alto, fuerte. 

Loudly (lándli), altamente. 

Lounger ( láundeher ), holgazán ; 
callejero. 

Lo ve (lev), amor. 

Love (lev), amar. 

Lover (l¿ver), amante. 

Loveliness (íívlines), amabilidad. 



Lovely (llvli), amable. 
Lovingly (lévingli), amablemente. 
Low (lo), bajo. 
Lower (lóer), bajar. 

Lowland ( lóland ), valle ; tierra 
baja. 

Lowíy (lóli), humilde. 

Luck (lee ), suerío ; buena for- 
tuna. 

Luckily (lekili), dichosamente. 

Lucubration (lucubrechen), lucu- 
bración. 

Ludicrous (ludieres), burlesco, ri- 
dículo. 

Lull (leí), arrullar. 

Luminary (lúminari), luminar. 

Luminous (lü mines), luminoso. 

Lung (leng), pulmón. 

Lurid (llúrid), cárdeno. 

Luxuiious (lug.s-yúries), lujoso. 

Luxury (lúgsyuri), lujo. 

Lycurgus (laique'rgues). Licurgo. 

Lying (láiing), recostado ; acos- 
tado. 

Lying (láiing), mentiroso. 

Lyre (láir), lira. 

Lysias (láisias), Lisias. 

M. 

Macaroni (macaróni), macarrones. 

Macedón (másedon), macedonio. 

Machine (machín), máquina. 

Machinery (machinen), maquina- 
ria. 

Machine-shop (machín- (¿hop), taller 
de maquinaria. 

Mad (mad), enfurecer. 

Madam (madam), señora. 

Madcap (mádeap), locarias. 

Made (med), imp. y purt. pas. de 
To make, hacer, 

Madnesa (niádnes), locura. 

Magic (mádehic), magia. 

Magical (mádehieal), mágico. 

Magnanimous (magnánim es), mag- 
nánimo. 

Magnificent (magnífisent), magni- 
fico 

Magnify (mágnifai), magnificar ; 
aumentar. 



VOCABULARIO. 



391 



Maid (med), doncella ; criada. 

Main (men), mar. 

Mamtain (manten), mantener. 

Majestic (madchéstic), majestuoso. 

Majesty (mádchesti), majestad. 

Make (mek), hacer. 

Maker (me'quer), Hacedor. 

Malady (máladi), enfermedad. 

Male (mel), macho. 

Male (niel), macho, varón. 

Man (man), hombre. 

Man (man), tripular ; armar. 

Manage (mánadch), manejar ; go- 

> bernar ; encontrar medio. 

Management (mánadchment), ma- 
nejo ; habilidad. 

Mane (man), crin ; melena. 

Maniac (méniac), loco, maniaco. 

Manhood (mánjud), virilidad. 

Manifest (mánifest), manifestar. 

Manifestation (manifeste'chen), ma- 
nifestación. 

Manifestly (mánifestli), mamfesta- 
mente. 

Manitou (manitú), Manitou. 

Mankind (máncaind), especie hu- 
mana. 

Manly (mánli), varonil. 

Manna (mana), maná. 

Manner (máner), manera. 

Manuers (máners), modales; buena 
crianza. 

Manceuvre (manúver), maniobra ; 
diligencia. 

Mansión (manchen), mansión. 

Mantle (mantel), mantilla ; capa. 

Mantle (mantel), cubrir, tapar. 

Mantled (mánteld), imp. y part. 
pas. de To mantle, cubrir. 

Manual (manual), manual. 

Manufacture (mañufácchur), ma- 
nufactura. 

Manufacture (mañufácchur), fabri- 
car. 

Manufacturing . mañufácchuring), 
rnanuf a c tur ero . 

Manuscnpt (máñuscript), manus- 
crito. 

Man y (me'ni), muchos. 

Map (map), mapa. 

Mar (mar), dañar. 

Marble (márbel), mármol. 



March (march), marzo. 

March (march), marchar. 

Mare (mer), yegua. 

Margin (márdchin), margen. 

Mark (marc), Marco. 

Mark (marc), marcar. 

Mark (marc), marca, señal. 

Market (márquet), mercado. 

Marriage (mariden), boda ; matri- 
monio. 

Married (márid), casado. 

Marry (mári), casar, casarse. 

Marrying (máriing), casamiento. 

Mars (mars), Marte. 

Marshal (márchal), poner en orden 
de batalla. 

Marvel (márvel), maravillarse. 

Mask (mase), máscara. 

Masón (me'son), albañil ; masón. 

Mass (mas), misa ; masa. 

Massacre (másaker), matanza. 

Mast (mast), mástil. 

Master (máster), amo, dueño ; ca- 
pitán. 

Master (máster), domar ; vencer. 

Masterpiece (másterpis),obra maes- 
tra. 

Master-spirit (másterspírit), espí- 
ritu dominador. 

Mastery (másteri), maestría. 

Mate (met), compañero ; piloto. 

Material (matírial), material. 

Material (matírial), importante. 

Mathematical (mazemátical), ma- 
temático. 

Mathematics (mazemátics), mate- 
mática. 

Matter (máter), importar. 

Matter (máter), materia ; impor- 
tancia. 

Matthew (máziu), Mateo. 

Mattock (mátoc), azadón de peto. 

Matured (machúrd), maduro ; per- 
fecto. 

Maturity (machúriti), madurez. 

May (me). Auxiliar que corres- 
pondo á puede. 

May (me), mayo. 

Mazy (me'si), enredado. 

Me (mi), mí, á mí, me. 

Meadow (médo), prado. 

Meal (mil), comida. 



392 



VOCABULARIO. 



Mean (min), mezquino, bajo. 
Mean (min), significar ; querer de- 
cir. 
Mean (min), medio. 
Meaning (míning), significación. 
Meant (ment), imp. irreg. y parí. 
pas. irreg. de To mean, querer 
decir. 
Meantime (míntaim), entretanto. 
Meanwhile (mínjuail), entretanto. 
Measure (mésyer), medida. 
Measnrenient (me'syerment), medi- 
da. 
Meat (mit), carne. 
Mechanic ( mecánic ), mecánico ; 

maquinista. 
Mechanical (mecánical), mecánico. 
Mechanically (mecánicali), mecá- 
nicamente. 
Medal (médal), medalla. 
Medicinal (medísinal), medicinal. 
Mediocre (mídioquer), mediano 
Mediocrity ( midiócriti ), media- 
nía. 
Meditating (méditeting), parí. pres. 

de To meditate, meditar. 
Meditation (medit eslíen), medita- 
ción. 
Mediterranean (mediteríñan), Me- 
diterráneo. 
Médium (midiera), medio. 
Medley (médli), miscelánea ; mez- 
cla. 
Meed (mid), medida ; parte corres- 
pondiente. 
Meek (mié), apacible, dulce, manso. 
Meet (mit), encontrar. 
Melancholy (mélancoli), melanco- 
lía. 
Melodious (melódies), melodioso. 
Melón (melón), melón. 
Melt away (melt aué), derretirse ; 

consumirse. 
Melting (mélting), derretimiento. 
Member (member), miembro. 
Menibrane (mémbren), membrana. 
Memorable (me'morabel), memora- 
ble. 
Memorial (memorial), memorial. 
M( mory (inémori ), memoria. 
Men (meii). Plural de mem, hom- 
bre. 



Mend (mend), remendar ; enmen- 
dar. 
Mental (mental), mental. 
Mention (ménchen), mención. 
Mention (ménchen), mentar; h 

mención de. 
Merchandise (mérchandis), mer- 
cancías. 
Merchant (mérchant), comerciante. 
Merciless (mérsiles), desapiadado ; 

cruel. 
Mercurial (merkiúrial), merenri 
Mercy (mérsi), misericordia ; 

ced. 
Merely (mírli), meramente. 
Merit (mérit), mérito. 
Merit (mérit), merecer. 
Meritorious (meritorias), meritorio. 
Merriment (mériment), júbilo, r - 

gocijo. 
Mess (mes), rancho ; plato. 
Message (mésadeh), mensaje ; re- 
cado. 
Messenger (mésendeher), mensa- 
jero. 
Met (met), imp. y part pas. de To 

meet, encontrar. 
Metal (metal), metal. 
Method (niézud), método. 
Methodically (mezódicali), metódi- 
camente. 
Methought (mi zóut), creí. 
Mew (miau), miao. 
Microcosm (máicrocosm), micro- 

cósmos. 
Mid (mid), medio. 
Mid-day (míd-de), mediodía. 
Middle (mídel), medio ; mitad. 
Midland (niídland), centro ; inte- 
rior. 
Midnight (mídnait), media noche, 
Midst (midst), medio. 
Mulway (mídue), medio camino, 
Mien (min), ademan ; porte. 
Might (máit), poder. 
Might (máit). Auxiliar que corres- 
ponde á podía, ;<'</■■ ia, etc. 
Mighty (máiti), bien, muy. 
Mighty (máiti), poderoso. 
Mild (máild), manso ; dulce ; flojo. 
\j i (máil), milla. 
Milesian (niilíayan), milesio. 



VOCABULARIO. 



393 



Military (mflitari), militar. 

Military (mílitari), tropa; ejér- 
cito. 

Milk (milc), leche. 

Mili (mil), molino. 

Miller (muer), molinero. 

Miliion (míilen>, millón. 

Millstone (rnüston), piedra moli- 
nera. 

Mind (máind), mente. 

Mind (máind), hacer caso de. 

Mindtul (máindíul), cnidadoso ; te- 
niendo presente. 

Mine (máin), mió, mi. 

Mine (máin), mina. 

Mineralogy (minerálodchi) , mine- 
ralogía. 

Mingle (mínguel), mezcla. 

Mmister (mínister), servir ; admi- 
nistrar. 

Minister (mínister), ministro. 

Minstrel (mínstrel), trovador. 

Mint (mint), casa de moneda ; yer- 
ba buena. 

Minute (mínet), minuto. 

Minutely ( miñútli ), minuciosa- 
mente. 

Minutias (miñúchie), minuciosidad. 

Miracle (míraquel). milagro. 

Mirror (míror), espejo. 

Mirth (merz), alegría. 

Miscalculation ( miscalkiule'chen ), 
mal cálculo. 

Mischief (míschif ), daño. 

Mischievous (míschives), dañoso, 
perverso. 

Miserable (míserabel), miserable. 

]\Iisery (rníseri), miseria. 

Misfortune (misí'órchun), mala for- 
tuna. 

Misgiving (misgíving), recelo. 

Misgovernment (mibgóvernment), 
mal gobierno. 

Misled (misléd). imp. y part. pos. 
de To mislead, extraviar. 

Miss (mis), errar ; dejar de ; ese-bar 
ine'nos. 

Mistake (miste'c), equivocarse. 

Mistake (mistéc), equivocación. 

Mistress (místres). señora ; dama ; 
querida. 

Mitígate (mítiguet), mitigar. 



Mix (miks), mezclar. 

Mixture (míkschur), mezcla. 

Mob (mob), populacho. 

Mock (moc), bufarse de. 

Mockery (mókeri), burla. 

Mode (mod), modo, manera. 

Model (módei), amoldar. 

Modérate (móderet), moderar. 

Modérate (móderat), moderado. 

Moderateiy (móderath), moderada- 
mente. 

Modern (módern), moderno. 

Modest (módest), modesto. 

Modestly ( niódestli ), modesta- 
mente. 

Modify (módifai), modificar. 

Mohammedan (mojámidan),mciho- 
metano. 

Moil (móil), cansar. 

Molest (mole'st), molestar. 

Moment (móment), momento ; im- 
portancia. 

Momentarily (mómentarih), mo- 
mentáneamente. 

Momentary (mómentari), momen- 
táneo. 

Momentous ( mome'ntes ), impor- 
tante. 

Momentum (mome'ntein), momen- 
to, ímpetu. 

Monarch (nónarc), monarca. 

Monarchy (mónarki), monarquía. 

Money (méni), moneda; dinero. 

Monger (ménguer), traficante. 

'Mongst (móngst), abreviación de 
Aiuongst, entre. 

Monkey (méuki), mono. 

Monopoly (monópoli), monopolio. 

Monotonous (monóíones), monóto- 
no. 

Monster (mónster), monstruo. 

Monstrous (mónstres), monstruo. 

Month (menz), mes. 

Moon (mun), luna. 

Moonbeam ( múnbim ), rayo de 
luna. 

Mooniight (múnlait), luz de la 
luna. 

Moor (mur), anclar. 
; Moorish (múiich), morisco ; cena= 
| goso. 
j Mope (mop\ dormitar. 



394 



VOCABULARIO. 



Moral (moral), moral. 

Moralist (uióraüst), moralista. 

Morality (moráliti), moralidad. 

Moral ly (mórali), m oralmente. 

Moráis (moráis), buenas costum- 
bres. 

Morass (moras), pantano, treme- 
dal. 

Morbidly ( mórbidli ), mórbida- 
mente. 

More (mor), mas. 

Morning (mórning), mañana. 

Mortal (mortal), mortal. 

Mosque (mosc), mezquita. 

Mossy (mósi), cubierto de musgo. 

Most (most), el mas, lo mas ; muy. 

Mote (mot), mote. 

Moth (moz), polilla. 

Mother (mé'der), madre. 

Motherless (medirles), sin madre; 
huérfano de madre. 

Motion mochen), movimiento. 

Motive (mótiv), motivo. 

Motto (moto), lema, divisa. 

Mount (máunt), montar, subir. 

Mount (máunt), monte, montaña. 

Mountain (máuntan), montaña. 

Mountainous (m aun tañes), monta- 
ñoso. 

Mourn (mern), lamentar, deplorar. 

Mournful (mérnful), lúgubre. 

Mouth (máuz), boca. 

Movable (múvabel), movible ; mó- 
vil. 

Move (muv), movimiento ; paso. 

Move (muv), moverse. 

Movement (múvment), movimien- 
to. 

Much (mech), mucho. So much, 
tanto. 

Multiplicity (meltiplísiti), multi- 
plicidad. 

Multiply (me'ltiplai), multiplicar. 

Murder (m traer), asesinato. 

Murderer (mérderer), asesino. 

Murmur (mérmer), murmurar. 

Murmur (mermer), murmuración ; 
murmullo. 

Murmuring (mérmering),pari pres. 
de To murmur. 

Másele (mlsel), músculo. 

Muse (miús), musa. 



Muse (miús), meditar. 

Mushroom (mlchrnm), seta. 

Music (miú.vic), música. 

Musket (mésket), mosquete. 

Musket-shot (iue'sket-cliot), mos- 
quetazo. 

Must (mest), ser preciso. 

Mu te (niiút), mudo. 

Mutter (meter), refunfuñar. 

Muzzle (ruesel), boca ; bozal. 

My (mái), mi, mió. 

Myself (maiself ), yo mismo ; mí 
mismo. 

Mysterious (mistíries), misterioso. 

Mystery (místeii), misterio. 

Mythology ( mizólodchi ), mitolo- 
gía. 

N. 

Nag (nag), rocín. 

Naked (néked), desnudo. 

Ñame (nem), nombre. 

Ñame (nem), nombrar. 

Nameless (némles), sin nombre. 

Nap (nap), sueño ligero y corto. 

Nap (nap). echar un sueño. 

Napkin (nápquin), servilleta. 

Nárrate (narét), narrar. 

Narrative (nárativ), naiTacion. 

Narrow (náro), estrecho, angosto. 

Nation (ne'chen), nación. 

National (náchenai), nacional. 

Native (nétiv), nativo ; natural. 

Natural (náchnral^, natural. 

Naturally ( náchurali ), natural- 
mente. 

Nature (ne'chur), naturaleza. 

Navigation (naviguéchen), naviga- 
cion. 

Nay (ne), no. 

Near (nir), cerca ; cerca de ; casi. 

Nearly (nírli), casi. 

Neatly (nítli), primorosamente. 

Necessary (nésesari), necesario. 

Necessary (nésesari), letruia. 

Necessity (nisésiti), necesidad. 

Neck (nec), cuello, pescuezo. 

Need (nid), necesidad. 
1 (nid), necesitar. 

Needless (nidios), innecesario. 



Ñegative (négativ), negativo. 

Neglect (nigléct), negligencia. 

Neglect (nigle'ct), descuidar ; des- 
preciar. 

Negligence ( néglidchens ), negli- 
gencia. 

Neighbor (ne'bor), vecino. 

Neighborhood (ne'borjud), vecin- 
dad. 

Neighboring (néboring), vecino. 

Neither (ní'der), ni ; tampoco. 

Neinaean (nimían), Ñemeos (juegos 
antiguos). 

Nepenthe (nipe'nze), nepente. 

Nephew (ne'ñu), sobrino. 

Nerv (nerv), nervio. 

Nest (nest), nido. 

Nether (ne"der), inferior ; bajo. 

Never (ne'ver), nunca, jamas. 

Nevermore (nevermór), nunca mas, 
jamas. 

New (ñu), nuevo. 

Newly (ñúli), nuevamente. 

New-Orleans (ñu-órlians), Nueva 
Orleans. 

Newspaper (ñúspaper\ periódico. 

New-York (ñuyórk), Nueva-York. 

Next (necst), próximo ; inmediato. 

Niágara (naiágara), Niágara. 

Nib (nib), punta. 

Nicety (náisiti), delicadeza ; nimie- 
dad. 

Nigh (nái), cerca ; cerca de. 

Night (náit), noche. 

Nile (náil), Nilo. 

Nine-pins (náin-pins), juego de bo- 
los. 

Nineteenth ( naintínz ), decimo- 
nono. 

Ninety (náinti), noventa. 

No (no), no. 

Noah (nóa), Noé. 

Noble (nóbel), noble. 

Noble (nóbel). noble. 

Nobleman (nóbelman), noble. 

Nobility (nobíliti), nobleza. 

Nobody (nóbodi), nadie ; ningu- 
no. 

Nod (nod), cabecear. 

Noise (nóis), ruido. 

Noiseless (nóisles), silencioso. 

None (nen), ninguno. 



VOCABULARIO. 395 

Nonsense ( nónsens ), disparate ; 
absurdo. 

Noon (nun), mediodia. 

Noontide (núntaid), mediodia. 

Noose (ñus), lazo. 

North (norz), norte. 

Northern (nór'dern), norte ; del 
norte. 

Nose (nos), nariz. 

Nostril (nóstril), ventana de la na- 
riz. 

Not (not), no. 

Notch (noch), muesca ; corte. 

Note (not), nota ; billete ; impor- 
tancia. 

Noted (nóted), afamado. 

Nothing (nezing), nada. 

Nothingness (nézingnes), la nada. 

Notice (nótis), nota; observar. 

Notice (nótis), aviso ; caso ; obser- 
vación. 

Notion (nóchen), noción ; opinión. 

Noun (náun), nombre. 

November ( nove'mber ), noviem- 
bre. 

Now (náu), ahora. 

Nowise (nóuais), de ningún modo. 

Nucleus (núclies), núcleo. 

Number (némber), número. 

Nuuiber (neoiber), numerar ; con- 
tar. 

Numberless (neinberles), innume- 
rable. 

Nursery (nérseri), cuarto de los ni- 
ños ; plantel. 

Ntit (net), nuez ; tuerca. 

Nutriment (ñútriment), nutrición ; 
alimento. 

Nymph (nimf ), ninfa. 

o. 

Oak (oc), encina ; roble. 

Oak-tree (óc-tri), encina. 

Oath (oz), juramento. 

Obedience (obídchens), obediencia. 

Obeisance (obísans), reverencia. 

Obey (obéi^, obedecer. 

Object (obdche'ct), objetar ; tener 

inconveniente. 
Object (óbdchect), objeto. 



396 



VOCABULARIO. 



Objection (obdehécchen), objeción ; 

i íiüoii veniente. 
Obiigition (obliguéehen), obliga- 
ción. 
Obliga (obláidcli), obligar ; hacer 

favor. 
Oblivion (oblívien), olvido. 
Ojscure (obskiúr), oscurecer. 
Obscurity (obskiúriti), oscuridad. 
O oser vanees (ob.s¿vances), obser- 
vancia. 
Observation (observéchen), obser- 
vación. 
Observe (ob.se'rv), observar. 
O oser ver (obse'rver), observador. 
Obstacle (óbstakel), obstáculo. 
Oostinacy (óbstinasi), obstinación. 
Obstinately (óbstinatli), obstinada- 
mente. 
Obstruction (obstr ¿echen), obstruc- 
ción. 
Obtain (obten), obtener. 
Obviate (óbviet), obviar. 
Obvious (obvies), obvio. 
Obviously (óbviesli), obviamente. 
Obviousness (óbviesnes), eviden- 
cia. 
Occasion (oque'syen), ocasión. 
Occasional (oquésyenal), ocasional; 

de cuando en cuando. 
Occasionally ( oquésyenali ), de 

cuando en cuando. 
Occupant (ókiupant), poseedor ; el 

que ocupa. 
Occupation (okiupécken), ocupa- 
ción. 
Occupy (ókiupai), ocupar. 
Occur (okér), ocurrir ; acontecer. 
Occurrence (okérens). ocurrencia ; 

suceso. 
Ocean (ochen), oce'ano. 
OClock (oclók), (contracción de of 

the dock), en el reloj. 
Odd (od), eccéntrico ; raio ; ex- 
traño. 
Odious (odies), odioso. 
Olor (óder), olor. 
Odyssey (ódise), odisea. 
Of(ov), de. 
, Orf (of), lejos de ; separado ; apar- 
tado. 
Oftbnd (ofénd), ofender. 



Oífender (ofender \ ofensor. 

Órlense (oféns), ofensa. 

Oííer (ófer), ofrecer. 

Oñicer (^ófiser), ofíciáL 

Oíncious (oííches), oficioso, entre- 
metido. 

Ofnciously (ofícnesli), de un modo 
oficioso. 

Oñspririg ( óí'spring ), progenie, 
prole ; hijo. 

Oft (óft), á menudo. 

Often (óí'en), á menudo. 

Oftentimes (ófentaims), á menudo; 
muchas veces. 

Oh ! (o), ¡ oh ! 

Oil (óil), aceitar, untar. 

Oil (óil), aceite. 

Oil-lamp (óil-lamp), lámpara para 
aceite. 

Oíd (oíd), viejo. 

Olfactory (olláctnri), olfatorio. 

Olympus (olímpes), Olimpo. 

Ornen (ómen), agüero. 

Ominous ^omines), ominoso, si- 
niestro. 

Omit (omít), omitir. 

Omnipotence (omnípotens), omni- 
potencia. 

On (on), sobre ; adelante. 

Once (uens), una vez. At once, 
de una vez. 

One (uán), uno, una ; se ; alguno. 

Only (ónli), único ; solo. 

Only (ónli), solo ; solamente. 

Onward (ónuerd), adelante ; pro- 
gresivo. 

Open (ópen), abierto. 

Open (ópen), abrir. 

Opening ( ópening ), abertura ; 
apertura. 

Operation (operaren), operación. 

Opinión (opinen), opinión. 

Opulent (ópiulent), opulento. _ 

Opponent (opónent), antagoní 

Opportunity (oporchúniti), opor- 
tunidad ; ocasión. 

Opposed (opó.s l), imp. y 
de To oppose, oponer. 

Opposite ( óposit ), 
frente. 

Opposition ( oposíchen ), oj 
cion. 



VOCABULARIO. 



397 



Oppress (oprés), oprimir. 

Oppression (opréchen), opresión. 

Oppressor (opresor), opresor. 

Optics (opti.es), óptica. 

OÍ- (or), ó. 

Orange (órandch), naranja ; ana- 
ranjado. 

Orator (órator), orador. 

Oratory (óratori), oratoria, elocuen- 
cia. 

Orbit (órbit), órbita. 

Order (órder), orden. 

Order (órder). In order to, á fin 
de. 

Order (órder), ordenar. 

Orderly (órderli), ordenadamente. 

Ordinary ((órdinari), ordinario. 

Organ (órgan), órgano. 

Organic (orgánic), orgánico. 

Organiza tion ^organiséchen), orga- 
nización. 

Oriental (oriental), oriental. 

Origin (óridchin), origen. 

Original (orídcbinal), original. 

Originality (oridchináliti), origi- 
nalidad. 

Originally (orídchinali), original- 
mente. 

Ornament (órnament), adorno. 

Oruament (órnament), adornar. 

Orphan (orlan), huérfano. 

Orrery (óreri), planetario. 

Ostenta tious (ostente'ches), jactan- 
cioso. 

Other (é'der), otro. 

Others (e'ders), otros ; demás. 

Otherwise (e'deruais), de otro mo- 
do. 

Ought (ot), debe, debia, debiera, 
etc. 

Our (áur), nuestro. 

Out (áut), fuera ; afuera. 

Outbreak (áutbrec), erupción ; tu- 
multo. 

Outline (áutlain), contorno ; perfil. 

OuÜine (áutlain), contornear. 

Outlive (áutliv), sobrevivir. 

Oaipost (áutpost), puesto avanza- 
do. 

Outrun (áutren), pasar ; ganar la 
delantera. 

Outset (áutset), principio. 



Outside (áutsaid), exterior ; afuera. 

Outspread ( áutspred ), extender, 
difundir. 

Over (ó ver), sobre; encima de; 
concluido. 

Overboard (óverbord), á la mar. 

Overcoat (óvercot), sobretodo. 

Overcloud ( overcláud ), anublar, 
empañar. 

Overeóme (overkém), vencer, so- 
juzgar. 

Overgrown (óvergron), parí pas. 
de To overgrow, sobrecrecer. 

Overheard (overj-érd), imp. y parí 
pas. de To overhear, oir por ca- 
sualidad. 

Oveiload (óverlod), sobrecargar. 

Overpower (overpáuer), superar ; 
vencer ; predominar. 

Overrate (óveret), exagerar el mé- 
rito de alguna cosa. 

Overset (oversét), volcar ; trastor- 
nar. 

Overshadow ( overchádo ), hacer 
sombra ; oscurecer ; empañar. 

Overtake (overte'c), alcanzar. 

Overthrow (óverzro), derrota ; tras- 
torno. 

Overthrow ( overzró ), derrotar ; 
trastornar. 

Overwhelming (overjuélming), que 
oprime ; colmante. 

Owe (o), deber. 

Owing (óing), á causa de; atento á. 

Owl (ául), lechuza, buho. 

Own (on), propio. 

Own (on), poseer ; confesar. 

Owner (óner), dueño. 



Pace (pes), pasear ; medir á pa- 
sos. 

Pace (pes), paso. 

Pacific (pasífic), pacífico. 

Pack ( pac ), baraja ; cuadrilla ; 
bulto. 

Pack (pac), empacar ; despedir. 

Pack-horse (pác-jors), caballo de 
carga . 

Packet (páquet), paquete ; vapor. 



398 



VOCABULARIO. 



Pad (pad), senda ; cojin. 

Paddie (pádel), canalete. 

Page (padch), p «je. 

Pain (pen), dolor; pena. 

Painfui (péní'ul>, doloroso. 

Paint (pent), pintar. 

Palace (palas), palacio. 

Palaver (paláver), charlar. 

Palé (peí), pálido ; claro. 

Pallas (palas), Palas. 

Palliate (páliet), paliar. 

Pallid (pálid), pálido. 

Palm (pam), palma. 

Palpitating (pálpitating), que pal- 
pita. 

Paltry (póltri), mequino ; ruin. 

Pamphlet (páinflet), folleto. 

Pamphleteer ( pamñetír ), folle- 
tista. 

Pan (pan), Pan ; cazuela ; sartén. 

Panegyric ( panedchíric ), panejí- 
rico. 

Pang (pang), angustia ; congoja. 

Panic (pánic), pánico. 

Panorama (panorama), panorama. 

Pant (pant), jadear. 

Panting (pánting), jadeante. 

Panto Miime (pántomaim), panto- 
mimo. 

Paper (péper), papel ; periódico. 

Papuan (pápiuan), de la Nueva 
Guinea. 

Parade ( pare'd ), hacer parada ; 
marchar en orden militar. 

Paradise (páradais), paradiso. 

Paragraph (páragraf ), párrafo. 

Paralyze (paraláis), paralizar. 

Paraliax (páralacs), paralaje. 

Parapet (párapet), parapeto. 

Parcel (pársel), dividir, partir. 

Parched (parcht), tostado, quema- 
do ; ardiente. 

Parchment (párchment), pergami- 
no. 

Pardon (par don), perdonar. 

Pareut (pérent), padre ó madre. 

Parisli (párich), parroquia. 

Park (pare), parque 

Parley (párli), parlamentar ; ha- 
blar. 

Parlor (párler\ sala. 

Parnassus (paruádes), Parnaso. 



Parricidal (parisáidal), de parrici- 
dio. 

Parsimonious (parsimonias), ahor- 
rativo ; mezquino. 

Parsimony (pársimeni), parsimo- 
nia. 

Parson (pársen), ministro ; pár- 
roco. 

Part (part), separar ; partir. 

Part (part), parte ; papel. 

Partake (partee), participar ; pro- 
bar. 

Partaker (parte'quer), participante. 

Particípate (partísipet), participar; 
tener parte. 

Particle (pártiquel), partícula. 

Participle (pártisipeb, participio. 

Particular (partíkiular ), particu- 
lar ; peculiar ; meticulosa. 

Parting ( párting ), separación ; 
despedida. 

Partition (partíchen), tabique. 

Partly (pártli), en parte. 

Partridge (pártrideh), perdiz. 

Parti (párti), persona ; compañía ; 
tertulia. 

Pass (pas), paso ; pase. 

Pass aloiig (pas alóng), pasar á lo 
largo ; pasar. 

Passage (pásadeh). pasage : paso. 

Passenger (pásandeher), pasagero. 

Passion (páchen), pasión. 

Passionate (páchenat), aspasiona- 
do ; colérico. 

Passionless ( pacíanles ), desapa- 
sionado. 

Passive (pásiv), pasivo. 

Past (past), imp. y part pas. irreg. 
de To pass, pasar. 

Pasture (páschur), pasto. 

Pate (pet), cabeza. (Es muy fa- 
miliar. 

Pateut (pátent), privilegiado. 

Path (paz 1 , senda, vereda. 

Pathway (pázue), camino estrecho; 
senda. 

Patience (péchens), paciencia. 

Patriarch (patriaren), patriarca. 

Patrician (patríchen), patricio. 

Patriot (pátribt), patriota, 

Patriotism (pátriotiam), patriotis- 
mo. 



VOCABULARIO 



399 



Patriotism ( pátriotism ), patrio- 
tismo. 

Patrón (patrón), patrón ; protec- 
tor. 

Patronage (pátronadcli), patrona- 
to ; patrocinio ; protección. 

Pattern ( pátern ), mocleio ; pa- 
trón. 

Pause (pos), pausar ; detenerse. 

Pave (pev), empedrar. 

Pavilion (pavíllen), pabellón. 

Pawnee (póni), tenedor de prenda 
en depósito. 

Pay (pe), pagar. 

Pea (pi), guisante. 

Peace (pis), paz. 

Peaceful (písí'ul), pacífico. 

Peak (pie), punta ; cumbre. 

Peal (pil), tocar (campanas) con 
violencia. 

Pearl (perl), perla. 

Peasaut (pésant), campesino. 

Pebble (pe'bel), guijarro. 

Peculiar (pikiúllar), peculiar. 

Pedantry (pe'dantri), pedantería. 

Peep (pip), asomar ; mostrarse ; 
mirar á hurtadillas. 

Peer (pir), par. 

Peerless (pírles), sin par. 

Peevish. (pívich), bronco ; rega- 
ñón. 

Pelf (pelf ), dinero, riquezas. 

Pellet (pélet), pelotilla ; bala. 

Pell-mell (pélmél), á troche moche. 

Peloponnesian (peloponísyen), del 
peloponeso. 

Pen (pen), escribir 

Pen (pen), pluma. 

Penance (pénans), penitencia. 

Penétrate (pénitret), penetrar. 

Penetration (penitréchen), pene- 
tración. 

Penniless (pe'niles), falto de di- 
ñe! o. 

Pensiv (pénsiv), pensativo. 

Penury (péñuri), penuria. 

People (pípel), gente. 

Perceive (persív), percibir ; adver- 
tir. 

Perch (perch), encaramarse. 

Perdition (perdíchen), perdición. 

Perfect (pérfect), perfecto. 



Perfection ( perfécehen ), perfec- 
ción. 

Perfectly ( pe'rfectli ), perfecta- 
mente. 

Perform (perfórm), ejecutar ; po- 
ner por obra. 

Performance (perfórmans), ejecu- 
ción. 

Performer (perfórmer), actor ; eje- 
cutor. 

Perfume (pe'rfium), perfume. 

Perfume (perfiúin). perfumar. 

Perhaps (perjáps), tal vez. 

Pericles (pe'ricles), Péricles. (Ge- 
neral griego.) 

Peril (pe'ril), peligrar. 

Perilous (pe'riles), peligroso. 

Period (píriod), período. 

Periodical (piriódical). periódico. 

Perish (pe'rich), perecer. 

Perishable ( pe'richabel ), perece- 
dero. 

Permanency (pe'rmanensi), perma- 
nencia. 

Permit (permít), permitir. 

Pernicious ( perníches ), pernicio- 
so. 

Perpendicular ( perpendíkiular ), 
perpendicular. 

Perpetual ( perpe'ehual ), perpe- 
tuo. 

Perpetuity (perpechúiti), perpetui- 
dad. 

Perplex ( perplecs ), vejar ; ator- 
mentar. 

Persecution (persekiúchen), perse- 
cución. 

Persecutor (pe'rsikiutor), persegui- 
dor. 

Persevering (persivíring), perseve- 
rante. 

Persia (pe'rsya), Persia. 

Persian (pe'rsyan), persiano. 

Person (pe'rsen), persona. 

Personal (pe'rsonal), personal. 

Perspicuity (perspikiúiti), perspi- 
cuidad. 

Perspiration (perspiréchen), tras- 
piración. 

Persuade (persue'd), persuadir. 

Persuasiveness (parsuésivnes), mo- 
do persuasivo. 



400 



VOCABULARIO. 



Pertinacious (pertine^hes), perti- 
naz. 

Perturbed (períe'rbd), perturbado. 

Perusal (perusal), lectura 

Perversa (jpérvers), perverso. 

Pervert (pervért), pervertir. 

Pesülence (péstilens), pestilencia. 

Petty (péti), pequeño ; mezquino. 

Phantom (fántem), espectro, fan- 
tasma. 

Pheasant (fésant), faisán. 

Pheuomenon (finómenon), fenó- 
meno. 

Philantliropist (filánzropist), filán- 
tropo. 

Philanthropy ( filánzropi ), filan- 
tropía. 

Philip (f'ílip), Felipe ; Filipo. 

Philippics (filípics), filípicas. 

Philology (filólodchi), filología. 

Philosopher (tilósofer), fiilósofo. 

Philosophy (filósofi), filosofía. 

Phcebus (fíbes), Febo. 

Phcenicia (finí 911a), Fenicia. 

Phrase (fres), frase. 

Physical (fí.sical), físico. 

Physician (fichen), médico. 

Physiognoruy (fisiógnoini), fisono- 
mía. 

Piano-forte (piáno-fórt), piano. 

Pick (pie), coger ; escoger. 

Picture (pícehur), cuadro ; pin- 
tura. 

Picture (pícehur), pintar; figu- 
rarse. 

Piece (pis), pedazo ; pieza. 

Piecemeal ( písmil ), pedazo por 
pedozo. 

Pierce (pirs), agujerear ; penetrar. 

Pierciug (pírsing), penetrante. 

Piety (páieti), piedad, devoción. 

Pike (páik), lucio ; inca. 

Pile (páil), estaca ; montón ; edi- 
ficio. 

Pile (páil), amontonar. 

Pillage (piladch), saquear. 

Pilot (páilet), piloto practicó. 

Pinching (pinching), part. i^res. de 
To pinch, pellizcar, apr< 

Pinion (pifien), piñón ; ala. 

Pint (páint), pinta. (Medida de 
líquidos inglesa. ) 



Pious (páies), piadoso ; devoto. 

Pique (pie), picar : picarse. 

Pismire (písmair), hormiga. 

Pistón (pistón), émbolo. 

Pit (pit), hoyo. 

Pitch (pich), arrojar. 

Piteous (píties), lastimoso. 

Pith (piz), meollo ; médula. 

Pity (píti), tener lástima. 

Pity (píti), piedad ; lástima. 

Place (pies), lugar, sitio, puesto. 

Place (pies), colocar. 

Plague (pleg), apestar ; atormen- 
tar. 

Plaguy ( plégui ), molesto ; enfa- 
doso ; diabólicamente. 

Plain (píen), sencillo. 

Pl-in (píen), llanura. 

Plainness (plénnes), sencillez. 

Plaintiff ( pléntif ), demandante ; 
lastimoso. 

Plan (plan), plan ; plano. 

Planet (plánet), planeta. 

Plank (plañe), tablón ; tabla. 

Plant ( plant ), plantar ; plan- 
tear. 

Plant (plant), planta. 

Píate (plet), plato ; plancha. 

Pleto (pléto), Platón. 

Platea (platía), Platea. 

Plausible (plósibel), plausible. 

Play (pie), juego ; pieza dramá- 
tica. 

Play (pie), jugar ; desempeñar uu- 
papel. 

Player (plé-er), jugador : actor. 

Play-fellow (ple'ielo), compañero. 

Playful (pléful), juguetón. 

Play ground (plégraund), retrete 
(lugar en que juegan los niños). 

Plea (pü), defensa ; excusa. 

Pleader (ple'der), abagado ; defen- 
sor. 

Pleasant (plésant), agradable, ale- 
gre, placentero. 

Fleasantry (plé.vantri), buen hu- 
mor : chanza. 

Picase (plis), gustar á. 

Pleasing (plísing), agradable ; di- 
vertido. 

Pleasure (piésyer), favorecer ; com- 
placer. 



VOCABULARIO. 



401 



Pleasure (ple'syer), gusto ; placer ; 
agracio. 

Plebeian (plebían), plebeyo. 

Pledge (pledch), prenda ; fianza. 

Pleniifuily (pléntií'uli), abundante- 
mente. 

Plenty (plénti), abundancia. 

Pliable ( pláiabel ), dócil ; flexi- 
ble. 

Pliancy (pláiansi), docilidad ; flexi- 
bilidad. 

Pliant (pláiant), flexible. 

Plod (piad), anclar penosamente. 

Plot (plot), tramar ; conspirar. 

Plough (pláu), arado. 

Ploughman (pláuman), arador. 

Pluck (plec), arrancar 

Plume (plum), plumage ; pena- 
cho. 

Plumed (plúmd), emplumado. 

Plump (plemp), rollizo. 

Plunder (pláider), botin. 

Plunder (plénder), saquear ; pi- 
llar. 

Plutonian ( plutónian ), de Plu- 
ton. 

Ply (plái), trabajar con ahinco. 

Pocket (póquet), bolsillo ; faltri- 
quera. 

Poem (póem), poema ; poesía. 

Poet (póet), poeta. 

Poetic (poétic), poe'tico. 

Poética! (poe'tical), poético. 

Poetry (póetri), poesía. 

Poignant (póinant), picante ; mor- 
daz. 

Point (póint), apuntar ; aguzar ; 
señalar. 

Point (póint), punto ; punta. 

Poison (pói.sen), veneno. 

Poisonous (póisenes), venenoso. 

Pol and (p ó i and), Poloña. 

Polar (polar), polar. 

Pole (pol), polacre. 

Political (polítical), político. 

Politician (politíchen), político. 

Politics (politics), política. 

Policy (pólisi), política. 

Polished (póiicfid), pulido. 

Polite (poláit), político. 

Politely (poláitli), políticamente. 

Pol (pol), cabeza. 



Pollute (pollút), contaminar, ensu- 
ciar. 

Polybius (políbies), Polibio. 

Pomp (poinp), pompa. 

Pompous (pompes), pomposo. 

Pond (ponch, estanque. 

Ponder (póndtr), reflexionar. 

Ponderous (ponderes), ponderoso. 

Poor (pur), pobre. 

Poor-box (púrbocs), cepillo. 

Poorhouse (púrjaus), casa de po- 
bres. 

Pope (pop), papa. 

Popular (pópiular), popular. 

Popularity (popiuláriti), populari- 
dad 

Pópulation (popiule'chen), pobla- 
ción. 

Populous (pópiules), populoso. 

Pork (porc), puerco. 

Portal (portal), portal, entrada. 

Portent (porte'nt), señal de mal 
agüero. 

Porter (pórter), portero ; capataz ; 
cerveza negra. 

Portion (pórchen), porción ; parte 
que le toca á alguno. 

Portion (pórchen), dividir ; dotar 

Porus (póres), Poro. 

Position (posíchen), posición. 

Possess (poses), poseer. 

Possession ( posésyen), posesión ; 
poder. 

Possessor (posesor), poseedor. 

Possible (pó:sibel), posible, 

Possibly (pósibli), posiblemente. 

Post (post), ir en posta ; colocar ; 
echar en el correo. 

Post (post), poste ; puesto. 

Post-haste ( póst-je'st ), presteza; 
diligencia. 

Posthumous (pószumes), postu- 
mo. 

Posture (póschur), postura. 

Potash (pótach), potasa. 

Potato (potéto), patata ; papa. 

Fotent (póteut), pudiente ; pode- 
roso. 

Pother (pó'der >, alboroto, baraúnda. * 

Pound (páund), libra. 

Pour out (por áut), verter, echar 

Poverty (póverti), pobreza. 



402 



VOCABULARIO. 



Power (páuer), poder. 

Powerful (páueriul), poderoso. 

Practicable (prácticabel), practica- 
ble. 

Practice (práctis), práctica. 

Prairie (préri), pradera. 

Praise (pre*), alabanza. 

Pratice (prans), cabriolar. 

Prank (pranc), travesura. 

Pray (pre), rogar, rezar. 

Prayer (prer), oración ; plegaria. 

Praach (príck), predicar. 

Preacher (prícher), predicador. 

Precarious (prikéries), precario. 

Precaution ( pricÓ9hen ), precau- 
ción. 

Praaedence (pre'sidens), prece'den- 
cia. 

Precept (prísept), precepto. 

Preoeptor (priséptor), preceptor. 

Precession (prisésyen), precesión. 

Precipice (présipis), precipicio. 

Precipitancy (presípitansi), incon- 
sidaracion. 

Pracipitately (presípitatli), con pre- 
cipitación. 

Precipita tion (presipit echen), pre- 
cipitación. 

Precisa (prisáis), preciso. 

Precisely (pivsáisli), precisamente. 

Precisión (prisísyen), precisión. 

Predict (predíct), predecir. 

Prediction ( predíc9hen ), predic- 
ción. 

Predominantly ( pridóminantli ), 

, predominantemente. 

Pradominate (predóminet), predo- 
minar. 

Preé ninence (prie'minens), preemi- 
nencia. 

Prefer (prifer), preferir. 

Preference (préferens), preferen- 
cia. 

Prefix (prífics), prefijo. 

Pregnant ( prégnant ), preñada, 
embarazada. 

Prejudice (prédchudis), perjuicio. 

Prejudicial (predchudíchal), per- 
judicial. 

Prelude (prellud\ preludio. 

Prematura ( prímachur ), prema- 
turo. 



Prepara tion (preparéehen), prepa- 
ración. 

Prepare (prepe'r), preparar. 

Prerogative ( prirógativ), prcroga- 
tiva. 

Presence (présens), presencia. 

Present (present), presentar ; re- 
galar. 

Present (pre'sent), presente. 

at Present (at present), al pre- 
sente . 

Preserve ( prisérv ), conservar, 
preservar. 

Preservation (preservéchen), pre- 
servancia ; conservación. 

Preside (prisáid), presidir. 

Press (press), prensa ; apuro. 

Pressure (présyer), presión. 

Presume (prisyúm), \ resumir. 

Presumption ( prisernchen ), pre- 
sunción. 

Preterid (priténd), pretender ; fin- 
gir. 

Pretender ( priténder ), preten- 
diente. 

Pretention ( prite'nsyen ), preten-- 
cion. 

Preternatural ( priternáchural ), 
preternatural. 

Pretext (prítecst), pretexto. 

Pretty (pre'ti), bonito ; bastante. 

Prevail (privél), prevalacer. 

Prevent (privént), impedir ; pre- 
venir. 

Previously ( príviesli ), anterior- 
mente. 

Prey (pre), presa. 

Price (práis), precio. 

Prick (pric), punzar. 

Pride (práid), orgullo. 

Priest (príst), sacerdote. 

Primary (praimari), primario ; pri- 
mero. 

Prime (práim), flor. 

Primitive (prímitiv), primitivo. 

Prince (prins), príncipe. 

Princess (prínses), princesa. 

Principal (prínsipal), principal. 

Principie (prínsipel), principio. 

Printer (prínter), impresor. 

Prison (prísen), carecí. 

Prisoner (pr tener), prisionero. 



VOCABULARIO. 



403 



Prívate (práivat), privado ; parti- 
cular. 

Priviledge (príviiedch), privilegio. 

Prize (i/iáis), premio ; tesoro. 

Prize (^a'ái.s), apreciar. 

Probability (probabíliti), probabi- 
lidad. 

Probably ( próbabli ), probable- 
mente. 

Probación ( probe'chen ), proba- 
ción. 

Proceed (prosíd), proceder. 

Proceedings (prosídings), proce- 
deres ; hechos. 

Procession (prosésyen), procesión. 

Procure (prokiúr), procurar. 

Prodigious ( prodídches ), prodi- 
gioso. 

Prodigy (pródidchi), prodigio. 

Produce (prodiús), producir. 

Product (pródect), producto ; pro- 
ducido. 

Production (prodecchen), produc- 
ción. 

Profess (profe's), profesar. 

Profession (proíésyen), profesión. 

Profter (prófer), proponer ; ofre- 
cer. 

Profit (prófit), aprovechar. 

Proñt (prófit). provecho ; benefi- 
cio. 

Proflígate (prófliguet), abandona- 
do. 

Profound (profáund), profundo. 

Profusely ( profiúsli ), profusa- 
mente. 

Profusión (profúsyen), profusión. 

Progress (progrés), progreso ; ade- 
lanto. 

Progress (nrógres), progresar. 

Project (pródchect), projecto. 

Project (pródchect), proyectar. 

Prolific (proiífic), prolífico. 

Prolongation (prolonguechen), pro- 
longación. 

Prominent ( próminent ), promi- 
nente. 

Promiscuous (promískiues ), pro- 
miscuo. 

Promise (prómis), promesa. 

Promise (prómis), prometer. 

Promote (promót), \ romover. 



Prompt (promt), sugerir ; incitar ; 
a¡ untar. 

Prompt (promt), pronto ; exacto. 

Promúlgate (promélg.uet), promul- 
gar. 

Prone (pron), propenso. 

Pronoun Q-rónaun), pronombre. 

Pronounce (pronáuns k ), pronun- 
ciar. 

Proof (pruf ), prueba. 

Propágate (própaguet), propagar. 

Propel (propel), poner en nuvi- 
miento. 

Propensity ( prope'nsiti ), inclina- 
ción. 

Proper (próper), propio ; conve- 
niente. 

Properly (própfrli), propiamente. 

Proper ty (próperü), propiedad. 

Prophecy (¡ rófisi), profecía. 

Prophecy (prófesi), profetizar. 

Prophet (prófet), profeta. 

Propitious (propíches), propicio. 

Proportion (propórchen), propor- 
ción. 

Proposal (propósal), propuesta. 

Propose (propós), proponer. 

Proposition (proposícken), propo- 
sición. 

Proprietor (propráietor), propieta- 
rio. 

Propriety (propráieti), propiedad. 

Proscriber (proscráiber), que pros- 
cribe . 

Prose (pros), conversar fuera de 
propósito. 

Prose (pros), prosa. 

Prosecute (prósikiut), proseguir ; 
poner pleito. 

Proselyte (prósilait), prosélito. 

Prospect (próspect), esperanza. 

Prosperity (prospe'riti), prosperi- 
dad. 

Prosperous (prosperes), próspero. 

Prostitute (próstíchut ), prostitu- 
ta. 

Prostrate (próstret), postrar ; ex- 
tenuar. 

Protect (protéct), proteger. 

Protection ( prote'cchen ), protec- 
ción. 

Protest (protést), protestar. 



404 



VOCABULARIO. 



Protract (protráct), diferir ; alar- 
gar. 
Protrude (protrúd), salir. 
Proudly ( .práudli ), orgullosa- 

mente. 
Prove (pruv), probar. 
Proverb (próverb), proverbio. 
Proverbially (proverbian), prover- 

bialmente. 
Provide (prováid), proveer ; sumi- 
nistrar. 
Provided (prováided), con tal que. 
Providence ( próvidens ), Provi- 
dencia. 
Province (próvins), provincia. 
Provincial ( provínchal ), provin- 
cial. 
Provisión ( provísyen ), provi- 
sión. 
Provocation (provoque'chen), pro- 
vocación. 
Provoke (provóc), provocar. 
Provoking (provóquing), enojoso. 
Prowess (práues), proeza. 
Proximity (procsíraiti), proximi- 
dad. 
Prudence (prúclens), prudencia. 
Pruning-knife (prúning-náif ), po- 
dadera. 
Pshaw (cbo), ¡ vaya ! 
Public (pe'blic), público. 
Publish (peblich), publican. 
Pudding (pudding), pudin. 
PufF(pef), soplar. 
Puff (pef), soplo. 
Pulí (pul), tirar. 
Pulp (pulp), pulpa. 
Pulpit (] úlpit), pulpito. 
Pulse (puls), pulso. 
Pump (peino), bomba. 
Punch (pench), ponche. 
Punctilious (penctílles), ceremo- 

niático. 
Punetual (pencchual), puntual. 
Punctuality (i encchuáliti), pun- 
tualidad. 
Punctually (péncchuali), puntual- 
mente. 
Puncture (péncchuv), punzada. 
Punic (piúnie), púnico. 
Punisnment (pénichment), puni- 
ción. 



Puppy ( pe'pi ), perillo ; meque- 

tr fe. 
Purchase (parchas), comprar. 
Purcnase (perchas), compra. 

Puré (piúr), puro. 
Purity (púriti), pureza. 
Purple (pérpel), púrpura ; purpú- 
reo. 
Parpóse (per pos), propósito. 
Purse (pers), bolsa ; bolsillo. 
Pursue (persiú), | erseguir. 
Pursuer (persiúer), perseguidor. 
Pursuit (pevsiút), persecución. 
Push (puch), empujar. 
Put (put), meter ; poner. 
Puzzle (pe'sel), embarazar. . 
Pyramid (píramid), pirámide. 
Pyramidal (piramidal), piramidal. 

Q. 

QuafT (cuóf ), beber á grandes tra- 
gos. 

Quaint (cue'nt), extraño. 

Qualitv (cuóliti), calidad ; cuali- 
dad. 

Quantity (cuóntiti), cantidad. 

Quarrel (cu6rrel), reñir; reñir 

Quarrel (cuórrel), riña ; pendencia. 

Quarrelling (cuóreling), penden- 
cia. 

Quarter (cuórter), cuarto, cuarta 
parte . 

Quarterly ( cuórterli ), cada tres 
meses. 

Quartz (cuórts), cuarzo. 

Queen (cuín), reina. 

Queer (cuír), extraño, raro. 

Quench (cuench), apagar. 

Question ( cuéschen ), cuestión; 
pregunta. 

Quick (euíc), rápido ; pronto. 

Quicken (cuíquen), avivar ; vivifi- 
car ; dar prisa. 

Quickly (cuícli), pronto : presta 

Quickly (cuícli), tranquilo ; Bose- 
gado. 

Quiet (cuáiet), apaciguar : [ 
gar, 

Quiet (cuáiet), tranquilidad ; so- 



VOCABULARIO. 



405 



Quiet ( cuáiet ), tranquilo ; sose- 
gado. 

Q'diil (cuil), pluma de ave. 

Quire (cuáir), mano (de papel). 

Quit (cuít), cesar ; dejar. 

Qaite (cuáit), por completo ; bas- 
tante. 

Qaiver (cuíver), carcaj, estreme- 
cimiento. 

Qaote (cuót), citar ; cotizar. 

Quoth (cueth), dice, decia, dijo. 

E. 

Rabbit (rábit), conejo. 

Race (res), corrida ; raza. 

Radiance (re'diens), esplendor. 

Radiant (rédient), radiante. 

Raft (raft), balsa ; almadía. 

R.ifter (ráfter), cabrío. 

Rag (rag), trapo. 

Rage (redch), furia ; cólera. 

Raga (redch), enfurecerse. 

Ragged (rágued), andrajoso. 

Rail (reí), injuriar de palabra. 

Railroad (re'lrod), camino de hierro. 

Rain (ren), llover. 

Rain (ren), lluvia. 

Rainbow (rénbo), arco iris. 

Raise (res), cultivar. 

Rally ( rali ), reunirse ; restable- 
cerse. 

Rambling (rámbling), vagabundo. 

Ran (ran), imp. de To run, correr. 

Rmcorous (ráncores), rencoroso. 

Ranger (re'ndcher), tunante ; guar- 
da mayor de bosque. 

Rank (ranc), rango. 

Rank (ranc), rancio. 

Rankle (ránquel), enconarse ; in- 
flamarse. 

Ranting (ránting), aturdido. 

Rap (rap), golpear. 

Rapacity (rapásiti), rapacidad. 

Rapid (rápid), rápido. 

Rapid (rápid), raudal. 

Rapidity (rapíditi), rapidez. 

Rap ture (rápchur e'xtasi ; rapto. 

Rare (rer), raro. 

Rarely (rérli), raramente. 

Rash (ra9h), arrojado. 



Rashness (racimes), arrojo. 

Rat (rat), rata. 

Rate (ret), razón ; precio. 

Rather (rá'der), mas bien ; ante 5 ?. 

Ratio (re'chio), proporcio.i ; razón. 

Rational (rá9honal), racional. 

Rattlesnake (rátelsnec\ cascabel. 

Ravage (rávadch), estrago. 

Ravage (rávadch), pillar, asolar, 
talar. 

Raven (reven), cuervo. 

Raw (ro), crudo. 

Ray (re), rayo. 

Seach (rich), alcanzar. 

Rsach (rich), alcance. 

Read (rid), leer. 

Ileader (ríder), lector. 

Readily ( rédili ), fácilmente ; de 
buena gana. 

Reading (ríding), lectura ; inter- 
pretación. 

Ready (re'di), pronto. 

Real (ríal), real. 

Realize (ríalais), realizar. 

Really (ríali), realmente. 

Realm (relm), reino, estado. 

Reanimate (riánimet), reanimar. 

Reap (rip), cosechar. 

Reaper (ríper), segador. 

Reappear (riapír), aparecer de nue- 
vo. 

Rear (rir), criar ; construir. 

Reason (ríson), razonar ; dispu- 
tar. 

Reason (ríson), razón. 

Reasonable (rísonabel), razonable. 

Reasoning (rísoning), raciocinio ; 
argumento. 

Rebuke (ribiúc), censurar. 

Recáll (ricól), llamar de nuevo. 

Recede (risíd), retroceder. 

Receive (risív), recibir. 

Receiver (risíver), recibidor. 

Recently (rísentli), recientemente. 

Receptacle (rise'ptakel), receptácu- 
lo. 

Reception (risépehen), recibo ; re- 
cepción. 

Recess (rise's), retiro. 

Reciprocally (risíprocali), recipro- 
camente. 

Recitation (resite'chen, recitación. 



406 



VOCABULARIO. 



Recite (risáit), recitar. 

Reckless (recles), arrojadizo ; des- 
cuidado. 

on (récon), calcular. 

Reclasp (riclásp), estrech de nue- 
vo. 

Recline (ricláin), recostarse. 

Recognize (re'cognáis), reconocer. 

Recoil (ricóil), recular; retroce- 
der. 

Recollect (recole'ct), recordar. 

Recollection (recólécclien), recuer- 
do ; memoria. 

Recommend ( recome'nd ), reco- 
mendar. 

Recorumendation ( recomende- 
9ben), recomendación. 

Recompense (re'coinpens), recom- 
pensa. 

Reconcile (réconsail), reconciliar. 

Reconciliaron ( riconsilie'chen ), 
reconciliación. 

Reconstruct (riconstr¿ct), recons- 
truir. 

Record (ricórd), consignar ; regis- 
trar. 

Record (récord), registro ; anales. 

Recount (ricáunt), contar de nue- 
vo ; referir. 

Recover (rikever), cubrir de nue- 
vo ; recobrar ; restablecerse. 

Recreation (ricriéclien), recreo. 

Recrimination (recrimine^hen), re- 
criminación. 

Rectify (réctifai), rectificar. 

Rectitude ( réctichud ), rectitud ; 
derechura. 

Red (red), rojo ; colorado. 

Redeem (ridím), redimir. 

Redemption (ridémchen), reden- 
ción. 

Redouble (ridebel), redoblar ; au- 
mentar. 

Redoubled (ridébeld), redoblado ; 
nuevo. 

Redress (ridre's), enderezar. 

Redress (ridrés), desagravio. 

Reduce (ridiús), reducir. 

Reef (rif ), rizo; arrecife. 

Reeking (ríking), humeante. 

Reel (ril), vacilar; hacer eses. 

Roer (rift'r), referir. 



Reflect (riñect), reflexionar ; refle- 
jar. 

¡ted (riflécted), reflejado. 
;ting (riflécting), que refleja ; 
que reflexiona. 

Reflectiou (riflécehen), reflexión. 

Reform (rifórm), informa. 

Reformer (rifórmer), reformador. 

Refract (rifráct), refringir. 

Refraction ( rifr aechen ), refrac- 
ción. 

Refresh (rifre'9'h), refrescar ; repo- 
ner. 

Refreshment (rifre'9hnient), refres- 
co ; reposo. 

Refuge (réfiudch), refugio. 

Refulgsnt (riíúldchent), refulgente. 

Refusal (rifiúsal), negación. 

Refuse (rifiú.v), rehusar. 

Regard (rigárd), mirar. 

Regard ( rigárd ), mirada ; aten- 
ción ; cuanto 

Región (rídehen), región. 

Register (rédehister), registro ; re- 
gistrador 

Registry (rédehistri), registro ; ar- 
chivo. 

Regrct (rigre't), pesar. 

Regular (reguiular), regular. 

Regúlate (réguiulet), regular. 

Regulation (rcguiule'9hen), regula- 
ción. 

Rehearse (rijers), repetir. 

Reign (ren), reinar. 

Reign (ren), reinado. 

Rein (ren), refrenar ; contener. 

Rein (ren), rienda ; freno. 

Rcject (ridehéct), rehusar ; repul- 
sar. 

Rejoice ( ridchóis ), regocijarse ; 
alegrarse. 

Relate (rilet), referir. 

Relation (riléchen), relación ; pa- 
riente. 

Relative (relativ), pariente. 

Relator (rile'tor), narrador. 

Relax (rilaos), relajar ; ablandar ; 
afl jar. 

Reléase (rilís), soltar ; liberar. 

Relevancy (rélivansi), relación. 

Reliable (riláiabel), de eoniianza. 

Relict (relict), viuda. 



VOCABULARIO. 



107 



Pelief (rilíf ), socorro ; relieve. 

Relieve (rilív, aliviar. 

Religión (rilídchen), religión. 

Peiigious (rilídches), religioso. 

Pelish (relien), gustar de ; sabo- 
rear. 

Pelish (rélich), sabor ; gusto. 

Pely 011 (riláion), contar con. 

Rernains (riniéns), resto. 

Peniain ( rimen ), quedar ; per- 
manecer. 

Pemainder (reme'nder), restante. 

Pemark (remare), observar ; ad- 
vertir. 

Reinarkable (remárcabel), notable. 

Peinedy (rémedi), remediar. 

Remeniber (rime'mber), recordar ; 
acordarse de. 

Pemind (rimáind). recordar. 

Pemnant (re'mnant), vestigio ; res- 
tante. 

Pemonstrate (rimónstret), repre- 
sentar á lo vivo. 

Pemorse (rimórs), remordimiento. 

Pemorseful (rimórsful), lleno de 
remordimientos. 

Pernote (rimót), remoto. 

Perno ve (riniúv), remover : desa- 
lojar ; modar. 

Pend (rend), desgarrar. 

Pender (rénder), rendir ; poner. 

Penerve (rine'rv), dar nuevo vi- 
gor. 

Penevral (riñúal), renovación. 

Penewed (riñúd), imp. y part pas. 
de To renew, renovar. 

Renown (rináun), renombre. 

Pent (rent), alquiler. 

Pepair (ripér), reparar ; remen- 
dar. 

Pepartee (repartí), replicar. 

Pepeat (ripít), repetir. 

Pepeatedly ( ripítedli ), repetidas 
veces. 

Pepel (ripél), repeler ; apartar. 

Pepent (ripe'nt), arrepentirse. 

Pepentanee (ripéntans), arrepen- 
timiento . 

Repiniug ( ripáining ), lamento ; 
queja, 

Peplace (ripies), reponer ; colocar 
de nuevo. 



Peplenish (replénich), llenar de 
nuevo ; llenar. 

Peply (replái), replicar ; contes- 
tar. 

Peport (ripórt), relación. 

Pepose (ripós), reponer. 

Pepose (^ripó.s), reposo. 

Pepresent ( repri-sént ), represen- 
tar. 

Pepresentation ( reprisentéchen ), 
representación. 

Pepress (ripre's), reprimir. 

Peprimand (réprimand), censurar; 
reñir. 

Peproach ( ripróch ), rer^rochar ; 
improperar . 

Peproach (ripróch), reproche ; im- 
properio. 

Repróbate ( réprobet ), malvado ; 
abaldonado. 

Reproof (riprúf), reprensión. 

Peprove (riprúv), reprender. 

Peptile (réptaii), reptil. 

Republic (ripeblie), repúbhca. 

Pepublican (ripéblican),- republi- 
cano. 

Pepulse (ripels), repulsar. 

Repulse (ripels), repulsa. 

Peputation (repiutéciien), reputa- 
ción. 

Pequest (ricue'st). rogar. 

Require (ricuáir), necesitar. 

Pequisite (récuisit), necesario. 

Pequisite (re'cuisit), requisito. 

Pequite (rienáit), desquitar. • 

Pesemblance (risémblans), seme- 
janza 

ResembLe (risémbel), parecerse á. 

Pesentment (rise'ntruent) , resenti- 
miento. 

Peservoir (re'servoar), estanque ; 
depósito de agua. 

Pesidence (re'sidens), residencia ; 
morada. 

Pesidue (résidiu), residuo. 

Pe^iga (risáin), renunciar. 

Pesigned (ri.sáind), sumiso. 

Pesist (risist), resistir. 

Pesistance (risístans). resistencia. 
I Pesoive (risólv), resolver. 
¡ Resonad (risáund) , resonar. 
| Pesource (risórs •, recurso. 



408 



VOCABULARIO. 



io Eespect to (in rispéct tu), res- 
pecto de. 

Respect (rispéct), respetar. 

ltespect (rispéct), resp 

Rjspectable (rispéctabel), respeta- 
ble. 

Respectful ( rispe'ctful ), respe- 
tuoso. 

Respecting (rispécting), respecto 
de. 

Respective (rispéctiv), respectivo. 

Respite (re'spit), suspensión. 

Resplendent ( risplendent ), res- 

U* plandeciente. 

Respoud (rispónd), responder. 

Responsibility (resjoonsibíliti), res- 
ponsabilidad. 

Responsible (rispónsibel), respon- 
sable. 

Rsst (rest), descanso ; reposo. 

Rest (rest), descansar. 

Restless (réstles), insomne; in- 
quieto. 

Restlessness ( re'stlesnes ), insom- 
nio ; inquietud. 

Restore (ristór), restituir ; repo- 
ner. 

Restrain (ristre'n), contener. 

Restraint (ristrént), sujeción. 

Result (rise'lt), resultado. 

Resume (risium), empezar de nue- 
vo. 

Retail (rítel), menudeo. 

Retain (riten), retener. 

Retard (ritárd), retardar ; detener. 

Retentive (rite'ntiv), vivo ; feliz. 

Retire (ritáir), retirar ; recogerse. 

Retiremeut (ritáirment ), retiro ; 
asilo retirado. 

Retort (ritór-), redargución ; re- 
torta. 

Retrace (ritre's), representar ; tra- 
zar de nuevo. 

Retreat (ritrít), refugio ; retirada. 

Retreat (ritrít), retirarse. 

Retributiou (retribiúchen), retribu- 
ción. 

Retrieve (ritrív), recuperar ; reco- 
brar. 

Return (ritérn), volver ; devolver. 

Return (ritern), ganancia; retor- 
no ; remesa. 



Reveal (rivfl, revelar. 

Revenge (rivéndch), venganza. 

Rvenue (rév ña -. r< 

Reverend reverend), reverenda 

Reverence (révcrans)j reí 
' Reverlo (reven;, pensamiento pro- 
fundo. 

Reverse ( rive'rs ), contrario ; re- 
vese. 

Review (riviú), revisar ; examinar 
críticamente. 

Reviling (riváiling), injuria. 

Revive aiváiv), vivificar ; animar. 

Revoke (rivóc), revocar. 

Revolt (rivólt), revuelta ; subleva- 
ción. 

Revolution ( revollúchen), revolu- 
ción. 

Revoiutionist (revohúehenist), re- 
volucionario. 

Reward (riuúrd), recompensa. 

Reward (riuord), recompensar. 

Rbyme (ráim), rima. 

Rib (rib), costilla. 

Rich (rich), rico. 

Riches (ríches), riqueza. 

Richness (ríchnes^, riqueza; opu- 
lencia ; fertilidad. 

Rid (rid), librar ; desembarazar. 

Ride (raid), paseo ti caballo. 

Ride (raid), pasearse á caballo. 

Rider (ráider), jinete. 

Ridge (ridch), lomo ; cadena. 

Ridicule (rídikiul), ridiculez. 

Ridicule (rídikiul), ridiculizar. 

Rift (rift), hender. 

Rig (rig), aparejar ; ataviar. 

Rigging (ríguing), aparejos. 

Right (ráit), conveniente; propio; 
bien. 

Right (ráit), derecho. 

Rigid (rídehid), rígido ; austero. 

Rill (ril), arroyuelo, 

Ring (ring), anillo ; sortija. 

Ringiug (ríng-ing), repique ; zum- 
bido. 

R ; pe (ráip), maduro. 

Rise (rái.s), origen ; levantamiento ; 
súbala. 

Rise (ráis), levantarse ; subir. 
Rising (ráLs'ing), levantamiento. 
Rival (ráival), rival 



VOCABULARIO. 



109 



Kivalry (ráivalri), rivalidad. 

Kiver (ríver), rio. 

Rivet (rívet), remache. 

Rivulet (ríviulet), riachuelo. 

Road (rod), camino. 

Roar (ror), gritar. 

Roar (ror), grito. 

Roaring (r 6 ring), gritería ; grito. 

Rob (rob), robar. 

Robber (róber), ladrón. 

Robbery (róberi), robo, hurto. 

Robe (rob), toga ; vestido. 

R >bust (robést), robusto. 

Rock (roe), roca ; peña. 

Rock (roe), mecerse. 

Rocky (róki), peñascoso. 

Rod (rod), varilla ; verga. 

Rodé (rod), imp. de To raid, an- 
dar á caballo. 

Rogue (rog), picaro. 

Roguish (róguich), picaresco. 

Roll (rol), arrollar ; rodar. 

Roller (rúler), rodillo. 

Rolling (róling), que rueda. 

Román (róman), romano. 

Romance (románs), romance ; no- 
vela. 

Romantic (romántic), romántico ; 
quijotesco. 

Romiüus (rómiules), Rómulo. 

Roof (ruf ), techo. 

Room (rum), cuarto. 

Roost (rust), descansar (en galli- 
nero). 

Roost (rust), gallinero. 

Rope (rop), cuerda. 

Rose (ros), imp. de To rise, levan- 
tarse. 

Rose (ros), rosa. 

Rosewood (rósuod), palo de rosa. 

Rosy (ró.>i), rosado. 

Rough (réf), patán ; bribón. 

Rough (ref ), áspero ; rudo. 

Roughness (réf nes), aspereza ; ru- 
deza. 

Round (ráund), vuelta. 

Round (ráund), al rededor de ; 
hasta. 

Rouse ( ráus ), esperezarse ; des- 
pertar. 

Route (ráut), ruta ; camino. 

Roving (róving), vagabundo. 



Row (ro), hilera. 

Row (ro), remar. 

Royal (róial), real ; regio. 

Royalist (róialist), realista. 

Royalty (róialti), realeza ; digni- 
dad real. 

Rub (reb), frotar ; fregar. 

Rudder (réder), timón. 

Rude (rud), rudo ; áspero ; ino- 
culto. 

Rudimental (rudime'ntal), elemen- 
tal. 

Rufiie (refel), enfadar ; excitar. 

liugged (regued), áspero. 

Ruin (ruin), ruina. 

Ruin (ruin), arruinar. 

Ruined (rúind), arruinado. 

Ruiuous (ruines), ruinoso. 

Rui (rul), regla. 

Ruiing (rúling), principal. 

Rumbling (re'mbling), ruido sordo 
y continuo. 

Ruminate (rúminet), ruminar ; me- 
ditar. 

Rummer (rémer), copa. 

Rumor (rúmer), rumor. 

Run (ren), correr. 

Run out (ren áut), agotarse. 

Rupture (repehur), rotura ; her- 
nia. 

Rush ( rech ), arrojarse ; dispa- 
rarse. 

Rush (rech), junquillo ; ímpetu ; 
turba. 

Rushing (réching), ímpetur. 

Russia (réeha), Rusia. 

Russian (réchan), ruso. 

Russet (réset), bermejizo. 

Rust (rest), orin. 

Rustic (re'stic), rústico ; patán. 

Rustle (resel), crugir ; rechinar. 

Rusty (resti), mohoso. 

s. 

Sacred (se'cred), sagrado. 
Sacrifice (sácrifais), sacrificar. 
Sack (sac), saco ; vino dulce de 

canarias. 
Sad (sad), triste ; grave. 
Saddle (sádel), ensillar. 



410 



VOCABULARIO. 



Saddle (sádel), silla (de montar). 

Saddler (sádler), sillero 

Badly (sádli), tristemente ; grave- 
mente. 

Sadness (sádnes), tristeza. 

Safe (sef), seguro. 

Safely (sefli), seguramente. 

Safety-valve (séí'ti-valv), válvulo de 
seguridad. 

Sage (seden), sabio. 

Sagacious (saguéches), sagaz. 

Said (sed), imp. y parí. pus. de To 
say, decir. 

Sail (sel), vela. 

Sail (sel), navegar. 

Sailor (se'lor), marinero. 

Saintly (séntli), santo. 

Sake (sec), causa ; amor. 

Sale (sel), venta. 

Saliy (sáli), salida. 

Saloon (salún), sala ; salón. 

Salute (sallút), saludar. 

Salutary (sáliutari), saludable. 

Same (sem), mismo ; propio. 

Sanctuary (sáncchuari), santuario. 

Sand (sand), arena. 

Sandal (sándal), sandalia. 

Sandbank (sándbanc), banco de 
arena. 

Sandy (sándi), arenoso. 

Sardanapalus (sardanapáles), Sar- 
danápalo. 

Sardinia (sardínia), Cerdeña. 

Sat (sat), imp. y part. pas. de To 
sit, sentarse. 

Sated (se'ted), harto ; saciado. 

Satire (sátir), sátira. 

Satisíaction ( satisfácchen), satis- 
facción. 

Satisfy (sátisfai), satisfacer. 

Saturnine (sat¿rnain), melancóli- 
co. 

Savage ( sávadch ), bárbaro ; fe- 
roz. 
Savage (sávadch), salvage. 
Savanna (savána), sabana. 
Save (sev), salvo, excepto. 
Saw (so), imp. y part. pas. de To 

see, ver. 
Saxon (sáeson), sajón. 
Say (se), decir. 
Scafí'old (scáí'old), cadalso. 



Scale ( squel ), escala ; balanza ; 
gama ; escama. 

Scamper (scámper), escapar ; to- 
mar soleta. 

Sean (sean), contemplar ; escan- 
dir. 

Scanty (scánti), escaso. 

Scarcely (sque'rsli), apenas. 

Scarf (scarí '), trena ; banda. 

Scatter (scáter), esparcir. 

Scene (sin), escena ; sitio ; teatro. 

Scene-shifter (sín-chiíter), maqui- 
nista de teatro. 

Scent (sent) , olor. 

Sceptred (sépterd), regio. 

Scheme (squím), proye9to ; desig- 
nio. 

Schism (si.sm), cisma. 

Scholar (scólar), alumno ; erudito. 

Scholarship ( scólarship ), erudi- 
ción. 

School (scul), escuela. 

Schooner (scúner), goleta. 

Science (sáiens), ciencia. 

Seientific (saientífic), científico. 

Scofí (scof ), hacer burla. 

Scoop (scup), sacar con cucharon ; 
cavar. 

Scooped (scupd), imp. y part. pas. 
de To scoop. 

Scope (scop), objeto, fin ; espacio. 

Scorch (scorch), quemar ; chamus- 
car. 

Scorching (scórching), abrasador. 

Score (seor), veinte ; veintena. 

Scorn (scorn), menosprecio ; es- 
carnio. 

Scorpion (scórpíon), escorpión. 

Scoundrel (scáundrel), bribón, be- 
litre. 

Scour ( scáur ), fregar, limpiar ; 
corretear. 

Scourge (squerdch), azote. 

Scourge (squeidch), zurrar, azo- 
tar. 

Scramble (scrámbel), trepar. 

Scrap ^scrap), pedazo ; trozo. 

Scrape (screp), raer ¡ rascar. 

Scream (scrim), grito. 

Screw (scru), tornillo ; rosca. 

Scribe (scráib), escribiente ; escri- 
tor ; escriba. 



VOCABULARIO. 



411 



Scripture ( scríp9lmr ), Escritura 
sagrada. 

Scrub (screb), hombre vil ; estro- 
pajo. 

Scruple (scrúpel), escrúpulo. 

Scruple (scrúpel), escrupulizar. 

Scrupulous (scrúpiules), escrupu- 
loso. 

Scrutiuize ( scrútiuais ), escudri- 
ñar. 

Sculpture (skelpchur), escultura. 

Sculptor (skélptor), escultor. 

Sculptured (skelpchurd), esculpi- 
do. 

Scurrilous (skeriles), chocante. 

Sea (si), mar. 

Seabird (síberd), ave del mar. 

Sea-ñght (sífait), combate naval. 

Seal (sil), sello ; foca. 

Seal (sil), sellar. 

Seaman (siman), marino. 

Search (serch), buscar. 

Search (serch), busca ; pesquisa ; 
registro. 

Season (sisen), estación ; oportu- 
nidad. 

Seat (sit), asiento ; teatro. 

Seat (sit), sentar. 

Sea-weed (síuid), alga, planta ma- 
rina. 

Secluded (siclúded), apartado. 

Seclusion (siclúsyen), separación ; 
retiro. 

Second (se'kend), segundo. 

Secondly (sékendari), segundario. 

Second-rate (sékendret), de segun- 
do orden. 

Secret (sícret), secreto. 

Secret (sícret), secreto. 

Secretary (se'cretari), secretario. 

Section (se'c9hen), sección. 

Secular ( se'kiular ), secular ; se- 
glar. 

Secure (sikiúr), asegurar ; afian- 
zar. 

Securely (sildúrli), seguramente. 

Security (sikiúriti), seguridad. 

Sédate (side't), sosegado ; tranqui- 
lo. 

Sediment (se'diment), sedimento, 
hez. 

Sedition (sidíchen), sedición. 



See (si), ver. 

Seed (sid), simiente ; semilla. 

Seedy (sícli), lleno de granos ; po- 
bre. 

Seek (sic), buscar. 

Se en (sin), parecer. 

Seemingly (símingli), al parecer. ' 

Seem (sim), part. pas. de To see, 
ver. 

Seize (sis), asir ; apoderarse de ; 
embargar. 

Seldom (séldem), rara ver. 

Select (siléct), escoger. 

Selection (silécchen), elección. 

Self-denial (self-dináial), abnega- 
ción. 

Self-discipline (se'lf-dísiplin), im- 
perio de sí mismo. 

Self - government ( se'lf - góvern- 
ment), calma. 

Selfishness ( sélfi9hnes ) , eogois- 
mo. 

Self-neglect (self-nigléct), descuido 
de sí mismo. 

Self-possessed (sélf-pose'sd), paga- 
do de sí mismo. 

Self - preservation (sélf - preserve'- 
9hen), conservación de sí mis- 
mo. 

Self-respect ( self-rispe'ct ), digni- 
dad. 

Self-same (self-sem), mismísimo. 

Sell (sel), vender. 

Selling (se'ling), venta. 

Semicircle (se'miserkel), semicírcu- 
lo. 

Seminary (séminari), seminario. 

Senate (sénat), senado. 

Senator (se'nator), senador. 

Hend (send), mandar, enviar. 

Sensation ( sense'9hen ), sensa- 
ción. 

Sense (sens), sentido ; juicio. 

Sensibly (sénsibli), sensiblemente ; 
atinadamente. 

Sensual (se'i^hual), sensual. 

Sent (sent), imp . y part. pas. de To 
send, mandar. 

Sentence ( se'ntens) , sentencia ; 
frase. 

Sententious (sente'n9hes), senten- 



412 



VOCABULARIO. 



Sentiment (séntiment), sentimien- 
to. 

Sentimental (sentime'ntal), senti- 
mental. 

Sepárate (séparet), separado. 

Sepárate (separét), separar. 

Sequestered (sicuésterd), secues- 
trado ; retirado. 

Seraphim (sérañm), serafín. 

Seré (sir), seco, marchito. 

Serenade (serenéd), serenato. 

Serene (serín), sereno. 

Serenity (sere'niti), serenidad. 

Series (síries), serie. 

Serious (síries), serio. 

Seriousness (síriesnes), formalidad ; 
seriedad. 

Sermón (sermón), sermón. 

Serpent (se'rpent), serpiente. 

Servant (se'rvant), sirviente, cria- 
do. 

Serve (serve), servir. 

Service (sérvis), servicio. 

Serviceable (sérvisabel), servible ; 
que puede servir. 

Set off (setóf ), adornar. 

Set (set), posición ; juego ; colec- 
ción. 

Settle (sétel), arreglar ; establecer. 

Seven (se'ven), siete. 

Seventy (se'venti), setenta. 

Several ( se'veraí ), varios ; mu- 
chos. 

Severally ( se'verali ), respectiva- 
mente. 

Severe (sevír), severo. 

Severely (sevírli), severamente. 

Sew (so), coser. 

Sex (secs), sexo. 

Shade (ched), sombra. 

Shadow (chádo), sombra. 

Shadow (chádo), hacer sombra ; 
asombrar. 

Shaft (chaft), flecha ; lanza ; li- 
monera. 

Shaggy (chágui), velludo ; espeso. 

bhake (ghek), agitar ; sacudir. 

bhake (chek), sacudida. 

bhall ( 9 h al)j os prociso qTie> Auxi _ 

üa que marea el futuro. 
Boallow Cchálo), poco profundo; 
escaso de luces. 



Shame (chem), vergüenza. 

Shameful (9he'mful), vergonzoso. 

Shape (ghep), formar. 

Shapeless (yhéples), informe. 

Share (9her), partir, dividir ; par- 
ticipar. 

Sharp (9harp), afilado ; ácido. 

Sharpen (ghárpen), aguzar. 

Shatter (gháter), estrellar, destro- 
zar ; quebrar. 

Sha ve (chev), afeitar ; rozar. 

She (9I1Í), ella. 

Sheef (9hif ), gavilla. 

Shear (ghir), esquilar. 

Sheathe (9hi'd), envainar. 

Shed (9hed), cobertizo. 

Sheepishly ( 9hípÍ9hli ), tímida- 
mente. 

Sheep-shearer (ghíp-ghirer), esqui- 
lador. 

Sheet (9hit), sábana ; hoja. 

Shell (9hel), concha ; cascara. 

Shelter (9he'lter), abrigar. 

Shelter (ghélter;, abrigo. 

Shepherd (ghe'perd), pastor. 

Sherry (9he'ri), jerez (vino). 

Shield (9hild), escudo. 

Shift (chift), alternativa, recurso ; 
camisa de mujer. 

Shift (9hift), mudar ; ingeniarse. 

Shifting (9hifting), variable ; inge- 
nioso. 

Shilling (9hiling), chelin. 

Shine (gháin), brillar. 

Shining (9háining), brillante. 

Ship (9hip), navio ; buque ; fra- 
gata. 

Shipwreck (9híprec), naufragio. 

Shiver (9híver), temblar, tiritar ; 
cascarse. 

Shiver (ghíver), temblor. 

Shivering ( chívering ), temblo- 
roso. 

Shoal (9I10I), multitud ; bajío. 

Shock fchoc), ofensa : choque. 

Shock fehoo\ ofender ; ehoear. 

Shocking (<;hóking\ ofensivo; cho- 
cante. 

Rhod (ehod\ ealzado. 

Shoe íchtO, zapato. 

Shoe-tie ((;hú-tai), cordón de cal- 
zado. 



VOCABULARIO. 



413 



Shook (9I111C), imp. de To shake, 
agitar . 

Shoot (9hut), tirar ; matar de un 
balazo ; brotar. 

Shop (chop), tienda ; taller. 

Shore (chor), playa ; tierra ; ribe- 
ra. 

Shorn (robora), tundido ; despoja- 
do. 

Short (chort), corto ; escaso. 

in Short {in qhort), en una pala- 
bra. 

Shortly (chórtli), en breve. 

Shortness ( 9hórtnes ), cortedad ; 
brevedad. 

Shot (9hot), fusilazo ; pistoletazo. 

Shot (9hot), imp. y part pas. de 
shoot. 

Shoulder (9hóider), tomar á cu- 
estas ; cargar con. 

Shoulder (9hólder), espalda. 

Shout (9háut), grito. 

Shout (9háut), gritar. 

Show off (cho-óf), lucir. 

Show (9I10), sombra ; apariencia ; 
pompa. 

Shower (9háuer), aguacero. 

Shred (9hred), cacho ; andrajo. 

Shrew (9hru), mujer maligna. 

Shriek (9hric), chillido ; grito de 
dolor, de espanto. 

Shrill (9hril), agudo. 

Shrine (9hráin), relicario. 

Shrink (9hrinc), sobrecogerse. 

Shrinking (9hrínking), tímido. 

Shrub (9hreb), arbusto. 

Shrubbery (9hréberi), plantío de 
arbustos. 

Shudder (9h¿der), estremecerse. 

Shun (9hen), evitar. 

Shut (9het), cerrar ; cerrado. 

Shutter (9héter), postigo. 

Sñy (9hái), tímido ; reservado. 

Shyness (cháines), timidez. 

Sicily (sísili), Sicilia. 

Sick (sic), malo, enfermo. 

Sicken (síken), enfermar. 

Sickle (síkel), hoz. 

Sickly (sícli), enfermizo. 

Sickness (sienes), enfermedad. 

Side (sáid), lado ; costado. 

Side (sáid), tomar partido. 



Sidewalk (sáiduok), acera. 

Siege (sideh), sitio, cerco, ase- 
dio. 

Sigh (sai), suspirar, sollozar. 

Sight (sáit), vista. 

Sign (sáin) firmar ; señalar. 

Sign (sáin), señal, signo. 

Signal (signal), señal. 

Signal (signal (señalado. 

Signature (sígnachur), firma. 

Significance (signíficans), impor- 
tancia. 

Silence (sáilens), imponer silen- 
cio ; hacer callar. 

Silencer (sáilenser), que impone 
silencio. 

Silent (sálent), silencioso ; calla- 
do. 

Silken (sílken), sedoso ; sedeño. 

Silver (sílver), plata ; de plata. 

Similar (similar), semejante. 

Simple ( símpel ), simple ; sen- 
cillo. 

Simplicity (simplísiti), simpleza ; 
sencillez. 

Simply ( símpli ), simplemente ; 
sencillamente. 

Simúlate (símiulet), simular; fin- 
gir. 

Sin (sin), pecar. 

Sin (sin), pecado. 

Since (sins), desde ; desde enton- 
ces. 

Sincerely (sinsírli), sinceramente. 

Sincerity (sinse'riti), sinceridad. 

Sinew (sí ñu), tendón. 

Siníul (sínful), pecador. 

Sing (sing), cantar. 

Singer (síng-er), cantor. 

Single (sínguel), único ; sencillo ; 
solo. 

Singly (síngli), solamente ; uno á 
uno. 

Singular (sínguiular) singular. 

Sink (sinc), sumergirse ; irse á pi- 
que. 

Sir (ser), señor, caballero. 

Sister (síster), hermana. 

Sit (sit),. sentarse. 

Sitting-room (síting-rum\ sala. 

Situation (sitiue^hen), situación. 

Six (sics), seis. 



414 



VOCABULARIO. 



Six-pence (sícs-pens), seis peni- 
ques. 

Sixteen (sicstíu), diez y seis. 

Sixty (sícsti), sesenta. 

Size (sais), tamaño ; aderezo. 

Skate (sket), patín. 

Skepticisrn ( sképtisism ), escepti- 
cismo. 

Sketch (skech), bosquejo. 

Skiff (skif), esquife. 

Skill (skil), habilidad. 

Skillfully (skílfuli), hábilmente. 

Skim (skim), deslizarse ; volar. 

Skimmer (skímer), espumadera. 

Skin ( skin ), piel ; cutis ; pe- 
llejo. 

Skirt (skert), falda ; enaguas. 

Skall (skel), cráneo : calavera. 

Sky (skái). cielo. 

Slacken (sláken), aflojar ; detener. 

Slain (sien), muerto. 

Slake (slec), apagar (la sed). 

Slanderer (slanderer), maldiciente, 
calumniador. 

Slate (slet), pizarra. 

Slaughter (slóter), matanza. 

Slavery (si é veri), esclavitud. 

Sleep (slip), dormir. 

Sleep (slip), sueño. 

Sleeper (slíper), dormido ; dormi- 
lón. 

Sleepless (slíples), sin dormir ; in- 
somne. 

Sleeve (sliv), manga. 

Slender (slénder), delgado. 

Slight (sláit), delgado ; Hgero ; te- 
nue. 

Slily (sláili), disimuladamente. 

Sliper (slíper), chinela. 

Siippery (slíperi), resbaladizo. 

Slit (slit), hender. 

Slit (slit), hendedura. 

Sloop (slup), balandra. 

Slo;;e (slop), sesgar; formar de- 
clive. 

Slope (slop), sesgo; declive. 

Sloth (sloth), pereza. 

Sloveuly (slívenH), desaliñado. 

Slow (slo), despacio ; tardo. 

Slowly (slóli), despacio. 

Slumber (sllmber), sueño. 

Smack (smak), oler á ; saborear. 



Smack (smak), beso ; sabor. 

Small (smol), pequeño. 

Smart (smart), dolor vivo ; esco- 
zor. 

Smell (smel), oler ; oler á. 

Smile (sináil), sonrisa. 

Smite (smáit), herir. 

Smith (smith), herrero. 

Smitten (smíten), herido. 

Smoke (smok), humo. 

Smoke (smok), fumar ; humo, 
ahumear. 

Smoking (smoking), humeante. 

Smooth ( smu'd ), blando, uso, 
suave. 

Smooth (smu'd), alisar ; ablandar ; 
suavizar. 

Smoothly (smú'dli), suavemente. 

Smoothness ( smú'dnes ), lisura ; 
suavidad. 

Smote (smot), imp. de To smite, 
herir. 

Snake (snek), culebra. 

Snap (snap), romperse ; agarrar ; 
echar un mordisco. 

Snarl (snarl), rezongar ; gruñir. 

Snatch (snach), arrebatar ; agar- 
rar. 

Snore (snore), roncar. 

Snort (snort), resoplar. 

Snow (sno), nevar. 

Snow (sno), nieve. 

Snow-covered ( snó-ke'verd ), cu- 
bierto de nieve. 

Snow-shower (snó-eháur), nevada. 

Snowy (snói), nevoso ; blanco co- 
mo la nieve. 

Snuff (snef), respirar; resoplar. 

Snug (sneg), cómodo. 

So (so), tan ; así ; de suerte que. 

Soar (sor), remontarse. 

Sober (sóber), sobrio. 

Social (sóchal), social ; franco. 

Society (sosáieti), sociedad ; com- 
pañía. 

Socle (sóqurl), zócalo. 

Sócrates (Sócrates), ¡Sóeratis. 

Sola (sola), sofá. 

Soft (soft), blando. 

Soften sófen\ ablandar. 

Softness (sóltnes), blandura ; dul- 
zura. 



VOCABULARIO. 



415 



Soil (sóil), suelo. 

Solace (solas), consuelo ; alivio. 

Solar (solar), solar. 

Sold (sold), imp. y part. pas. de 
To sell, vender. 

Soldier (sóldcher), soldado. 

Solely (sól-li), únicamente. 

Solenin (sólem), solemne. 

Solemnity (solémniti), solemnidad. 

Solicit (solísit), solicitar. 

Solicitously (solísitesli), con dili- 
gencia. 

Soiid (sólid), sólido. 

Solidity (soiíditi), solidez. 

Solitary ' sólitari), solitario. 

Solitude (sólichud), soledad. 

Solón (sólon), Solón. 

Solve (solv), resolver. 

Sombre (sómber), sombrío. 

Some (sem), alguno ; algunos. 

Something (semzing), algo, alguna 
cosa. 

Sometimes ( sénitaims ) , algunas 
veces. 

Somewhat (sémjuat), algo. 

Somewhere (s¿mjuer),algunaparte. 

Son (sen), hijo. 

Song (song), canción. 

Son-in-law (sén-in-lo), yerno. 

as Soon as (as sún as), pronto 
como. 

Sooner (súner), mas pronto ; mas 
bien ; antes. 

Soothe (su'd), calmar ; aliviar. 

Sophistry (sófistri), sutileza de ar- 
gumento. 

Sophocles (sóíbclis), Sófocles. 

Soidid (sórdid), sórdido. 

Sore (sor), dolorido ; que duele. 

Sorrow (sóro), dolor. 

Sorrowful (sóroful), doloroso. 

Sorry (sóri), apesadumbrado; ruin. 
I am sorry for it, lo siento mucho. 

Sort (sort), suerte ; clase. 

Sought (sot), imp. y part, pas. 
de To seek, buscar. 

Soul (sol), alma. 

Soul-breathing (sol brí'ding), ex- 
presivo. 

Sound (sáund), sonido. 

Sound (sáund), sano. 

Sounding (sáunding), sondas. 



Soup (sup), sopa. 

Source (sors), fuente ; manantial ; 
causa. 

Sourkrout (sáurcraut), cierto mau- 
jar alemán, de col fermentado. 

South (sauz), sud. 

Sovereign (sóvrin), soberano. 

Sow (so), sembrar. 

Sown (son), part. pas. irreg. de To 
sow. 

Space (spes), espacio. 

Speed (spid), rapidez. 

Speedily (spídili), rápidamente. 

Spell (spel), deletrear. 

Spelt (spelt), imp. y part. pas. irreg. 
de To spell. 

Spend (spend), gastar ; pasar. 

Sj)endthrift (spénzrift), pródigo ; 
maniroto. 

Sperm (sperm), esperma. 

Spider (spáider), araña. 

Spin (spin), hilar. 

Spinster (spínster), solterona. 

Spiíal (spáiral), espiral 

Spirit (spírit), espíritu. 

Spiritual (spírichual), espiritual. 

Special (spé^-hal), especial. 

Species (spi'9hies), especie. 

Specimen (spe'simen), espe'cimen. 

Specious (spíches), especioso. 

Specks (specs), lo mismo que spec- 
tacles, anteojos. 

Spectacle (spectakel), Espectáculo. 

Spectacles (spéctakels), anteojos. 

Spectator (specte'tor), espectador. 

Spectator (specte'tor), espectador 
(libro ingle's con este título). 

Spectre (spécter), espectro. 

Speculation (spekiulé9hen), espe- 
culación. 

Speculative (spe'kiulativ), especu- 
lativo. 

Speech (spich), habla ; discurso ; 
palabra. 

Spacious (spe'9hes), espacioso. 

Spade (sped), azada. 

Spain (spen), España. 

Spaniel (spáñel), sabueso. 

Spare (sper), economizar ; per- 
donar ; poder dar. 

Spark (sparc), chispa. 

Sparkle (spárkel), centellear ; brillar 



416 



VOCABULARIO. 



Sparse (spars), escaso. 

Spartan (spartan), espartano. 

Spasm (spasm), convulsión. 

Speak (spic), hablar. 

Speaker (spíker), hablador ; ora- 
dor. 

Speaking (spíking), habla; hablar, 
conversación. 

Spear (spir), pica, lanza. 

S¡nt (spit), escupir. 

in Spite of (in spáit ov), á pesar 
de ; á despecho de. 

Spleen (splin), bazo ; esplin. 

Splendid (spléndid), espléndido. 

Splinter (splíuter), cacho; astillazo. 

Spoil (spóil), arruinar ; despojar. 

Spoiler (spoiler), arruinador. 

Spontaneous (spontéñes), espon- 
táneo. 

Sport (sport), recreo ; juego; pasa- 
tiempo. 

Sport (sport), jugar ; divertirse. 

Sportive (spórtiv), festivo ; alegre. 

Sportiveness (spórtivnes), festivi- 
dad ; alegría. 

Sportsman (sportsman), cazador. 

Spot (spot), sitio ; mancha. 

Spouting (spáuting), chorro; soplo ; 
soplar. 

Sprang (sprang), imp. de To spring. 

Spray (spre), ramillo ; espuma. 

Spread (spred), esparcir ; difun- 
dir. 

Spreading (spre'ding), grande ; 
abierto . 

Spring (spring), brincar. 

Spring (spring), primavera ; ma- 
nantial ; brinco. 

Spun (spen), imp. y part. paj. de 
To spin, hilar. 

Spunk (spene), yesca ; vivacidad. 

Spur (sper), espuela. 

Spurn (spern), desdeñar ; recha- 
zar. 

Sputter (speter), babosear; babotar. 

Spy (spái), divisar. 

Squabble (scuóbel), escuadrón. 

Scpiare (scue'r), cuadrads ; escua- 
dro ; plaza. 

Squaw (scuó), muger india. 

Stpieeze (scuís), estrechar ; apre- 
tar ; estrujar. 



Squire (scuáir), escudero ; corres- 
ponde á veces á den. 

Stab (stab), matar con puñal. 

Star!' (staf), bastón. 

Staye ístadeh), teatro ; tablaj. 

Stagger (stáguer), vacilar ; hacer 
eses. 

Stain (sten), mancha. 

Stain (sten), manchar. 

Stairs (ster), escalera. 

Staircase (stérkes), escalera. 

Stake (stec), estaca; apuesta : ries- 
go- 

Stalactite (staláctit), estalactita. 

Stale (stel), viejo ; rancio ; duro. 

in Stalk (in stoc), echar tallo. 

Stamp (stamp), marcar ; sellar. 

Stanch (stanch), estancar. 

Stand (stand), estar situado ; es- 
tar en pie'. 

Standard (standard), estandarte ; 
modelo ; tipo. 

Stauding (standing), posición. 

Star (star), estrella. 

Stare (ster), mirar fijamente. 

Starry (stári), de estrellas. 

Start (start), partida ; arranque. 

Start up (start ép), levantarse. 

Starvation (starvechen), hambre. 

Starve ^starv), estar muy pobre ; 
morir de hambre. 

State (stet), estado. 

Stateliness (stéthnes), magostad ; 
pompa. 

Stately (stétli), magestuoso ; pom- 
poso. 

Statement (stétment), aserción ; 
extracto. 

Statesman (ste'tsman), estadista. 

Station (stéchen), estacioner ; 
apostar. 

Stationary (stéchenari), estacion- 
ario. 

Statue (stáchu), estatua 

Stauíich (stoucli), sauo de quilla y 
costados ; aeérimo. 

Stave (stev), astillar ; romper. 

in Stays (in stex), <>n lacha. 

Stay (ste), estai ; soporte ; estan- 
cia. 
Steadfast (stedfast), firme ; cons- 
tante ; resuelto. 



VOCABULARIO. 



417 



Steal (stil), venir furtivamente. 

Steamboat (stínibot), vapor. 

Steam-engine (stím-e'ndchin), ma- 
quina de vapor. 

Steam-gauge (stíin-güe'dch), manó- 
metro. 

Stead (stíd), corcel. 

Steel (stil), acero. 

Steep (stip), escarpado. 

Steer (stir), gobernar (un buque). 

Stem (stem), vastago ; tallo. 

Stem (stem), afrontar ; oponer. 

Step (step), paso ; escalón. 

Step up (step ep), llegarse ; avan- 
zar. 

Sterile (ste'rail) estéril, 

Stern (stem), austero ; flexible. 

Stewardship (stiúardchip), mayor- 
domía. 

Stick (stic), palo. 

Stick (stic), pegar ; perseverar. 

Stiff (stif), rígido ; tieso ; afectado. 

Stiffen (stífen), atiesar. 

Stifle (stáifel), ahogar ; callar ; su- 
primir. 

Still (stil), tranquilo ; sosegado ; 
apacible ; silencioso. 

Still (stil), aun ; todavía. 

Still uess ( stílnes ), tranquilidad ; 
silencio ; sosiego. 

Stilt (stilt), zanco. 

Stimulated (stímiuleted), estimu- 
lado. 

Stimulating (stímiulating), estimu- 
lante. 

Stimulus (stímiules), estímulo. 

Sting (sting), aguijón ; punzada ; 
remordimiento. 

Stint (stint), acortar ; limitar. 

Stipulation (stipiuléchen), estipu- 
lación. 

Stir (ster), mover; avivar; remover. 

Stirrup (stírep), estribo. 

Stock (stoc), abastecer ; proveer. 

Stock (stoc), copia ; tronco. 

Stocking (stóking), media, 

Stomach (stómac), estómago. 

Stone (ston), piedra. 

Stood (stud), imp. y part pas. de 
To stand. 

Stoop (stup), agacharse ; humi- 
llarse. 



Stop (stop), detenerse ; cesar. 

Store (stor), copia ; tienda ; pro- 
visión. 

Store up (stor ep), atesorar ; acu- 
mular. 

Storied (stórid), cantado; histórico. 

Storm (storm), tempestad. 

Storm -wind (stórm uínd), ven- 
tarrón. 

Stormy (stórmi), tempestuoso. 

Story (stóri), piso ; historia ; cuen- 
to. 

Story-teller (stóriteler), narrador ; 
mentiroso. 

Stout (stáut), robusto ; cerveza 
negra. 

Stove (stov), estufa. 

Straight (stret), en derechura. 

Straight (stret), derecho. 

Strain (stren), violencia. 

Strain (stren), tirar con violencia. 

Strait (stret), estrecho. 

Straitened (strétend), apurado. 

Strange (strendch), extraño. 

Stranger (strendcher), forastero. 
You are a stranger, no hay quien 
vea á V. 

Strangle (stránguel), ahogar. 

Straw (stro), paja. 

Stray (stre), desviarse ; perderse. 

Streak (stric), rayar ; abigar. 

Stream (strim), flujo ; corriente. 

Strength (strengz), fuerza. 

Strenuous (stréñues), fuerte ; acér- 
rimo. 

Stretch (strech), extender ; estirar. 

Strew (stru), sembrar ; esparcir. 

Strict (strict), estricto. 

Stride (stráid), dar pasos largos. 

Strife (stráif), querella ; riña. 

Strike (stráik), herir. 

Striking (stráiking), notable. 

String (string), cordel ; ensarta. 

Strip (strip), desnudar ; despojar. 

Stripped (stripd), despojado ; des- 
nudo. 

Stroke (stroc), golpe. 

Sfroog (strong), fuerte. 

Stronghold (stróngjold), fuerte; for- 
lateza. 

Strove (strov), imp. de To strive, 
esforzarse. 



418 



VOCABULARIO. 



Struck (strec), imp.y part. pas. de 
To strike. 

Slructure (strécchur), estructura. 

Struggle (stréguel), lachar. 

Struggle (stréguel), lucha. 

Struggling (strégling), luchando. 

Stubborn (steborn), porfiado; obs- 
tinado. 

Stuck (stec), imp. y part. pas. de 
To stick. 

Student ( stiúdent ), estudiante ; 
discípulo. 

Study (stédi), estudiar. 

Stuff (stef ), tejido ; material ; dis- 
parate. 

Stuffed (steft), relleno ; henchido. 

Stumble(stémbel), tropezón ; desliz. 

Stun (sten), aturdir. 

Stung (steng), imp. y part. pas. de 
To sting, aguijonear. 

Stupefaction (stiupefác9hen), es- 
tupefacción. 

Stupendous (stiupéndes), estupen- 
do. 

Stupid (stiúpid), estúpido. 

Stupidity (stiupíditi), estupidez. 

Sturdy (sterdi), robusto; fuerte. 

Style (stáil), estilo. 

Subaltern (sebáltern), subalterno. 

Subdue (sebdiú), sojuzgar; domar. 

Subject (sébdchect), subdito. 

Subjection (sebdchéc9hen), suje- 
ción. 

Sublimity (seblímiti), sublimidad. 

Submissive (sebmísiv), sumiso. 

Submit (sebmít), someter ; some- 
terse. 

Subordínate (sebórdinet), subordi- 
nado. 

Subseription (sebscríp9hen), sus- 
cripción. 

Subsequent (sébsecuent), subse- 
cuente. 

Subserviente (sebsérvient), subor- 
dinado. 

Subside (sebsáid), cesar ; degene- 
rar. 

Subsidiary (sebsídiari), subsidiario. 

Bubsisteiice (sebsístans), existen- 
cia. 

Substantial (sebstánchal), sustan- 
cioso. 



Substitute ( st'bstiehut ), susti- 
tuir. 

Subtle (sétel), subtil. 

Succeed (secsíd), suceder; tener 
éxito. 

Success (secsés), buen éxito. 

Successful ( secsésful), próspero ; 
dichoso. 

Succession (seesésyen), sucesión. 

Successive (secsesiv), sucesivo. 

Successor (secsésor), sucesor. 

Succor (secor), socorro. 

Such (sech), tal ; semejante. 

oí' a Sudden (ov e seden), de re- 
pente. 

Sudden ( seden ), súbito, repen- 
tino. 

Suddenly (sédenli), repentiamente. 

Suddenness (sédenes), instantani- 
dad. 

Sue (su), demandar ; solicitar. 

Sufier (séfer), sufrir ; padecer. 

Suftering (séfering), padecimiento. 

Sufncient (seíichent), suficiente. 

Suffoeate (séíbket), sofocar. 

Sufírage (séfradch), sufragio. 

Suggest (sedehést), sugerir. 

Suggestion (sedehéschen), suges- 
tión. 

Suggestive ( sedehéstiv ), que in- 
dica. 

Suicidal (súisaidal), de suicidio. 

Suit (siút), convenir á. 

Suit (siút), demanda ; solicitud ; 
vestido completo. 

Suitable (siutabel), conveniente. 

Sulleii (sélen), tétrico ; ceñudo. 

Sullenness (sélen-nes), ceno. 

Sultry (séltri), sofocante. 

Sum (sem), sumar. 

Sum (sem), suma. 

Summary (sámaii), sumario. 

Summer (sémer), verano. 

Summit (sémit), cumbre. 

Summon (sé*mon), llamar. 

Summons (fimon*), citación. 

Sumptuously (sémehuesli ), sun- 
tuosamente. 

Sumptuousness ( st'mehuesnes ), 
suntuosidad. 

Sun (sen), sol. 

Sunbeam (sénbim), rayo de] sol. 



VOCABULARIO. 



419 



Sunday (sende), domingo. 

Sun-gilt (séhgailt), dorado del sol. 

Sunk (senk), sumergido ; se su- 
mergió. 

Suuken (sénken). sumergido ; abis- 
mado ; abatido. 

Sunny (se'ni), risueño. 

Suurise (senrais;, salido del sol. 

Suuset (sénset), puestas del sol. 

Sunshiue (se'nckain), claridad del 
sol ; dicha. 

Sup (sep), cenar. 

Sup (sep), sorbo. 

Superannuated (superáñueted),vie- 

Supercilious (supersílles), altivo. 

Superficial (superfíchai), superfi- 
cial. 

Superfluitv (superflúiti), superflui- 
dad. 

Superfluous ( supe'rflues ), super- 
ñuo. 

Superinduce ( superindiús ), cau- 
sar. 

Superintend (superinte'nd), dirigir. 

Superior (siupírior), superior. 

Superiority (siupirióriíi), superio- 
ridad. 

Supernumerary (supemúmerari), 
supernumerario. 

Superscription ( superscrípchen ), 
sobrescrito. 

Supervisor ( superváisyer), direc- 
tor. 

Supper (seper), cena. 

Supple (súpel), ágil; flexible. 

Supplicant (séplicant), suplicante. 

Supplicatory (seplicatori), supli- 
cante. 

Supply (seplái), suplir ; proveer ; 
suministrar. 

Snpport (sepórt), soporte ; manu- 
tención ; apoyo. 

Supporter (sepórter), apoyo ; pro- 
tector. 

Surcease (sersís), suspensión. 

Sure (chur), de seguro. 

Sure (chur), seguro. 

Surely (chúrli), seguramente. 

Surf (serf), oleada. 

Surface (serías), superficie. 

Surge (serdch), olas ; oleada. 



Surly (serli), grosero ; enojado. 

Surmounr (sermáunt), superar. 

Surpass (serpas., sobrepujar. 

Surpassing ( serpásing ), sobresa- 
liente. 

Surprise (serpráis), sorpresa. 

Surprising (serpráising), sorpren- 
dente. 

Surrender (sere'nder), rendirse ; ce- 
der. 

Surrender (sere'nder), rendición; 
cesión. 

Surround ( seráund ), circundar ; 
rodear. 

Survey (serve'), contemplar ; mi- 
rar . 

Survey ( sirve ), contemplación ; 
inspección, 

Survive (serváiv) ; sobrevivir. 

Survivor (serváivor), sobrevivien- 
te. 

Susceptibility (sesceptibíliti), sus- 
ceptibilidad. 

Susceptible (sese'ptibel), suscepti- 
ble. 

Suspect (sespe'ct), sospechar. 

Suspend (sespénd), suspender, 

Sustain (sestén), sostener ; de- 
fender. 

Sustennnce (sestenans), sustento. 

Swallow (suólo), tragar. 

Swallow (suólo), tragadero ; golon- 
drina. 

Swan (suún), cisne. 

Swap (suóp), trocar. 

Sway (sue), empuñar ; gobernor. 

Sway (sué), imperio ; influjo. 

Sweat (suét), sudor. 

Sweet (suít), dulce ; agradable. 

Sweetness (suítnes), dulzura ; sua- 
vidad. 

Swell (su el), henchir ; resonar. 

Swehing (suéling), hinchazón. 

Swept (suépt), imp. y parí. pas. de 
To sweep, barrer. 

Swerve (suérv), apartarse. 

Swift (suíft), veloz. 

Swiftly (suíítli), velozmente. 

Swim (suíin), nadar. 

Swine (suáin), cerdo ; pecerco. 

Swing (suíng), mecer. 

Sword (sord), espada. 



420 



VOCABULARIO. 



Sworclfish (sórdfich), pez espada. 
Swuüg (su¿ng), imp. y part. pas. 

de To swing. mecer. 
Syllable (sílabel), sílaba. 
Syllogisin (sílodchism), silogismo. 

T. 

Table (tetbel), mesa ; tabla. 

Tacitly (tásitli), tácitamente. 

Taciturn (tásitern), taciturno, ca- 
llado. 

Tack (tac), virar. 

Tackle (tákel), aparejo ; motón. 

Tail (tel), cola. 

Take (tek), tomar ; sacar ; coger. 

Taken (te'ken), part. pas. de To 
take. 

Tale (tel), cuento. 

Tale-bearer (télberer), soplón. 

Talent (tálent), talento. 

Talk (toe), hablar. 

Tall (tol), alto. 

Tallo w (talo), sebo. 

Tame (tem), manso. 

Tamper (támper), 

Tangible (tándchibel), tangible. 

Tap (tap), espita. 

Tap (tap), abrir (un barril). 

Taper (te'per), rematar en punta. 

Tapping (táping), extracción del 
agua de hidropesía. 

Tariff (tárif), tarifa. 

Tarquín (tárcuin), Tarquino. 

Tart (tart), torta ; ácido. 

Tartán (tartán), tartana (cierto 
tejido escoces). 

Task (tase), tarea. 

Task (tase), poner tarea. 

Taskmaster (tásc-m áster), director. 

Tasto (test), gusto ; sabor. 

Tas te (test\ gustar ; probar. 

Taster (te'ster), catador. 

Taught (tot), imp. y part. pas. de 
To teach, enseñar. 

Tawny (tóni), moreno. 

Teach (tich), enseñar. 

Teacher (tícher), maestro ; instruc- 
tor. 

Teachmg (tíching), enseñanza. 

Teamster (te'mster), arriero. 



T^ar ^ tir), lágrima. 

Tear (ter), rasgar. 

Tearfnl (tíríul), lloroso. 

Tease (tis), atormentar. 

Tedium (tídiem), tedio, fastidio, 

Teemiug (tíming), preñada ; abun- 
dante. 

Teeth (tiz), plural de tooth, diente. 

Telegraphic (telegrafié), telegrá- 
fico. 

Telescope (te'lescop), telescopio. 

Temper (te'mper), genio. 

Temper (temper), templar. 

Températe (témperat), templado. 

Temperature (te'mperachurj, teni- 

• pera tura. 

Tempered (témpered), templado. 

Tempest (térnpest), tempestad. 

Templar (templar), templario ; es- 
tudiante de leyes. 

Temple (témpel), sien ; templo. 

Temporal (te'mporal), temporal. 

Tempt (temt), tentar ; provocar. 

Temptation ( ternte'chen ), tenta- 
ción. 

Temptress (te'mtres), tentadora. 

Ten (ten), diez. 

Tenfold (te'nf'old), de'cuplo. 

Tenacious (teneches), tenaz. 

Tenaut (ténant), inquilino. 

Tendency (te'ndensi), tendencia. 

Tender (ténder); tierno. 

Tender (te'nder), someter ; presen- 
tar. 

Tenderly (ténderli), tiernamente. 

Tendemess (te'ndernes), ternura. 

Tendón (tendón), tendón. 

Tendril (téndril), zarcillo (de plan- 
ta). 

Tent (tent), tienda. 

Term (term), llamar. 

I'erm (term), termino. 

Termínate (iérminet), terminar. 

Termination (termine'chen), termi- 
nación. 

Terrestrial (teréstrial), terrenal ; 
terrestre. 

Terror (te'ror), terror. 

Terrible (téribel), terrible. 

Terrino (terífíc), espantosa 

Terrify (térifiti), espantar. 

Terse (térs), terso ; pulido. 



VOCABULARIO. 



421 



Test (test), probar ; poner á prue- 
ba. 

Test (test), prueba. 

Testament (te'stament), testamento. 

Testimonial (testimóñal), certifi- 
cado. 

Testimony (téstimoni), testimonio. 

Teutonic (tiutónic), teutónico. 

Thames (tams), Támesis. 

Than ('dan), que. 

Thauks (zancs), gracias. 

Thank (zank), dar las gracias. 

That ('dat), eso, aquello. 

That ('dat), eso, aquel 

That ('dat), que. 

The ('di), el, la, lo. 

Theatre (zíater), teatro. 

Theatrical (ziátrical), teatral 

Thebes (zibs), Teba. 

Thee ('di), te, tí. 

Their ('der), su (de ellos) 

Them ('dem), ellos ; les, los. 

Themselves ^'demsélvs), ellos mis- 
mos. 

Then ('den), entonces ; pues. 

Theological (zhiolódchical), teoló- 
gico. 

Theology (ziólodchi), teología. 

Theory (zíori), teoría. 

There ('der), allí. There is, hay. 

Thereat ('derát), allí. 

Thereby ('derbái), con ello ; por 
ese medio. 

Therefore ('dérfor), luego ; pues. 

Therein (Vlerín), allí ; en él. 

These ('dis), estos. 

Thespian ( ze'spian ), lo perteni- 
ciente á Te'spis. 

They ('de), ellos. 

Thick (zic), espeso. 

Thief (zif), ladrón. 

Thin (zin), escaso, delgado. 

Thin (zin), aclarar ; decimar. 

Thin (zin), raro ; escaso. 

Thine (Main), tuyo ; tu. 

Thing (zing), cosa. 

Think (zinc), pensar ; creer. 

Thinker (zínquer), pensador. 

Thinly (zíníi), escasamente. 

Third (zerd), tercero. 

Thirst (zerst), sed. 

Thirst (zerst), tener sed. 



Thirsty (zersti), sediente ; que tie- 
ne sed. 

Thirty (ze'rti), treinta. 

This ('dis), este. 

Thither ('df der), allá. 

Thorn (zorn), espina. 

Thoroughly (zóroli), eficazmente. 

Thorp (zoip), villorio. 

Those ('dos), esos, aquellos. 

Thou ('dáu), tú. 

Though ('do), aunque. 

Thought (zot), imp. y part pas. 
de To think, pensar. 

Thought (zot), pensamiento. 

Thoughtful (zótful), meditativo; 
atento 

Thoughtlessness (zótlesnes), des- 
cuido ; aturdimiento. 

Thousand (záu.sand), mil. 

Thrash (zrach), trillar ; zurrar. 

Thrasher (zrácher), trillador. 

Thread (zred), hilo. 
_Threadbare (zrédber), raido. 

Threat (zret), amenaza. 

Threaten (zre'ten), amenazar. 

Three (zri), tres. 

Thresh (zrech). Lo mismo quo 
Thrash. 

Threshing (zre'ching), zurra ; tri- 
lla. 

Threw (zru), imp. de To throw, 
arrojar. 

Thrice (zráis), tres veces. 

Thrilling (zríling\ que conmueve. 

Throat (zrot), garganta. 

Throe (zro), dolor ; angustia 

Throne (zron), trono. 

Throng (zrong), gentío. 

Through (zru), al través de ; por 
entre ; por. 

Throughout (zruáut), enteramen- 
te ; por. 

Throw off (zro óf ). sacudir. 

Thrown (zron), part. pas. de To 
throw, arrojar. 

Thrust (zrest). empujar. 

Thumb (zem), manosear. 

Thunder (ze'nrter), trueno. 

Thunder (ze'nder). tronar. 

Thunderbolt (ze'nderbolt), rayo. 

Thus ('des), así. 

They ('dái), tu. 



422 



VOCABULARIO. 



Tiber (táiber), Tiber. 

Tide (táid), marea; coriente. 

Tidings (táidings), noticias. 

Tie (tai), atar. 

Tie (tai), nudo ; lazo. 

Tiger (táiguer), tigre. 

Tight (táit), tirante ; tieso. 

Tighten (táiten), atiesar; apretar. 

Tile (táil), teja. 

Tlll (til), hasta que. 

Till (til), cultivar. 

Tillage (tíledch), cultivo. 

Timber (tímber), madera. 

Time ( táim ), tiempo ; ocasión ; 
vez. 

Timely (táimli), oportuno. 

Timidly (tímidli), tímidamente. 

Tinkle (tínkel), cencerrear. 

Tinkling (tíncling), cencerreo. 

Tint (tint), tinte. 

Tip (tip), punta. 

Tire (táir), cansar. 

Tiresome (táirsem), cansado. 

Tit íbr tat (tit for tat), donde las 
dan las toman. 

Title (táitel), título. 

Title-deed (táitel-did), título (do- 
cumento). 

Title-page (táitel-pedch), portada. 

Titular (títiular), titular 

To (tu), á ; para. 

Toast (tost), brindar. 

Tobacco (tobáco), tabaco. 

To-day (tude'), hoy. 

Toe (to), dedo (del pié). 

Together (tugué'der), junto. 

Toil (tóil), afanarse. 

Toilet (tóilet) tocador. 

Toilsoine (tóilsem), penoso. 

Token (téken), parí. pas. de To 
take, tomar. 

Told (told), imp. y part pas. de 
To tell, decir. 

Tolerably ( túlerabli ), mediana- 
mente. 

Toleration ( toleréchen ), toleran- 
cia. 

Toll (tol), tocar (una campana) ; 
dar la hora. 

Tom (tom), abreviatura de Tilo- 
mas, Tomás. 

Tomb (tum), tumba. 



To-mormw (tu-móro), mañana. 

Tone (ton), tono. 

Tungue (teng), lengua. 

Too (tu), demasiado ; también. 

Tool (tul), herramienta. 

Took (tuc), imp>. de To take, to- 
mar. 

Tooth (tuz), diente. 

Top (top), cima. 

Top-gallant (te-gálent), juanete. 

Topic (tópicj, asunto. 

Topsail (tópsel), vela de gavia. 

Tore (tor), imp. de To tear, ras- 
gar. 

Torment (torment), atormentar. 

Torment (tórment), tormento. 

Tom (torn), part. pas. de To tear, 
rasgar. 

Torrent (tórent), torrente. 

Torture (tórchur), tortura. 

Torture (tórchur), atormentar. 

Toss up (tos ep), lanzar en alto. 

Tossed (tost), imp. y part. pas. de 
To toss, agitar. 

Totally (tótali), totalmente. 

Totter (tóter), vacilar. 

Touch (tech), ta9to ; contacto. 

Touch (tech), tocar. 

Tough (tef), duro, correoso. 

Tournament (túrnament), torneo. 

Tourney (turne), torneo. 

Tow (to), remolcar. 

Toward (tóard), hacia. 

Tower (táuer), torre. 

Tower (táuer), elevarse. 

Towü (táun), villa. 

Toy-shop (tói-chop), juguetería. 

Trace (tres), trezar ; investigar ; 
rastrear. 

Trace (tres), traza ; rastreo. 

Tract (tract), tratado ; trecho. 

Trade (tred), tranco : o« nurcio. 

Trader (trécter), trancante. 

Tradesman (trédsman), traficante ; 
trabajador. 

Tradition (tradícnen), tradición. 

Traditionary (tradn/lunari ;, tradi- 
cional. 

Trafile (tráfic), traficar. 

Trafile (tráfic), trafica 

Tragic (trádehic) trágico. 

Trail (trel), arrastrar. 



VOCABULARIO. 



423 



Train (tren), tren. 

Train (tren), adiestrar ; acostum- 
brar. 

Trait (tre), rasgo. * 

Traitor (trétor), traidor. 

Tramp (tramp), viaje. 

Traniple (trámpel), pisotear. 

Trampling (trámpling), pisoteo. 

Trance ( trans ), éxtasi ; arroba- 
miento. 

Tranquil (tráncuil), tranquilo. 

Tranquillity (trancuíliti), tranqui- 
lidad. 

Transact (transáct), hacer. 

Transatlantic (transatlántic), tras- 
atlántico. 

Trans cendent ( transe éndent ), 
transcendente. 

Transfer (transfer), trasferir. 

Transient (tránsyent), pasagero ; 
transeúnte. 

Transíate (transle't), traducir. 

Translatiou (transléchen), traduc- 
ción. 

Transmit (transmít), trasmitir. 

Transparent (transpe'rent), traspa- 
rente . 

Transplanta tion (transplantéchm), 
trasplante. 

Transport (tránsport), rapto ; tras- 
porte. 

Trap (trap), trampa. 

Trash (traen), porquería. 

Travel (trável), viajar. 

Traveller (tráveler), viajero. 

Traversable ( travérsabel ) , que 
puede atravesarse. 

Traverse (travérs), atravesar. 

Treacherous ( trécheres ), aleve ; 
falso. 

Treachsry (tre'cheri), alevosía. 

Tread (tred), pisotear ; atropeilar. 

Tread (tred), pisada. 

Treasure (tre'syer), tesoro. 

Treasure (trésyer), atesorar. 

Treat (trit), tratar ; regalar. 

Treatise (trítis), tratado. 

Treatment (trítment), trato. 

Treble (trébel), tiple. 

Tree (tri), árbol. 

Tremole (trémbel), temblar. 

Trembling (trémbling), temblor. 



Tremendous (triméndes), tremen- 
do. 

Trial (tráial), prueba ; juicio. 

Triangle (tráianguel), triángulo. 

Tri be itráib), tribu. 

Tribulation (tribiuléchen), tribula- 
ción. 

Tribunal (traibiúnal), tribunal. 

Tribune (tríbiun), tribuno ; tribu- 
na. 

Tribute (tríbiut), tributo 

Trick (trie), treta. 

Trickle (tríkel), gotear. 

Trifle (tráifel), bagatela. 

Trifle (tráifel), tontear ; burlarse 
de. 

Trifling (tráiñing), de poca monta. 

Trini (triin), condición. 

Trip (trip), tropezar. 

Triple (trip el), triple. 

Trite (tráit), trivial ; común. 

Triuniph (tráiemf ), triunfo. 

Triumvirate (traiémvirat), trium- 
virato. 

Trivial (trivial), trivial. 

Trod (trod), imp. de To tread, pisar. 

Troop (trup), tropa. 

Trooper (trúper), soldado á caballo. 

Trophy (trófi), trofeo. 

Trot (trot), trotar. 

Trouble (trebel), molestia. 

Trout (tráut), trucha. 

Truck (trec), carretilla ; cureña. 

True (tru), verdadero ; verídico. 

Truly (trúli), verdaderamente. 

Trumpet (trémpet), trompeta. 

Trust (trest), confiar ; fiarse á ; dar 
al fiado. 

Trust (trest), confianza ; crédito. 

Trustee (trestí), fideicomisario. 

Trut]i (truz), verdad. 

Try (trái), probar. 

Tuck (tec), dobladillo. 

Tufted (teí'ted), que tiene . borlas ; 
afelpado. 

Tug (teg), tirón. 

Tuition (tiuíchen), instrucción. 

Tumble (témbel), venir abajo ; vol- 
tear. 

Tumult (tiúmelt), tumulto. 

Tune (tiún), templar ; acordar. 

Tune (tiún), acorde ; aire. 



á24 



VOCABULARIO. 



Tuneful (tiúnful), melodioso. 

Turbulence (terbiulens), turbulen- 
cia. 

Turf (terf ), césped ; turba. 

Turkey (térki), pavo. 

Turn (tern), vuelta. 

Turn (tern), volver. 

Turncoat ( terncot ), tornadizo ; 
apóstata. 

Turnip (térnip), nabo. 

Turtle (te'rtel), tórtola ; tortuga. 

Tutor (tiútor), preceptor. 

Twelve (tuélv), doce. 

Twenty (tue'üti), veinte. 

Twice (tuáis), dos veces. 

Twig (tuíg), vareta ; vastago. 

Twilight (tuáilait), crepúsculo. 

Twine (tuáin), enroscar. 

Tvvinkling (tuínkling), vislumbre ; 
guiñada. 

Twitter (tuíter), chirriar. 

Two (tu), dos. 

Tyny (táiui), pequeño. 

Type (táip), tipo. 

Tyrannical (tiránical), tiránico. 

Tyrant (táirant), tirano. 

u. 

Ubiquity (yubícuiti), ubiquidad. 

Ugly (egli), feo. 

Umbrella (embre'la), paraguas. 

Umpire (empair), arbitro. 

Unable (enébel), incapaz. 

Unaccustomed (enakéstomd), que 
no tiene costumbre. 

to be Unacquainted with (eaacue'nt- 
ed), no conocer. 

Unaffected (enaíected), ingenuo. 

Unalterable (enólterabel), inaltera- 
ble. 

Unanimity (yunanímiti), unanimi- 
dad. 

Unanimous (yunánimes), unánime. 

to be Unaware (enauér), no saber. 

Unbelief (enbilíf ), incredulidad. 

Unbending (enbending), inflexible. 

Unborn (enbórn), no nacido. 

Unbounded (enbáunded), sin lí- 
mite. 

Unbroken (enbrókcn), intacto. 



Uncertíiin (ense'rtan), incierto. 

linchaste (enchést), impúdico. 

Uncivilized (ensívilaisd), incivili- 
zado. 

Únele (e'nkel), tio. 

Unciogged (enclógd), desembara- 
zado. 

Unclouded (encláuded), claro, se- 
reno. 

Uncoffined (tncófind), sin ataúd. 

Uncommon (encómon), poco co- 
mún. 

Unconcerned (cnconsérned), indi- 
ferente. 

Unconcernedly ( enconse'rndli ), 
con indiferencia. 

Unconscious (enconches), sin sa- 
berlo. 

Unconsciously ( encónchesli , sin 
saberlo. 

Uncontrollable (encontrólabel), in- 
contrastable. 

Uncontrolled (encontróld), desen- 
frenado. 

Uncouth (encúz), inculto. 

Uncreated (encriéted), no creado. 

Uncultivated (enkéltivated), incul-, 
to. 

Undaunted (endónted), denodado. 

Undazzled (endáseld), que no se 
deja deslumbrar. 

Undeceive (fndisív), desengañar. 

Under (¿nder), debajo de. 

Undergo (endergó), sufrir. 

Under-ground (¿nder-gráund), eo- 
terráneo. 

Undermine (endermain), minar. 

Underneath (enderníz ), debajo de. 

Understand (enderstánd ), enten- 
der. 

Understanding ( enderstánding ), 
entendimiento. 

Understood (enderstúd), imp. y 
part. pas. de To understand, en- 
tender. 

Undertake (enderte'k\ emprender. 

Undertaking (endertéking), empre- 
sa. 

Undervalue (endervállu), desapre- 
ciar. 

Undiminished (endimínischd), en- 
tero. 



VOCABULARIO. 



42." 



Undiscoverable ( endisk¿verabel ), 
que no puede descubrir se. 

Undismayed (énlisméd), intrépi- 
do. 

Undisturbed (endistérbd), tranqui- 
lo. 

Undivided (endivíded), entero. 

Undo ( endú ), deshacer ; arrui- 
nar. 

Undoubtedly ( endáutedli), indu- 
dablemente. 

Undue (endiú), indebido. 

Undulate (éndiulet), undular. 

Undulation (endiuléchen), undula- 
ción . 

Undutiful (mdiútiful), inobediente. 

Uneasy (enísi), inquieto. 

Unequal (enícual), desigual ; inca- 
paz. 

Unequalled (enícuald), sin igual. 

Unerring (ene'ring), seguro. 

Unexampled ( enegsámpeld), sin 
ejemplar. 

Unexerted (enegsérted), que no se 
ejerce. 

Unexpected (enecspe'cted), inespe- 
rado. 

Unexpectedly (enecspéctedli), ines- 
peradamente. 

Unfathomed (enfá'domd), no son- 
dado. 

Unfavorable (enlevorabel), desfa- 
vorable. 

Unfeeling (enfíling), cruel. 

Unfinished (enfínicnt), no acabado. 

Unfit (enfít), desconveniente ; in- 
capaz . 

Unfold (enfóld), desdoblar; revelar. 

Unforeseen' (enforsín), imprevisto. 

Unfortunate (enfórchunat), desgra- 
ciado. 

Unfrequently (enfrícuentli), rara 
vez. 

Unrurnished ( enférnichd ), sin 
amueblar ; desnudo. 

TJngainly (enguénli), desmañado. 

Ungentlemanly (endche'ntelmanli), 
grosero. 

Ungoverned (enguevernd), desen- 
trenado. 

Ungrateful (engre'tful), ingrato. 

Unhappy (enjápi), infeliz. 



Unhatched (enjáchd), que no ha 
salido del cascaron. 

Unhonored (enónerd), desprecia- 
do. 

Uniform (yüniform), uniforme. 

Unilluminated (enillúmineted), no 
iluminado. 

Unimaginative (enimádchinetiv), 
sin imaginación. 

Unimpaired (enimpe'rd), perfecto. 

Unimportant ( enimpórtant ), de 
poca importancia. 

Unmhabited (eninjábited), inhabi- 
tado. 

Unintelligible (eninte'lidchibel), in- 
inteligible. 

Union (yúñen), unión. 

Unit (yúnit), unidad. 

Unite (yunáit), unir. 

United States (yunáited stets), Es- 
tados Unidos. 

Universal (yunivérsal), universal. 

Universe (yúnivers), universo. 

Unkind (fnkáind), poco atento. 

Unknelled (euneld), sin campana- 
da. 

Unknown (eunón), desconocido. 

Unlanterned (enlánternd), sin lin- 
terna. 

Unlawful (enlóful), ilegal. 

Unless (enlés), á me'nos que. 

Unlettered (enle'terd), indocto. 

Unlikely (enláikli), inverosímiL 

Unlucky (enléki), desgraciado. 

Unluckily (enlékili), desgraciada- f 
mente. 

Unmanly (enmánli), afeminado. 

Unmeaning (enmíning), sin senti- 
do. 

Unmerciful (enmérsiful), desapia- 
dado. 

Unnecessary (enne'sesari), innece- 
sario. 

Unnerved (ennérvd), enervado. 

Unnoticed (ennótisd), desaperci- 
bido. 

Unpleasant (enplésant), desagrada- 
ble. 

Unpopular (enpópiular), no popu- 
lar. 

Unprecedented (enprésidented), sin 
ejemplo. 



42G 



VOCABULARIO. 



Unpremeditately(enprimédi£etedli) 
sin premeditación. 

Unprofitable (enpróíitabel), sin pro- 
vecho. 

Unpromisiug (enprómising), que 
no promete. 

Unravel (enrável), revelar. 

Uareal (enríal), imaginario. 

Unreclaimed (enriclémed), incorre- 
gible. 

Unreñecting (enriflecting), incon- 
siderado. 

Unrelenting (enrile'nting), incom- 
pasivo. 

Unremitting (enrimíting), ince- 
sante ; incansable. 

Unrighteous (enráiches), malvado. 

Unroll (enról), desenvolver. 

Unseen (ensín), no visto. 

Unshapen (enche'pen), disforme. 

Unshrinking (enchrínking), imper- 
te' r rito. 

Unskilful (enskílful), inhábil. 

Unsocial (ensóchal), intratable. 

Unsparingly (enspe'ringli), pródi- 
gamente. 

Unspeakable (enspíkabel), indeci- 
ble. 

Unsteady (enste'dí), inconstante. 

Untainted (ente'nted), sin mancha. 

Untamed (ente'md), indómito. 

Untaught (entót), rudo. 

Until (entil), hasta ; hasta que. 

Untimely (entáimli), inoportuno. 

Unto (e'nto), á. 

Untrue (entrú), falso. 

Unused (enyúsd), inusitado ; no 
acostumbrado. 

Unutterable (en¿terabel), indeci- 
ble. 

Unvaried (envérid), monótono. 

Uíiwilling (enuüin^), sin gana. 

Unwillingness (enuíling-nes), mala 
gana. 

Unwholesome (enjólsem), malsano. 

Unworthiness (enuór'dines), indig- 
nidad. 

Unworthy (enuór'di), indigno. 

Up (ep), arriba ; en alto. 

Upheld (¿pjéld), imp. y part. pas. 
de To uphold. 

Uphold (epjóld), apoyar. 



Upland (e'pland), terreno elevado. 
Upon (epón), sobre. 
Upper (¿per), superior. 
Uprightness (épraitnes), rectitud. 
(Jproar (épror), alboroto. 
Up-stairs (ep ste'rs), arriba. 
Upstart (épstart), advenedizo. 
Upward (e'puord), hacia arriba. 
Urge (erdch). urgir ; insistir. 
Urn (ern), urna. 
Us (es), nos ; nosotros. 
Use (yus), uso. 
Use (yus), usar. 
Useful (yúsful), útil. 
Usefuluess (yúsfulnes), utilidad. 
Useless (yúsles), inútil. 
Usher (echer), introducir. 
Usual (yúsyual), usual ; de costum- 
bre. 
Usually (yúsyuali), generalmente. 
Utiiity (yutíliti), utilidad. 
Utmost (¿tmost), lo sumo. 
Utter («ter), extremo ; completo. 
Utter (éter), proferir. 
Utterance (éterans), expresión. 
Utterly (éterli), completamente. 



Vacant (ve'cant), vacante ; vacío. 
Vacation (vakéchen), vacante. 
Vacuity (vakiúiti), vacuidad. 
Vacuum (vákiuem), vacío. 
Vagrant (végrant), vagabundo. 
Vain (ven), vano ; vanidoso. 
Yainly (vénli), en vano. 
Vale (vel), valle. 
Valet (válet), lacayo. 
Valley (váli), valle. 
Valor (valor), valor. 
Valuable iválluabel), valioso. 
Valué (vállu), valor. 
Valué (vállu), apreciar ; avaluar. 
Val ve (valv), válvula. 
Vane (ven), barba de pluma. 
Vanish (vánieh), desvanecí 
Vanity (vániti), vanidad. 
Vanquished (váneuiehd), vencido. 
Variable (vériabel), variable. 
Varied (vérid), variado. 
Variety (varáieti), variedad. 



VOCABULARIO. 



427 



Various (ve'ries), vario. 

Vary (veri), cambiar. 

Vassalage (vásaladch) esclavitud. 

Vast (vast), vasto. 

Vastness (vástnes), lo vasto. 

Vault (volt), cueva. 

Veal (vil), ternera. 

Vegetable (védchetabel), legumbre; 
vegetal. 

Vegetation (vedchet echen), vegeta- 
ción. 

Vehemence (víemens), vehemencia. 

Vehement (víement), vehemente. 

Vehemently (víementli), con vehe- 
mencia. 

Vehicle (ví-ikel), vehículo. 

Veil (vel), velo. 

Vellum (vélem,, vitela. 

Velocity (vilósiti), velocidad. 

Yelvet (vélvet), terciopelo. 

Venerable (ve'nerabel), venerable. 

Venérate (venerát), venerar. 

Venera tion ( venir e'chen), venera- 
ción. 

Vengeance (véndchans), venganza. 

Venison (ve'nison ) , carne de venado. 

Venture (vénchur), aventurarse. 

Venus (vínes), Venus. 

Verbose (verbos), verboso. 

Verdict (vérdiet), dictamen. 

Verdure (vérclcliur), verdor. 

Verily (yérili), en verdad. 

Versailles (verséis), Versalles. 

Verse (vers), verso. 

Versify (vérsiíai), versificar. 

Very (veri), muy. 

Vessel (ve'sel), buque ; vasija. 

Vesuvius (visúvies), Vesuvio. 

Veteran (ve'teran), veterano. 

Vex (vecs), vejar ; molestar. 

Vexation (vecse'chen ), vejación; 
molestia. 

Vexatious (vecséches), molesto. 

Vial (váial), frasquillo. 

Viand (váiand), manjar ; vianda. 

Vibrate (vaibre't), vibrar. 

Vicar (vi car), vicario. 

Vice (vais), vicio. 

Viceroy (vaisrói), virey. 

Vicissitude (visísichud), vicisitud. 

Victim (víctim), víctima. 

Victorious (victóries), victorioso. 



Victory (víctori), victoria. 

Victuals (ví.ahf)j víveres. 

View (viú), mirar. 

View (viú), vista. 

Vigilant (vídchilant), vigilante. 

Vigor (vigor), vigor. 

Vigorous (vigores), vigoroso. 

Viiiage (víiadch), aldea. 

Villain (vílan), picaro. 

Villainy (vílani), picardía. 

Vindícate (víndiket), vindicar. 

Vindication (vindikéchen), vindi- 
cación. 

Vine (váin), vid. 

Vinegar (vínegar), vinagre. 

Vineyard (víñard), viña. 

Vinous (vínes). vii o. o. 

Viólate (vaiole't), violar. 

Violation (vaioie'chen), violación. 

Violent (váiolent), violento. 

Violence (váiolens), violencia. 

Violently ( váiolentli ), violenta- 
mente. 

Violet (váiolet), violeta. 

Violet (váiolet), violado. 

Virgil (vérdchil), Virgilio. 

Virgin (vérdchin), virgin. 

Virtue (vérchu), virtud. 

Visage (vísadch), rostro. 

Visible (vísibel), visible. 

Vision (vísyen), visión. 

Visit (visit), visita. 

Visit (vísit), visitar. 

Visitant (ví.sitant), visitador. 

Visitor (vísitor), visitador. 

Visor (váisor), visera. 

Vitality'(vaitáliti), vitalidad. 

Vivid (vivid), animoso ; ardiente. 

Vizier (váisier), visir. 

Vocabulary (vocábiulari), vocabu- 
lario. 

Vocation (voke'chen), oficio. 

Vociferous (vosíferes), clamoroso. 

Vogue (vog), boga. 

Voice (vóis), voz. 

Volcanic (volcánic), volcánico. 

Volley (vóli), descarga ; rociada. 

Volume (vóllem). volumen. 

Voluntarily (vóluntarili), volun- 
tariamente. 

Voluptuousness ( volépchuesnes ), 
voluptuosidad. 



428 



VOCABULARIO. 



Vomit (vómit), vomitar. 

Vortex (vórtecs), vértice. 

Votary (vótari), admirador. 

Vote (vot), vot. 

Voter (vóter), votante, elector. 

Vow (váu), ahora. 

Voyage (vóiadch), viaje (por mar). 

w. 

Wade (uéd), vadear. 

Wag (uág), juguetón. 

Wages (uédche.v), salario. 

Wager (uédeher), apuesta. 

Waggon (uágon), carreta; carruage. 

Wagón (uágon), acarrear. 

Wailing (uéling), gemido. 

Wait (ue't), esperarse ; aguardar. 

Wait (ue't), asechanza. 

Waiting (uéting), esperanza ; ser- 
vicio. 

Waive (uév), abandonar. 

Walk (uóc), audar ; pasear. 

Walk (uóc), paseo. 

Walking (uóking), andar. 

Wall (uól), muro ; pared. 

Wand (uánd), vara. 

Wander (uónder), vagar. 

Wanderer (uónderer), errante. 

Wandering (uóndering), extravío ; 
acto de vagar. 

Want (uúnt), necesitar. 

Want (uónt), necesidad. 

Wanton (uónten), retozar. 

Wautonly (uóntenli), inconsidera- 
damente. 

War (uór), guerra. 

Warble (uórbel), trinar. 

Ware (uér), mercancía. 

Warehouseman (uérjausman), al- 
macenero. 

Warily (uórili), con cuidado. 

Warm (uórm), caliente. 

Warm-hearted (uorm-járted), cor- 
dial. 

Warmth (uórmz), calor. 

Warning (uórning), acto de calen- 
tar. 

Warriot (uórior), guerrero. 

Was (uó¿), imp. de To be, ser, es- 
tar. 



Waste (uést), desperdiciar ; mal- 
gastar. 

Waste (ue'st), desperdicio. 

Watch (uóch), reloj (de bolsillo). 

VVatch (uóch), velar ; esjjiar. 

Watchíul (uóchful), vigilante. 

Watchfulness (uóchfulnes), vigilan- 
cia. 

Watchman (uóchman), serano. 

Water (uóter), agua. 

Watery (uóteri), acuoso. 

Wave (ue'v), ondear ; tremolar. 

Wave (ue'v), ola. 

Wavering (uévering), vacilante. 

Waving (uéving), undulación. 

Way (ué), camino; modo. 

Wayfaring (uéfering), pasagero ; 
viajante. 

Wayside (uesáid), camino. 

Way ward (uéuord), porfiado ; obs- 
tinado. 

We (uí), nosotros. 

Weak (uík), débil. 

Weakeu (uíken), debilitar. 

Weakly (uíkli), débilmente. 

Weakness (uiknes), debilidad. 

Wealth (uélz), riqueza. 

Wealthy (uélzi), rico. 

Weapon (uépon), arma. 

Wear (uér), desgaste. 

Wear (uér), usar ; llevar ; gastar. 

Wearied (uírid), cansado. 

Wearisome (uírisem), cansado. 

Weary (uíri), cansado. 

Wearj- (uíri), cansar. 

Weather (ué'der), tiempo. 

Weave (uív), tejer. 

Weed (uíd), mala yerba. 

Week (uík), semana. 

Ween (uín), imaginar. 

Weep (uíp), llorar. 

Weigh (ué), pesar ; zarpar. 

Weight (uét), peso. 

Well (uél), pozo. 

Well (uél), bien. 

Welcome (uélkem), bien venida. 

Welcome (uélkem), dar la bien- 
venida. 

Welcome (uélkem), bienvenido. 

Wellfare (uélfer), bienestar. 

Well-founded (uél-faunded), fun- 
dado. 



Well-known (ue'lnon), conocido ; 
sabido . 

Well-meant (uelment), sincero. 

Well-nigh (uelnai), cerca de ; ca- 
si casi. 

Went (ue'nt), imp. de To go, ir. 

Wept (uépt), imp. y part. pas. de 
To weep, llorar. 

Were (uér), imp. plural de To be, 
ser, estar. 

West (uést), oeste. 

Western (uéstern), occidental. 

Whale (juél), ballena. 

Whale-boat ( juelbot ), ballenero 
(bote). 

Whaleman (jue'lman), buque ba- 
llenero. 

Whale-ship (juélman), buque ba- 
llenero. 

Whaling ( jue'ling), pesca de ba- 
llena. 

What (juót), qué, cuál. 

What (juót), que', cuál. 

Whatever (juote'ver), cualquiera. 

Whatsoever ( juotsoe'ver), cualquie- 
ra. 

Wheat (juít), trigo. 

Wheel (juíl), rueda. 

Whelp (jue'lp), perrito ; cachorro. 

When (juén), cuando. 

Whence (juéns), de donde. 

Whenever ( juenéver), cuando quie- 
ra que. 

Where (jue'r), donde. 

Whereas (jueras), por cuanto ; al 
paso que. 

Whereby (juerbái), con que. 

Wherever ( jueréver), donde quiera 
que. 

Whether (jué'der), si ; ya. 

Which ( juích), que ; el que. 

While (juáil), mie'ntras que. 

Whim (juím), capricho. 

Whimsical (juínisical), capricho- 
so. 

Whip (juíp), zurrar. 

Whirl (juírl), girar. 

Whirlwind (juírhúnd), torbellino. 

Whisper ( juísper), susurro. 

Whisper (juísper), susurrar. 

Whistle (juísel), silbar. 

Wlüte (juáit), blanco. 



VOCABULARIO. 429 

Whiteness (juáitnes), blancura. 

Whitening (juáitning), blanqueo. 

Who ( ju), quien ; que. 

Whole (jol), entero. 

Whole (jol), todo. 

Wholesale ( jólsel), por mayor. 

Wholly (jól-li), enteramente. 

Whom (jum), quien ; que. 

Whoop (juúp), grito. 

Whosa ( jus), cuyo ; de quien. 

Why (juái), porque. 

Wicked (uíked), malo ; malvado. 

Wickedness (uíkednes), maldad. 

Wide (uáid), ancho. 

Wide-spreading ( uáid-spre'ding ), 
que se extiende por todas par- 
tes. 

Widow (uído), viuda. 

Widowed (uídod), viuda. 

Wife (uáif ), esposa. 

Wigwam (uíguam), choza de indio. 

Wild (uáild), desierto. 

Wild (uáild), salvaje ; desierto. 

Wildness ( uáildnes ), atolondra- 
miento. 

Wildfire (uáildfair), sarpullido. 

Wile (uáil), astucia. 

Will (uíl), voluntad ; testamento. 

Will (uíl), auxiliar que marca el 
futuro de los verbos, y también 
significa querer, 

Willed (uíld), deseado. 

William (uíllem), Guillermo. 

Willing (uíling), pronto. 

Win (uín), ganar. 

Wind (uáind), devanar ; tocar ; 
dar cuerda. 

Wind (uínd), viento. 

Window (uíndo), ventana. 

Window-blind (uíndo-bláind), pos- 
tigo ; cortina. 

Windward (uínduord), á barlo- 
vento. 

Wine (uáin), vino. 

Wing (uíng), ala. 

Winter (u ínter), invierno. 

Winter (uínter), invernar. 

Wipe (uáip), enjugar ; limpiar. 

Wisdom (uísdem), sabiduría ; jui- 
cio. 

Wise (uáis\ sabor ; juicioso. 

Wish (uích), deseo. 



430 



VOCABULARIO. 



Wish (ui'9h), desear. 

Wistful (uístful), pensativo. 

Wit (uít), ingenio ; agudeza. 

With (uíz), con. 

Withdrawal (uizdróal), retiración ; 
privación. 

Wither ^uí'der), marchitar. 

Within (uizín), dentro. 

Withhold (uizjóld), retener; ne- 
gar. 

Without (uizáut), sin. 

Wits (uíts), juicio, 

Witness (uítnes), presenciar ; asis- 
tir á. 

Witness (uítnes), testigo. 

Wizard (uísard), brujo. 

Woe (uó), dolor, pena. 

Woeful (uóful), doloroso. 

Wolf (uólf ), lobo. 

Woman (uóman), mujer. 

Won (uen), imp. y part. pas. deTo 
win, ganar. 

Wonder (uánder), maravilla. 

Wonder (uender), maravillarse. 

Wonderful (uenderful), maravillo- 
so. 

Wondrous (uéndres), maravilloso. 

Wonted (uented), acostumbrado. 

Woo (uú), enamorar. 

"Wood (uúd), madera ; bosque. 

Wooden (uúden), de madera. 

Woodland (uúdland), tierra plan- 
tada de árboles. 

"Wool (uúl}, lana. 

Word (uerd), palabra. 

Work (uVrk), trabajo. 

Work (u¿rk), trabajar. 

Working (uerking), trabajo. 

Workman (uerkman), trabajador. 

Workinanship (ue'rkmanchip), tra- 
bajo ; hechura. 

World (ue'rld), mundo. 

Worm (ue'rm), gusano. 

Worn (uórn), part. pas. de To 
wear . 

Worry (ueri), molestar. 

Worse (uers), peor. 

Worship (u¿c;hip), culto ; adora- 
ción. 
' Worship (uéeliip), adorar. 



Worth (u¿rz), de valor de. 

Worth (uerz), valor ; mérito. 

Worthless (uérzlcs), de ningún va- 
lor ; inútil. 

Worthy (ueYdi), digno. 

Would (uúd), auxiliar que marca 
el condicional de los verb - 
también es el imperfecto de 
Will. 

Wound (uúnd), herida, 

Wounded i^uúnded), herido. 

Wove (uóv), imp. de To weave. 

Wrap (rap), envolver ; arropar. 

Wrapt (rapt), imp. y part. pas. ir- 
rea, de To wrap. 

Wrath (raz), cólera. 

Wreath (ri'd), entrelazar. 

Wreck (rec), naufragar. 

Wreck (rec), naufragio. 

Wrest (rest), arrebatar ; salvar. 

Wrest (rest), fuerza. 

Wrestle (re'sel), luchar. 

Wretch (rech), miserable ; mísero. 

Wretched ( réched ), miserable ; 
mísero. 

Wretchedness (re'chednes), mise- 
ria. 

Wring (ring), torcer ; exprimir ; 
acongojar. 

Wrinkle (rínkel), arruga. 

Write (ráit), escribir. 

Writer ( ráiter ), escritor ; escri- 
biente. 

Writing (ráiting), escritura. 

Written (riten), part. pas. de To 
write. 

Wrong (rong), error ; falta ; agra- 
vio. 

Wrong (rong), errado ; culpable ; 
que deja de tener razón. 

Wrong-doer ( róng dúer ), malhe- 
chor. 

Wrought (rot), imp. y part. pas. 
irrey. de To work. 

Wry (rái), torcido ; disforme. 



Xenophon (gsénofon), Jenofonte. 



VOCABULARIO. 



431 



Yard (yard), yarda. 

Yea (ye), sí. (Voz poética y bí- 
blica. 

Year (yir), año. 

Yes (yes), sí. 

Yesterday (yésterde), ayer. 

Yet (yet), con todo ; sin embargo. 

Yet (yet), todavía. 

Yew-tree (yú-tri), tejo. 

Yield (yild), producir ; ceder. 

Yonder (yónder), allá. 

Yore (yor), otro tiempo. 

Yon (yu), usted ; vos ; vosotros ; 
os. 

Young (yeng), juventud. 



Young (yeng), joven. 

Younger (yénger), mas joven ; me- 
nor. 

Your (yur), su ; de V. ; vuestro. 

Yourself (yursélf ), V. mismo ; sí 
mismo, etc. 

Youth (yuz), juventud ; jóvenes. 

Youthful (yúzful), juvenil. 

z. 

Zeal (zil), celo. 
Zealous (seles), celoso. 
Zealously (se'lesii), con celo. 
Zenith (se'niz), cénit. 
Zephyr (se'fir), ce'firo. 
Zounds (sáunds), cáspita. 



FIN. 



LIBRARYOFCONCRESS 



I II II lili 



lili lili 



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